Handouts 讲课提纲2 Comparing Cultural Differences
– Social relationship (Unit 1)
• addressing/greeting/ name/kinship terms/compliment and
responses/invitations /paying visits /dinning etiquette/ /sending gifts
1. Cultural Differences in Using Kin 亲戚Terms
• Kin terms are used within one's own family but also to other people, known or unknown. • distinguish between paternal父亲 and maternal母亲 relatives, and between relatives
according to birth order.
• Normally children address their relatives with the title only.
• confined to family members
• Children address their parents' brothers and sisters with the title of Uncle or Aunt plus
their first names, or simply by their names without adding a title. • The kin terms do not tell whether they are from their father or mother's side. Common English Titles
• Mr: + surname, a respectful term of address to a man
• Mrs: + surname, a respectful term of address to a married woman
• Miss: + surname, used for any unmarried woman. But children often address
schoolmistresses simply "Miss" without adding their surnames, regardless of whether
they are single or married.
• Ms: + surname, for any married or unmarried woman
• Sir / Madam: used to address a man or woman, usually used only by
someone providing a service
• Mack / Buddy密友伙伴: used to casually address a friend in America
• Mate: used to casually address a friend in Britain and Australia
• Guys: used to address a group of friends in America, a collective informal term
• Would you please follow me, you guys?
• Dear, darling, love, honey, sweetheart: These are a number of terms of endearment. Common Chinese Titles
• 同志 (Comrade): Usually used between any male or female. It is diminishing. • 师傅 (Master): Traditionally used to address a skilled worker, now often used to identify
any unknown, ordinary person of either sex providing services, especially people
middle-aged or older. It's commonly used now.
• 小姐 (Miss): To young ladies, married or not , especially those offering service, such as a
waitress, shop assistant, air hostess, etc.
• 先生 (Mister/sir): A respectful term of address to any known or unknown learned persons,
usually males, common in both written and spoken Chinese.
• add an age-related term of honor before the family name.
• lao (honorable old one),
• xiao (honorableyoung one)
• da (honorable middleaged one).
Common Chinese Business Titles
• In Government Agencies
Chinese English Translation
Sizhang(or) Department Director
Chuzhang Section Chief
Kezhang Office Chief
• In Enterprises
Chinese English Translation
Dongshizhang Chairman of the Board
Fu Zongjingli Vice President
Bumen Jingli Department Manager
2.Differences in Accepting Compliments
• show modesty and humility.
• appreciate compliments and respond by saying "Thank you" or "Thanks".
3. Different Invitation Expectations
common for only the husband or wife to be invited to a meal with colleagues or friends. •
both the husband and wife will usually be included in social invitations for dinner in the •
Differences in Declining an Invitation
• detailed explanation
• short and simple explanations
4. Different Traditions for Meals
• prepare as many dishes as possible to show hospitality.
• And the guests might also expect the respect shown by the numbers of dishes offered on
• one main course plus two other side dishes, a salad and vegetable, followed by a dessert.
Chinese and Western Hospitality
• hospitable "ingroup members"
• indifferent to " outgroup members".
• Believing in equality
• hospitable to their guests, friends and relatives,
• hospitable to strangers.
Different Dining Out Habits
• Phrases for reference
• 1. foot the bill负担费用
• 2. go Dutch AA制
• 3. split the bill分摊账单
• 4. pool one’s money 凑钱
• 5. pick up the tab替人付帐
• 6. buy his round该由我付费用
• The one who invites everyone should pay for the meal.
• Everyone will fight over paying the bill, because only paying for oneself might be
regarded as mean, miserly or selfish.
• America and England
• go Dutch,
• split the bill
• buy a round
5. Differences in Presenting Gifts
• Bring fruits and flowers, or two bottles of wine, but never bring just one bottle because
even numbers are favored.
• Bring flowers or fruits to those who are sick either at home or in the hospital. • America
• Bring a small, relatively inexpensive gift for the hostess, such as a box of candy,
chocolate or a bottle of wine. Two bottles of wine are not necessary. • Flowers are frequently delivered to family and friends who are sick, whether at home or
in the hospital.
Differences in Accepting Gifts
• The gift is opened later, after the visitors have left. Opening a gift in front of a visitor
would be regarded as impolite and greedy.
• Opening in front of the giver and expressing appreciation
Differences in Accepting Offers
• “No " doesn't simply mean no.
• People get used to accepting the offer directly, "no" means no, "yes" means yes.