CHRONOLOGY OF BRITISH GOVERNMENT
Alfred the Great (871-899) ---Anglo-Saxon Wessex Line
United small kingdoms that established by Vikings
Defeated Danish attempts to expand ―the Danelaw‖, and regained land,including London
Build a navy and establish strong garrions
Persuade the Danes to become Christians
Found the first ―public‖ schools for the son of noblemen and magistrates
Began the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle—the first historical record composed in English Edgar the Peaceful (959-957)--- Anglo-Saxon Wessex Line
Ethelred the Unready (978-1016)--- Anglo-Saxon Wessex Line
Canute (1016-1035)---Scandinavian conqueror
Sweyn (King of Denmark) Forkbeard’s son
United England,Denmark and Norway
Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)—Son of Ethelred the Unready
Gave the Norman powerful positions in church and the secular governments Harold Godwinson (1066)---Relative of Canute; chosen by Witan
Norman French Rule
William ?(1066-1087)---William the Conqueror; French duke connected to the Wessex Line and
favored by Edward the Confessor
Built castles throughtout England to protect garrisons
Established centralized royal government
Appointed administrative officers,called vicomtes
Developed a solvent royal treasury,established royal coinage
An alliance with the Roman Catholic Church
William ? (1087-1100)---William Rufus ,second son of William ?
Henry ? Stephen and Maud (1135-1154)---Stephen was the grandson of William ?
and Maud (Matilda) was the daughter of Henry ?
Began accepting money from his Barons instead of requiring military service
Created the exchequer
Henry? (1154-1189)---Son of Maud
Expanded Common Law to cover all Englishmen
Introduced the assize session as a legal alternative to trial by combat (the stronger person was
assumed to be right ) or trial by compurgation ( the person with the most supporters was
Foreign territorial claims
Altered the relationships between secular and religious authorities (canon law) Richard ? (1189-1199)---Oldest surviving son of Henry?,known as Richard the
John (1199-1216)---Second surviving son of Henry?, who signed the Magna Carta
Large territories in France passed from English control
The Pope declared John excommunicated or no longer a menber of the Catholic Church
The barons united in a ―tenant’s rights‖ movement and wrote the famous document called the
Magna Carta (Great Charter) –was designed to obtain public liberties and to control the
king’s power through Common Law. King had to consult his council of barons and
bishops before levying additional taxes. King was subject to the law,and the King was
forced to observe the law.
Henry ? (1216-1272)--- Son of John
In 1263,civil war between Henry ? and the baronial party headed by his brother—in
–low ,Simon de Montfort. In 1265 Montfort captured the King and called an assembly
of his supporters as well as burgesses, or wealthy urban commoners.---This was the
origin of the modern British Parliament.
Edward?(1272-1307)---Son of Henry ?
His ―model parliament‖ of 1295 included knights by right of owning estates and burgesses
by right of positions in city government. ―What touches all should be approved by
all‖—in Roman law,this principle meant that taxation depended upon the consent of the
people being taxed.
In 1296, Edward?declared himself King of Scotland..
Edward ?(1307-1327)---Murdered son of Edward?
Hunderd Year’s war—tried to regain control of France
Black Death—shortage labour
Religious dissension—classes tension
Surge of nationalism—being English
Richard ? (1377-1399)---Murdered grandson of Edward ?
John of Gaunt (Richard’s uncle) imposed a head tax (1378-1380) which meant both rich and
poor paid the same amount—Peasant’s Revolt
Richard confiscated John’s estates after John died—Henry (Richard’cousin) led a rebellion
against him and finally Richard was murdered.—Henry’s descendents,knowns as the
Lancastrians,used the red rose as their symbol.Henry’s cousin Lionel and his
descendents,knowns as Yorkists,used the white rose as their symbol.
Henry ?(1399-1413)---Grandson of Edward ?
Spent much of his reign suppressing rebellions against him.
Henry ?(1413-1422)---Son of Henry ?
Spent time asserting authority at home and in France
Henry ?(1422-1461)---Murdered son of Henry ?;uncles serve as regents
The Yorkists began the dreary War of the Roses (1455-1485)
Edward ?(1461-1483)---Grandson of Edward ?
Edward ?(1483)---Murdered son of Edward ?
Richard ?(1483-1485)---Brother of Edward ? killed in battle
He was defeated in the Battle of Bosworth by Henry Tudor,Earl of Richmond (Henry
?),who strengthened his very tenuous Lancastrians claim to the throne by marrying
Elizabeth,a daughter of Yorkists Edward ?.—This union of the Houses of Lancastrians
and York was marked by a new symbol,the Tudor rose.
Henry ?(1485-1509)---Grandson of Edward ?
The King’s Council,known as the Star Chamber—consolidated his power
Morton’s Fork—well-filled treasary
Commercial Policy—business community
Out of war—peace England
Beg an combining—England and Wales
Henry ?(1509-1547)---Son of Henry ?;selected by the Privy Council
The founding of the English navy—Royal navy—the basis of future British sea power
Paliament make laws which had to royal approve—House of Lords-nobles/House of
The Act of Supremacy (1554),which recognized the King as supreme head of the Church
Relation with Ireland—Ireland remained broodingly hostile until modern times Edward ?(1547-1553)---Son of Henry ?;uncles serve as regents
Mary ?(1553-1558)---Elder daughter of Henry ?;selected by the Privy Council-Bloody Mary Elizabeth?(1558-1603)---Younger daughter of Henry ?
Character :intelligent,highly educated, proud,calculating,self-controlled,politician
War with Spain and the Spanish Armada
reason:Catholic hatred of Protestantism/the rivalry for global trade/ultimate control of
the world’s oceans
result:defeat ensure the survival of Protestantism in northern Europe;guaranteed the
leadership of the Northerners
Relations with Ireland—the hatred was increased by two policies.
Stuarts and the Commonwealth
James ?(1603-1625)---Grandson of Henry ?;also known as James ?of Scotland (1567-1625)
Lack o f money
Disagreement about foreign policies
Bitter religious dissension
Raise revenue without asking for parliamentary approval
Sought a princess from hated Catholic Spain as a wife for his heir Charles
In 1661,the House Commons drew up the Great Protestation,the first of the great
documents of the English Revolution
Charles ?(1625-1649)---Son of James ?;beheaded by the order of the Rump Parliament
Petition of Right (1628)
Charles dissolved the Parliament for 11years
Short parliament and long parliament
The Civil War (1642-1649)—Condemnation of ―Puritanism‖ ; Parliament now controls
taxes ; Beginnings of religious toleration ; Growth of scientific organization and
Oliver Cromwell (1649-1658)---Lord Protector;chosen by Parliament and the army
The Navigation Act (1651)
Master of Northern seas (1652)
In 1660,parliament invited Charles Stuart to England,Charles ?,son of Charles ?
Richard Cromwell (1658-1660)---Exiled son of Oliver Cromwell
Charles ?(1660-1685)---Selected by Parliament;chief minister of Parliament dominates the
A period of public pursuit of pleasure,of loose morals, of festive court life,and indecent wit
in Restoration literature and drama.
James ?(1685-1688)---Younger son of Charles ? exiled by Parliament
Hoping to enlist the support of the dissenters for toleration of Catholics, James ? issued
a Declaration of In