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ASurveyoftheUnitedKingdomandtheUnitedStatesofAmerica

By Stephen Garcia,2014-06-11 04:03
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ASurveyoftheUnitedKingdomandtheUnitedStatesofAmerica

     CHRONOLOGY OF BRITISH GOVERNMENT

    Germanic/Scandinavian Rule

    Alfred the Great (871-899) ---Anglo-Saxon Wessex Line

     United small kingdoms that established by Vikings

     Defeated Danish attempts to expand the Danelaw, and regained land,including London

     Build a navy and establish strong garrions

     Persuade the Danes to become Christians

     Found the first public schools for the son of noblemen and magistrates

     Began the Anglo-Saxon Chroniclethe first historical record composed in English Edgar the Peaceful (959-957)--- Anglo-Saxon Wessex Line

    Ethelred the Unready (978-1016)--- Anglo-Saxon Wessex Line

    Canute (1016-1035)---Scandinavian conqueror

     Sweyn (King of Denmark) Forkbeards son

     United England,Denmark and Norway

    Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)Son of Ethelred the Unready

     Gave the Norman powerful positions in church and the secular governments Harold Godwinson (1066)---Relative of Canute; chosen by Witan

    Norman French Rule

    William ?(1066-1087)---William the Conqueror; French duke connected to the Wessex Line and

    favored by Edward the Confessor

     Built castles throughtout England to protect garrisons

     Established centralized royal government

     Appointed administrative officers,called vicomtes

     Developed a solvent royal treasury,established royal coinage

     An alliance with the Roman Catholic Church

    William ? (1087-1100)---William Rufus ,second son of William ?

    Henry ? Stephen and Maud (1135-1154)---Stephen was the grandson of William ?

     and Maud (Matilda) was the daughter of Henry ?

     Began accepting money from his Barons instead of requiring military service

     Created the exchequer

    Angevin French-Plantagenets

    Henry? (1154-1189)---Son of Maud

     Expanded Common Law to cover all Englishmen

     Introduced the assize session as a legal alternative to trial by combat (the stronger person was

    assumed to be right ) or trial by compurgation ( the person with the most supporters was

    right )

     Foreign territorial claims

     Altered the relationships between secular and religious authorities (canon law) Richard ? (1189-1199)---Oldest surviving son of Henry?,known as Richard the

    Lionhearted

    John (1199-1216)---Second surviving son of Henry?, who signed the Magna Carta

     Large territories in France passed from English control

     The Pope declared John excommunicated or no longer a menber of the Catholic Church

     The barons united in a tenants rights movement and wrote the famous document called the

    Magna Carta (Great Charter) was designed to obtain public liberties and to control the

    kings power through Common Law. King had to consult his council of barons and

    bishops before levying additional taxes. King was subject to the law,and the King was

    forced to observe the law.

    Henry ? (1216-1272)--- Son of John

     In 1263,civil war between Henry ? and the baronial party headed by his brotherin

    low ,Simon de Montfort. In 1265 Montfort captured the King and called an assembly

    of his supporters as well as burgesses, or wealthy urban commoners.---This was the

    origin of the modern British Parliament.

    Edward?(1272-1307)---Son of Henry ?

     His model parliament of 1295 included knights by right of owning estates and burgesses

    by right of positions in city government. What touches all should be approved by

    all‖—in Roman law,this principle meant that taxation depended upon the consent of the

    people being taxed.

     In 1296, Edward?declared himself King of Scotland..

    Edward ?(1307-1327)---Murdered son of Edward?

    Edward ?(1327-1377)

     Hunderd Years wartried to regain control of France

     Black Deathshortage labour

     Military powergunpower

     Religious dissensionclasses tension

     Surge of nationalismbeing English

    Richard ? (1377-1399)---Murdered grandson of Edward ?

     John of Gaunt (Richards uncle) imposed a head tax (1378-1380) which meant both rich and

    poor paid the same amountPeasants Revolt

     Richard confiscated Johns estates after John diedHenry (Richardcousin) led a rebellion

    against him and finally Richard was murdered.Henrys descendents,knowns as the

    Lancastrians,used the red rose as their symbol.Henrys cousin Lionel and his

    descendents,knowns as Yorkists,used the white rose as their symbol.

    Lancastrians

     Henry ?(1399-1413)---Grandson of Edward ?

     Spent much of his reign suppressing rebellions against him.

     Henry ?(1413-1422)---Son of Henry ?

     Spent time asserting authority at home and in France

     Henry ?(1422-1461)---Murdered son of Henry ?;uncles serve as regents

     The Yorkists began the dreary War of the Roses (1455-1485)

    Yorkists

    Edward ?(1461-1483)---Grandson of Edward ?

    Edward ?(1483)---Murdered son of Edward ?

    Richard ?(1483-1485)---Brother of Edward ? killed in battle

     He was defeated in the Battle of Bosworth by Henry Tudor,Earl of Richmond (Henry

    ?),who strengthened his very tenuous Lancastrians claim to the throne by marrying

    Elizabeth,a daughter of Yorkists Edward ?.This union of the Houses of Lancastrians

    and York was marked by a new symbol,the Tudor rose.

    Tudors

    Henry ?(1485-1509)---Grandson of Edward ?

     The Kings Council,known as the Star Chamberconsolidated his power

     Mortons Forkwell-filled treasary

     Commercial Policybusiness community

     Out of warpeace England

     Beg an combiningEngland and Wales

     Stressed education

    Henry ?(1509-1547)---Son of Henry ?;selected by the Privy Council

     The founding of the English navyRoyal navythe basis of future British sea power

     Paliament make laws which had to royal approveHouse of Lords-nobles/House of

    Common-knights,burgess

     The Act of Supremacy (1554),which recognized the King as supreme head of the Church

    in England

     Relation with IrelandIreland remained broodingly hostile until modern times Edward ?(1547-1553)---Son of Henry ?;uncles serve as regents

    Mary ?(1553-1558)---Elder daughter of Henry ?;selected by the Privy Council-Bloody Mary Elizabeth?(1558-1603)---Younger daughter of Henry ?

     Character :intelligent,highly educated, proud,calculating,self-controlled,politician

     War with Spain and the Spanish Armada

     reason:Catholic hatred of Protestantism/the rivalry for global trade/ultimate control of

    the worlds oceans

     result:defeat ensure the survival of Protestantism in northern Europe;guaranteed the

    leadership of the Northerners

     Relations with Irelandthe hatred was increased by two policies.

    Stuarts and the Commonwealth

    James ?(1603-1625)---Grandson of Henry ?;also known as James ?of Scotland (1567-1625)

     Lack o f money

     Disagreement about foreign policies

     Bitter religious dissension

     Raise revenue without asking for parliamentary approval

     Sought a princess from hated Catholic Spain as a wife for his heir Charles

     In 1661,the House Commons drew up the Great Protestation,the first of the great

    documents of the English Revolution

    Charles ?(1625-1649)---Son of James ?;beheaded by the order of the Rump Parliament

     Petition of Right (1628)

     Charles dissolved the Parliament for 11years

     Short parliament and long parliament

     The Civil War (1642-1649)Condemnation of Puritanism ; Parliament now controls

    taxes ; Beginnings of religious toleration ; Growth of scientific organization and

    activities

    Oliver Cromwell (1649-1658)---Lord Protector;chosen by Parliament and the army

     Commonwealth

     The Navigation Act (1651)

     Master of Northern seas (1652)

     In 1660,parliament invited Charles Stuart to England,Charles ?,son of Charles ?

    Stuart Restored

    Richard Cromwell (1658-1660)---Exiled son of Oliver Cromwell

    Restored Stuarts

    Charles ?(1660-1685)---Selected by Parliament;chief minister of Parliament dominates the

    monarchy

     A period of public pursuit of pleasure,of loose morals, of festive court life,and indecent wit

    in Restoration literature and drama.

    James ?(1685-1688)---Younger son of Charles ? exiled by Parliament

     Hoping to enlist the support of the dissenters for toleration of Catholics, James ? issued

    a Declaration of Indulgence in 1687.

     Glorious Revolution

    William ? and Mary ?(1688-1702)---Rule by Mary,the elder daughter of James ?,and her

    husband, William the Orange

     Bill of Rights---summarizes the constitutional practices advocated by Parliament in the

    Stuart Era.It states the essential principles of parliamentary

    supremacy:control of the purse or money,dispensation

    power,and frequent,regular meetings of Parliament Ann (1702-1714)---Daughter of . James ?

     England and Scotland were formally united under the name of Great Britain (1707)

    Hanovarians (German Line)

    George ?(1714-1727)---Grandson of James ?;Robert Walpole (1721-1742) was the first

    Prime

     The ministers,chosen from parliament,are collectively known as the Cabinet. George ?

    was willing to leave much of the responsibility for formulating

    policies to the Cabinet,contenting himself with accepting or

    rejecting their proposals.

    George ?(1727-1760)---Son of George ?

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Robert Walpole (1721-1742) Whig

     Earl of Wilmington (1742-1744) Whig

     Henry Pelham (1744-1754) Whig

     Duke of Newcastle (1754-1756) Whig

     Duke of Devonshire (1756-1757) Tory

     Earl of Bute (1762-1763) Tory

    George ? (1760-1820)---Mad King George,eldest son of George ?

     Farmer George

     Whigs went down,he master the kingdom

     Resigned Pitt,signed Lord North

     Lost American colonies,increased national debt

     Son of William Pitt replaced Lord North:organized national finances;treaty with

    France;Act of Union with Ireland (1800);coercion and repression

    to prevent French Revolution Influence

    Prime Minister Political Party

     George Grenville (1763-1765) Whig

     Marquess of Rockingham (1765-1766) Whig

     William Pitt,the Elder (1766-1767) Whig

     Duke of Grafton (1768-1770) Whig

     Lord Frederick North (1770-1782) Tory

     Marquess of Rockingham (1782) Whig Earl of Shelburne (1782-1783) Whig Duke of Portland (1783) Coalition William Pitt,the Younger (1783-1801) Tory Henry Addington (1801-1804) Tory

    William Pitt,the Younger (1804-1806) Tory William Grenville (1806-1807) Whig Duke of Portand (1807-1809) Tory Spencer Perceval (1809-1812) Tory Earl of Liverpool (1812-1827) Tory George ?(1820-1830)---Eldest son of George ?

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Earl of Liverpool (1812-1827) Tory

     George Canning (1827) Tory

     Viscount Goderich (1827-1828) Tory

     Duke of Wellington (1828-1830) Tory William ?(1830-1837)---Second son of George ?

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Earl Grey (1830-1834) Whig

     Viscount Melbourne (1834) Whig

     Robert Peel (1834-1837) Tory Victoria (1837-1901)---Granddaughter of George ?

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Viscount Melbourne (1835-1841) Whig

     Robert Peel (1841-1846) Tory

     John Russell (1846-1852) Whig

     Earl of Derby (1852) Tory

     Earl of Aberdeen (1852-1855) Peelite

     Viscount Palmerston (1855-1858) Liberal

     Earl of Derby (1858-1859) Conservative

     Viscount Palmerston (1859-1865) Liberal

     Earl Russell (1865-1866) Liberal

     Earl of Derby (1866-1868) Conservative

     Benjamin Disraeil (1868) Conservative

     William Gladstone (1868-1874) Liberal

     Benjamin Disraeil (1874-1880) Conservative

     William Gladstone (1880-1885) Liberal

     Marquess of Salisbury (1885-1886) Conservative

     William Gladstone (1886) Liberal

     Marquess of Salisbury (1886-1892) Conservative

     William Gladstone (1892-1894) Liberal

     Earl of Roseberry (1894-1895) Liberal

     Marquess of Salisbury (1895-1902) Conservative Edward ? (1901-1910)---Son of Victoria

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Arthur Balfour (1902-1905) Conservative

     Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1905-1908) Liberal

     Herbert Asquith (1908-1916) Liberal George ?(1910-1936)---Son of Edward ?;The Hanoverian monarchy is renamed the House

    of windsor

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Herbert Asquith (1908-1916) Coalition

     David Lloyd George (1916-1922) Coalition

     Andrew Bonar Law (1922-1923) Conservative

     Stanley Baldwin (1924-1929) Conservative

     James Ramsay MacDonald (1924) Labour

     Stanley Baldwin (1924-1929) Conservative

     James Ramsay MacDonald (1929-1935) Labour

     Stanley Baldwin (1935-1937) Coalition Edward ? (1936)---Eldest son of George ? who abdicated

    George ? (1936-1952)---Second son of George ?

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Stanley Baldwin (1935-1937) Coalition

     Neville Chamberlain (1937-1940) Coalition

     Winston Churchill (1940-1945) Coalition

     Clement Attlee (1945-1951) Labour Winston Churchill (1951-1955)---Conservative

    Elizabeth ? (1952-to date)---Older daughter of George ?

     Prime Minister Political Party

     Winston Churchill (1951-1955) Conservative

     Anthony Eden (1955-1957) Conservative

     Harold Macmillan (1957-1963) Conservative

     Alec Douglas-Home (1963-1964) Conservative

     Harold Wilson (1964-1970) Labour

     Edward Heath (1970-1974) Conservative

     Harold Wilson (1974-1976) Labour

     James Callaghan (1976-1979) Labour

     Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990) Conservative

     John Major (1990-1997) Conservative

     Anthony Blair (1997-2007) Labour

     Gordon Brown (2007-) Labour

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