By Margaret Ortiz,2014-06-10 13:49
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    Handouts 讲课提纲2 Comparing Cultural Differences

     Social relationship (Unit 1)

     addressing/greeting/ name/kinship terms/compliment and

    responses/invitations /paying visits /dinning etiquette/ /sending gifts

    1. Cultural Differences in Using Kin 亲戚Terms


     Kin terms are used within one's own family but also to other people, known or unknown. distinguish between paternal父亲 and maternal母亲 relatives, and between relatives

    according to birth order.

     Normally children address their relatives with the title only.


     confined to family members

     Children address their parents' brothers and sisters with the title of Uncle or Aunt plus

    their first names, or simply by their names without adding a title. The kin terms do not tell whether they are from their father or mother's side. Common English Titles

     Mr: + surname, a respectful term of address to a man

     Mrs: + surname, a respectful term of address to a married woman

     Miss: + surname, used for any unmarried woman. But children often address

    schoolmistresses simply "Miss" without adding their surnames, regardless of whether

    they are single or married.

     Ms: + surname, for any married or unmarried woman

     Sir / Madam: used to address a man or woman, usually used only by

    someone providing a service

     Mack / Buddy密友伙伴: used to casually address a friend in America

     Mate: used to casually address a friend in Britain and Australia

     Guys: used to address a group of friends in America, a collective informal term

     Would you please follow me, you guys?

     Dear, darling, love, honey, sweetheart: These are a number of terms of endearment. Common Chinese Titles

     同志 (Comrade): Usually used between any male or female. It is diminishing. 师傅 (Master): Traditionally used to address a skilled worker, now often used to identify

    any unknown, ordinary person of either sex providing services, especially people

    middle-aged or older. It's commonly used now.

     小姐 (Miss): To young ladies, married or not , especially those offering service, such as a

    waitress, shop assistant, air hostess, etc.

     先生 (Mister/sir): A respectful term of address to any known or unknown learned persons,

    usually males, common in both written and spoken Chinese.

    Aged-related Term

     add an age-related term of honor before the family name.

     lao (honorable old one),

     xiao (honorableyoung one)

     da (honorable middleaged one).

    Common Chinese Business Titles

     In Government Agencies

    Chinese English Translation

    Buzhang Minister

    Sizhang(or) Department Director

    Chuzhang Section Chief

    Kezhang Office Chief

     In Enterprises

    Chinese English Translation

    Dongshizhang Chairman of the Board

    Zongjingli President

    Fu Zongjingli Vice President

    Bumen Jingli Department Manager

    2.Differences in Accepting Compliments


     show modesty and humility.


     appreciate compliments and respond by saying "Thank you" or "Thanks".

3. Different Invitation Expectations


     common for only the husband or wife to be invited to a meal with colleagues or friends.


     both the husband and wife will usually be included in social invitations for dinner in the


     Differences in Declining an Invitation


     detailed explanation


     short and simple explanations

4. Different Traditions for Meals


     prepare as many dishes as possible to show hospitality.

     And the guests might also expect the respect shown by the numbers of dishes offered on

    the table


     one main course plus two other side dishes, a salad and vegetable, followed by a dessert.

     Chinese and Western Hospitality


     hospitable "ingroup members"

     indifferent to " outgroup members".


     Believing in equality

     hospitable to their guests, friends and relatives,

     hospitable to strangers.

    Different Dining Out Habits

     Phrases for reference

     1. foot the bill负担费用

     2. go Dutch AA

     3. split the bill分摊账单

     4. pool ones money 凑钱

     5. pick up the tab替人付帐

     6. buy his round该由我付费用


     The one who invites everyone should pay for the meal.

     Everyone will fight over paying the bill, because only paying for oneself might be

    regarded as mean, miserly or selfish.

     America and England

     go Dutch,

     split the bill

     buy a round

5. Differences in Presenting Gifts


     Bring fruits and flowers, or two bottles of wine, but never bring just one bottle because

    even numbers are favored.

     Bring flowers or fruits to those who are sick either at home or in the hospital. America

     Bring a small, relatively inexpensive gift for the hostess, such as a box of candy,

    chocolate or a bottle of wine. Two bottles of wine are not necessary. Flowers are frequently delivered to family and friends who are sick, whether at home or

    in the hospital.

     Differences in Accepting Gifts


     The gift is opened later, after the visitors have left. Opening a gift in front of a visitor

    would be regarded as impolite and greedy.


     Opening in front of the giver and expressing appreciation

     Differences in Accepting Offers


     No " doesn't simply mean no.


     People get used to accepting the offer directly, "no" means no, "yes" means yes.

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