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The monitoring technology of geological hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and its prospects

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The monitoring technology of geological hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and its prospectsof,in,The,the,Three,three

    The monitoring technology of geological

    hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Area and its prospects

    JOURNALoFCoALSCIENCE&ENGINEERING

    (CHINA)ISSN10069097

    pp144_148V_o1.13No.2June2007

    ThemonitoringtechnologyofgeologicalhazardsintheThreeGorges

    ReservoirAreaanditsprospects

    RENSong(1'~)',JIANGDeyi(姜德义)',YANGChunhe(杨春和),GUOWei(

    )'

    (1.KeyLaboratoryfortheExploitationofSouthwesternResources&theEnvironmentalDisasterControlEngineering,

    MinistryofEducation,ChongqingUniversity,Chongqing,400044,China;2.InstituteofRockandSoilMechanics,The

    ChineseAcademyofScience,Wuhan430071,China)

    AbstractItsummarizedcurrentapplicationstatusesofthemonitoringtechnologyofgeo

    IogicaIhazardintheThreeGorgesReservoirArea.Consideringthedefectsofthecurrent monitoringtechnologyofgeologicaIhazard,thenewremoteandcentralizedmonitoring systemofgeologicaIhazardbasedontheInternetwasestablished.Italsointroducedits theory,structure.applicationandprospectindetail.Thenewmonitoringsystemcanpre

    ventthegeologicdisasterfr0mhappening,andcontroIthedangerofit,andimproveupon theIeveIofmanagement.andgatherheadtheabilityofpreventingdisaster,andreduce therunningcostofthesystem.

    KeywordstheThreeGorgesReservoir,geologicalhazard,internet,remotemonitoring lntrOductiOn

    TheThreeGorgesReservoirAreaisoneofthe

    areasthatgeologicalhazardsoftenhappen.Recently, becauseoftheconstructionofthereservoirandtbe removeoftheresident,thebalanceofthegeological environmenthasbeenbrokenatacertainextent, whichincreasesthegeologicalhazards.Accordingto thepreliminarystatistic.intheareaaboutl5000km aroundtheThreeGorgesReservoir,2548hazardsare found,andtobeexact,thereare2490landslides whosebulkis44.85xl0.m,47Debrisflows,6col

    lapses,5groundfissures.Obviously,thegeological hazardsthreatentheThreeGorgesProjectandthelife andpropertyofthelocalresident.Soecientlypre

    ventingthegeologicalhazardsinthisareabecomes theurgentaffairs.

    Atpresent,thesize,strengthandthetensionof thepreventingworkisunprecedented.Soistheoutlay. Nodoubtthatthetechnologymustbethebackboneof asohugepreventingprojectofgeologicalhazards.A setofhighecientmonitoringsystemisabsolutely Tel:86-23-66623873,E-mail:rs_rtwx@tom.com necessaryforustopreventthegeologicalhazardsand promptlygetvariousinformationofthehazard.Sothe rightdecisioncanbemadeintimeandtakethequick measuretorushtodealwiththeemergency.Itmust integratethecollectionoftheinformation.deci

    sionmakingandthecontrolofthehazardsintoone system.Now,poolingallthebrainsandbrawnfor monitoringandprofessionalmonitoringhavegained certainachievements.Butthereisstillnointact.high efficientmonitoringandforecastingintegratesystem.

Especiallytheremoterealtimemonitoringneedstobe-

    

    ?一

    improved.

    1Thcpresentmonitoringmeasul'csofthe

    geologicalhazardsintheThreeGorges

    Reservoir

    Thesemonitoringmeasurescanberoughlydi

    videdinto5types,themacroscopicalgeological monitoring,themethodofgeodesy,monitoringby GPS,monitoringbyinstrument,automatictelemeter- ing.

    Themacroscopicalgeologicalmonitoringfore

RENSong,eta1.Themonitoringtechnologyofgeologicalhazards45

    castthedisasterthoughthewaythatregularlymonitor andnotedownthemacrodistortionofthehazardand

    involvedexceptionalphenomenontoholdthedynamic distortionandthetrendofthehazard.Thecharacterof thismeasureisthatthegainedpremonitoryinforma

    tionisintuitionisticandreliableat'smore.this

    measureissimple,economicandverypractica1.Itcan beappliedintovariousgeologicalhazardsmonitoring, especiallypoolingallthebrainsandbrawnformoni

    toting.Butitsmonitoringcontentissingle,thepreci

    sionislowandtheworkishard.

    Themethodofgeodesyisderivedfrommapping technology,whichusuallyusestrigonometricintersec

    tionmethodtomonitortheplanarhorizontaldis

    placement(X,nofthedistortionandthemethodof

geometricallevelingtomonitortheverticaldisplace

    ment(Z)andthemethodofsmallangles,therange measurement.themethodofopticalalignmentobser

    vationtomonitorthehorizontalunilateraldisplace

    ment.

    MonitoringbyGPSistoapplytheGPStechnol

    ogyintothemonitoringofthegeologicalhazardsIt establisheshighprecisionmeasurecontrolnetwork andmonitorthedistortionanddisplacementofthe geologicalhazardsaccordingtothetheoryofGPS

    staticstaterelativeordination.TheGPShasbeenaD

    pliedingeologicalhazardsmonitoringfrom1990s, especiallyintherealtimemonitoring.Butthepreci

    sionisverylow.Nowtherearewholesetofequip

    ment.Itishardtofindthattheprecisionismillimeter. InChina.GPStechnologyhasbeenusedfrom1980s. Themappingdepartmentfirstlyestablishesanational highprecisionspaceorientationnetworkwiththisnew technology.It'siustafewyeasthattheGPShasbeen usedinmonitoringgeologicalhazards.ThreeGorges LianhuangheadquartersalsotryouttheGPStechnol

    ogyinmonitoringlandslidesgeologicalhazardsfrom theXintantoBadong.Itsprecisionismillimeter. Monitoringbyinstrumentissimple,convenient andintuitionistic.Theinstrumentcannoteanddeal withautomatically.Thedatacanbecollectedregularly~ Itsprecisionisveryhighandthedataisreliable.The measurecansavemanpowerandresourcesandcanbe piledinvariousmonltonngproject.

Automatictelemeteringistoadopthighlyauto

    maticremotetelemeteringsystemorspacetechnology remotetelemetering,whichcancollect,store,print andshowlandslidesdistortiondata,anditalsocan drawallkindsofcurvesandfigure.Itsmonitoring contentisauent.Itishighlyautomaticandcantake alldayobservation.remotetransmissionandsaves timeandmanpower.Butthismeasureisliabletobe disturbedbyenvironment,thesensorandinstrumentis pronetobreakdown.Soitslongtermstabilityisbad.

    Thereforethismeasurecanbeappliedintorapiddis

    tortion;mediumandshorttermmonitoringinpre

    ventingandconstructionperiod.Howeverbecauseof thebadqualityofthesensorsandinstrument,this measureisseldomusedinChina.Itisonceusedin testingandmonitoringtheefrectofdealingwiththe DouyapenglandslidesinCounty,Chongqing. 2Problemsinpresentmonitoringmeasures

    Thegeologicalhazardsarebroadlydistributedin TheThreeGorgesReservoirAreaanditslatentharm ishuge.Theproblemsinpresentmonitoringmeasures areasfollowTM:

    (1)Responsefromthemonitoringistooslow.To allthepresentmonitoringmeasures,theacquirement oftheinformationdisiointwiththeanalysisofthein

    formationandtheforecastofthedisaster.Ittakesa longtimefromacquiringtheinformationtogaining theforecast.Butoncethegeologicaldisasterhappens, timeisthelife,timeistheproperty.Ifthefightfore

    castCan'tbegivenintime.thelosswillbecountless.

    (2)Althoughautomatictelemeteringcantakecer- tainremotemonitoring,it'sopttobedisturbedbythe environment,easytobreakdown,hasbadstability, andcosthighly.Mostofthegeologicalhazardsare distributedinthedesolateareas.It'shardtodothe fieldmonitoring.So,thereliableremotemonitoring technologyisnecessary.

    (3)Everygeologicalhazardmonitoringissepa

    rateandhasnotbeencontactedtogether.Itisimpossi

    bletosharetheresources.Infact,therearemany similarhazardswhichhavethesamecharacters.Their preventionandtrendissimilar.Somuchinformation canbesharedtomakemoreexactandexactprompt forecast.

    (4)Mostmonitoringisregularandnotcontrolla

    ble.Theharmofthegeologicalhazardsishugeand regularmonitoringcan'tensurethattheforecastisin time.Theidealmonitoringshouldadjusttheinterval ofthemonitoringaccordingtothesituationandeven carrythroughreal-timemonitoring.

    Tosumup.it'sverynecessarytoestablishareli

    ableremoteandcentralizedmonitoringsystemwhich integratestheacquirementoftheinformation.the processingoftheinformationandhazardscontrolinto aunitivesystem.

    146Journalot'CoalScience&EngineeringfChina1 3Remoteandcentralizedmonitoringsys-

    temofthegeologicaldisasterbasedon

    theInternettechnology

3.1Theoryandstructure

    Remoteandcentralizedmonitoringsystemofthe geologicalhazardsconsistsofthreesubsystem,moni

    totingsubsystem,decisionmakingsubsystemand

    hazardcontrolsubsystem.Themonitoringsubsystem acquiresvariOHSinformationoftheobiect;thedeci

    sionmakingsubsystemdealswiththeinformationand makesdecisions;thehazardcontrolsubsystemfore

    castsandcontrolsthehazardsaccordingtothedeci

    sions.Thenthemonitoringsubsystemtakescommu

    nicationswiththedecisionmakingsubsystemwith

    intemettechnology.LikeFig.1.

    Fig.1Remoteandcentralizedmonitoringsystemofthe geologicaldisaster

    Withthedevelopmentofthetechnology,the subsystemsoftheremoteandcentralizedmonitoring systemhavebeenalmostperfect.Atpresent,thede

    velopmentofthemonitoringsubsystemtendstointel

    lectiveinstrumentandthedecisionmakingsubsystem

    tendstoartificialintelligence.

    3.2Monitoringsubsystem

    Asthebaseofthemonitoringsystem,themoni

    totingsubsystemacquirestheinformationoftheob

    iect.Amonitoringsubsystemconsistsofoneormore functionunits.LikeFig.2.Anintactmonitoringsub

    systemmakesupoffourparts:object,sensors,infor- mationdisposalcircuitandinformationrecording

    system.

    ObjectHSensorInfotinationdi.

    sposalcircuit

Informationre.

    cordingsystem

    Fig.2Monitoringsubsystem

    3.3Decision-makingsubsystem

    Decisionmakingsubsystemdealswiththein

    formationandmakesdecisions.It'sthecoreofthe monitoringsystem.Decisionmakingsubsystemcan

    beaperson.agroupofexpertsorasetofdeci

    sionmakingsoftware.Theprocessofdecisionmaking

    likesFig.3.

    Fig.3Processofdecision-making

    Tosimpleinformationdisposa1.apersonorsim. plesoftwarecanmakefightjudgmentanddecisions. Buttotheforecast,decisionmakingandiudgmentof

    thegeologicalhazardsisverycomplex.Forexample, themonitoringoflargeslopeusuallyneedstensof relativeparameters.It'sreallyhardtomakeanexact judgmentinitsstabilityandsafetythroughthesepa

    rameters.Itusuallyneedsagroupofexpertstomake anintegratedevaluation.However,ittakesalongtime toinvitenumbersofexpertsandatthesametimeit can'tavoidtobringcontrivedfactors.

    Withthedevelopmentofthecomputertechnol

    ogy,theintellectiveforecastanddecision??makingsys?? temaDpearswhicharethecombinationofthecom

    puterartificialintelligenceandtheforecasttheoryof thegeologicalhazards.Althoughthesystemstillre

    mainsincompleteitisreallyfastandexact.Itbe

    comesthehotspotofthestudyofdecision.making systematpresent.

3.4Disastercontrolsubsystem

    Disastercontrolsubsystemworksaccordingto theoutputfromthedecision.makingsubsystemto preventthegeologicaldisasterfromhappening, largeningorgivethealarmintime,whichcanreduce thelossofthepersonnelandthepropertyatthe maximumextent.Thisisiusttheaimofthemonitor

    ing.ThecontrolsubsystemlikesFig.4.

    Fig?4Disastercontrolsubsystem

    3.5Advantages

    Aremoteandcentralizedmonitoringsystem whichissafe.reliableandeconomiccanimprovesthe abilityofforecastandprevention.Itappearsasfollow: f11Torealizethecentralizedandremotemoni

    toting,controlandmanagementtoeverygeological hazardspot.

    Thepersonnelofthemonitoringcentercan

    monitorthesituationandtheVendsofallgeological hazardspotsatanytimeanywhere.Bythismonitoring systembasedontheIntemettechnology,theycanvisit thesystemanywherethroughtheIntemetwhichisthe differenceforlllthepresentsystem.

    (2)Toimprovethemanagementofthewhole

    forecastandalarmwork.

    Theremotecentralizedmonitoringsysteminte

    gratestheseparatesubsystems.Sonomatterifthe informationspotandthecontrolledspotbelongtothe samesubsystem,theycanestablishrelationship.This

RENSong.etalThemonitoringtechnologyofgeologicalhazardsl47

    kindofrelationshipamongdifferentareasandsections canimproveautomationofthewholeregion.Forex. ample,whenthegeologicaldisasteroccursinaplace, thentheurgentplanforrushingtodealwiththeemer. gencycanbemadeintime.Inthisway,themanage- mentofthewholeregionandtheabilityofpreventing thegeologicalhazardcanbeimproved.

    (3)Tosharetheinformationandsupplytheaddi- tionalservice.

    Theremotecentralizedmonitoringsystemcan supplyanopenfiatforthemanagertocollectand translatetheinformationfromthesubsystemstoes. tablishatmitiveandopendatabasewhichthemanag. ers.relativeleadersandscholarscaninquireaboutto gettheinformation.

    f4)Toimprovetheworkeciencyandreduce

    thecost.

    Theremotecentralizedmonitoringsystemcan fullyexertthefunctionsofallsubsystems.It'snot onlyconvenient,butcanreducethenumberofthe personne1.improvetheworkemciencyandsavethe chargeforpersonneltraining.Accordingtotheex- perienceformotherlines.itcansave30%-40%ofthe totalinvestment,reduce20%-30%ofthepersonnel, savel0%-30%ofmaintenancefee.increase20%

    30%oftheworkefficiency,andsave20%~30%ofthe trainingfee.

    3.6Topologicalfgureofallexample

    Fig.5isatopologicalfigureofaremotecentral- izedmonitoringsystemwhichconnectsalIthegeo.

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