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Positive Behavior Support Made Simple - Ventura County SELPA

By Johnny Ramos,2014-11-12 10:17
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Positive Behavior Support Made Simple - Ventura County SELPA

    Ventura County SELPA

     Mary E. Samples, Assistant Superintendent

    “It’s easy as 1-2-3-4-5-6”

    Positive Behavior

    Support Made Simple

    -2010-

    Contact:

    Fran Arner-Costello, Director, Programs &

    Services 5100 Adolfo Rd, Camarillo

    CA 93012

    805-437-1560

    7-2353

    email: farnerco@vcoe.org

    Revised 3/1/05

    Table of Contents

    A. Slides ………………………………………………………………….page 1

    B. Introduction ........................................................... page 6

    C. The Method: “It’s Easy as 1-2-3-4-5-6” .................... page 7

    1. Defining Problem Behavior............................. page 8

    2. Communicative Function ............................. page 10

    3. Environmental Modifications ........................ page 15

    4. Replacement Behavior ................................. page 32

    5. Interventions .............................................. page 34

    6. Data Collection ........................................... page 46

    D. The Most Common Misbehaviors ............................ page 65

    1. Non-Compliance to Teacher Requests .......... page 66

    2. Striking Others ............................................ page 68

    3. Talking Out/Back ........................................ page 70

    4. Minor Fine Motor Annoyances. ..................... page 72

    5. Spitting ...................................................... page 73

    6. Masturbation .............................................. page 75

    7. Resists Transitioning Between Tasks ............ page 77

    8. Resists Transitioning Between

    Environments ............................................. page 78

    9. Throwing Objects ........................................ page 80

    10. Difficulty Focusing on/Completing Tasks ....... page 82

    11. Biting ......................................................... page 84

    12. Out of Seat ................................................. page 86

    13. Inappropriate Social Interactions.................. page 88

    Table of Contents (cont.)

    14. Running Away/Elopement ............................ page 90

    15. Drops to Ground ......................................... page 92

    16. Lying .......................................................... page 94

    17. Verbal Aggression ....................................... page 95 E. Sample Positive Behavior Support Plans: ................ page 97 F. Writing Team ....................................................... page 110

Introduction…..

     In the past decades, educators tended to think of “behavior management” and “education” as two separate tasks. We believed our job was to educate students in academics, and before we could do that, we needed to get behaviors “under control”.

     Punitive measures were often used, such as the delivery of negative consequences after a problem behavior occurred. Many educators thought that if a student’s behavior was not responding to punishment, they needed to be served in another environment where behaviors would be addressed, and the student would be returned to the academic setting when he was “ready to learn”.

     We are now very aware that teaching students to use socially appropriate behaviors is an extremely important educational task! We know that the best

    predictor of successful life outcomes is good social skills. We realize that this

    instruction needs to take place in the same places where all other learning

    . occurs

     Students, especially those with disabilities, may have developed problem behaviors over a long period of time. We know that giving them new, more appropriate behaviors may also take a long time. It will require instruction,

    modeling, shaping, repetition and patience to put in place positive behaviors that will last.

     We also know that most problem behaviors fill some need for the student, however irrational and illogical it may appear to us. It is imperative that we figure out that need in order to make changes in the school environment and teach other ways to get that need met. If we only intervene after a problem

    behavior occurs, we will miss the opportunity for teaching them a new way to behave.

    The process is simple enough,”1-2-3-4-5-6”, but the implementation may

    not feel so easy. However, with good planning, and staff and families working together, we will give students skills to last a lifetime!

     6

    Positive Behavior Support

    The Method

    “It’s Easy as 1-2-3-4-5-6”

     Defining Problem Behavior

     (The behavior you want to change)

     ;

    Communicative Function

    (What the student “gets” or “says” with the behavior)

     ;

     Environmental Modifications

     (Things to consider changing in the school environment)

     ;

    Replacement Behaviors

    (What you want the student to do instead-This is the part that’s like regular teaching!)

     ;

    Interventions

    (Getting the problem behavior to reduce or go away

    while putting a new replacement behavior in its place)

     ;

    Data

    (How do you know interventions are working? Are you

    sure the replacement behavior is increasing?)

     7

STEP ONE

Defining Problem Behavior

    Why….. It is important to define the problem behavior so that we can all agree exactly on which behavior we want to change. By clearly defining the problem behavior, we can get clues as to why it occurs. It also will give us a baseline for measuring change.

What….. Problem behaviors should be stated clearly in specific, measurable and

    observable terms. Examples….”Bangs back of head on floor 3-4 times repeatedly,

    often leaving bumps or bruises”……”Swears at teacher and peers in a loud voice, heard by all in room”…..”Refuses to do school work when requested, even after

    a 5 minute delay period is allowed.” Avoid vague or judgmental terms such as “tantrums”, “defiance”, and “non-compliance” unless you will define further.

    How….. Problem behaviors are defined by observing the student and recording how the behavior occurs. Staff and family should agree on which problem behavior will be worked on (if more than one) and it should be defined clearly enough so that if two different people were collecting data, they would agree each time that the behavior had occurred.

Attachments:

     Target Behaviors Questionnaire

     8

     STEP TWO

    Communicative Function

    Why….. ALL behavior is communication. A student repeats a behavior because

    it works!

    What….. There are four major areas that behaviors fall into (SEAT):

    1. Sensory: The student is looking for sensory input through his/her

    behavior. This category would include self-stimulatory behaviors such as

    noises, motions, and perseverations.

    - Sensory Seeking: to produce or experience an immediate

    sensory experience (visual, auditory, movement, tactile, olfactory

    or gustatory). These behaviors would occur even in the absence

    of an adult or attention from others as they are pleasurable and

    rewarding to the student.

    - Sensory Avoiding: to avoid unpleasant sensory experience.

    These can often be difficult to identify and determine their

    function. These behaviors would occur even in the absence of

    adults or attention from others as the student attempts to avoid

    an unpleasant or even painful stimulus.

    2. Escape: The student is trying to get away from the situation, person,

    and/or activity.

    - Escape a Difficult Task: to escape a difficult task that is

    perceived as too difficult, even if the teacher believes that the

    student is capable of doing it; to escape tasks that produce

    frustration, anxiety, boredom or feelings of inadequacy.

    - Escape a Lengthy Task: to escape a task that is longer than the

    student is willing to or able to focus and sustain effort on.

    - Escape an Unpleasant or Difficult Social Situation: to get

    away from or out of a difficult or unpleasant social situation,

    involving peer conflicts, teasing or rejection. It may also involve

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    escaping teacher correction, consequences for misbehavior, or

    feedback on errors in work or performance.

    3. Attention: The desire for attention is natural. The problem is that some

    students use inappropriate means to get the attention of adults or peers,

    and we inadvertently reinforce this behavior by attending.

    - Gain Adult Attention: To gain praise, encouragement, notice,

    pleasant companionship, time with an adult, help with tasks or

    assignments, or help with peer relationships. Sometimes the adult

    attention is gained only after an escalating series of misbehaviors.

    - Gain Peer Attention: To gain positive peer attention, peer

    status, laughter, looks of approval, entry into a social clique, to

    make friends, gain negative peer attention, negative peer

    comments, avoid being ignored or rejected, or class clown issues.

    4. Tangible: To gain access to an object, event, or activity or to gain

    access to a different environment.

    How….. Using the Motivation Assessment Scale will help classroom staff determine the function of the student’s behavior.

    Besides function, the student’s method of communication needs to be considered. Each student needs to have a reliable form of communication if verbalizing is not possible. Sign language, a picture system, or electronic devices are possible alternatives.

    Even if a student has verbal skills, we need to consider whether the student can appropriately verbalize fear, frustration, or anger. Do they have verbal problem solving skills, or are they more likely to rely on physical responses? These are clues that can give starting points for instruction.

Attachments:

     Motivation Assessment Scale

     Possible Functions of Challenging Behaviors

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STEP THREE

Environmental Modifications

    Why…..As educators, it is our job to provide a school environment that promotes positive behaviors in all students so that they can learn. We know that students may have different learning styles and students with disabilities in particular may have unique needs regarding the learning environment. By taking into account the needs of the students in the class and making modifications to address those needs, the teacher is promoting an optimal environment for learning and pro-social behaviors.

    In determining environmental modifications, teachers need to be creative and think “outside the box” in determining what will assist a particular student. The ultimate consideration should be whether or not a student is able to learn and benefit from the instruction, and not disrupt the learning of others, not whether the student fits within typical classroom expectations. For example, a child can stand and do assignments; sit in a rocking chair or on a bouncing ball for circle; participate in discussions from under their desk.

    What…..Modifications to the environment are changes the teacher makes in the classroom in order to meet the needs of the students in the class. Changes may include:

    ; Psychosocial- This includes the overall “feeling tone” of the room, the

    interactive styles of the teacher and other adults, and the level of

    support and interaction provided by other students. For example, it

    may be okay to “call out” answers without raising hands, walk up to

    the teacher’s desk without permission, or quietly ask another student

    for help.

    ; Procedural- Includes the rules of the classroom, and systems for

    handling procedures such as turning in papers, asking for help, etc.

    Some students may need more support and structure than others.

     10

    ; Instructional- Consider the temporal order of the day or period

    including consideration of order of high/low interest, quiet/noisy

    activities, medication and arousal levels. Also includes the student

    groupings-individual, small group, heterogeneous, etc.

    ; Physical- Includes physical layout of desks, work areas and storage.

    Also includes consideration of seating for particular students.

    ; Organizational- Includes how the teacher manages her time, materials

    and supplies, and interacts with and organizes other adults in the

    room. A rule of thumb is, the better organized you are, the better for

    the students. An example is color-coding materials to assist students

    in knowing where things belong.

    How…..The teacher needs to consider the needs of the students in the class each year. Any changes that can be made to meet students’ needs SHOULD BE MADE. If there are students who have different needs from each other, every attempt should be made to individualize the environmental modifications as much as possible.

Attachments:

     “Environmental Supports” (Browning Wright)

     “Fairness”

     “Establishing Rules in the Classroom” (Colleen Shea Stump, PhD.)

     “The High Fives”

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