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Outline 3 - Drcink.net

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Outline 3 - Drcink.net

     1

    Lecture 3

    Histology

    Study of Tissues

    Introduction

    ; A tissues is a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete ______________ of an organ and performs a specific function ; A matrix is material that surrounds the cells, and is composed of fibrous proteins and ground substance

    ; Tissue differences:

    ; Types and _____________ of the cells

    ; Characteristic of the matrix (extracellular material) that surrounds

    the cells

    ; Relative amount of space occupied by cells versus ____________

    Primary Tissue Classes

    ; Epithelial Tissue

    o Epithelium is a type of tissue composed of one or more layers of closely

    adhering cells, either covering an organ surface or forming the secretory

    tissue and ducts of a ________________

    ; It’s found in the linings of organs, the lining of body cavities, and

    forms the __________________of the skin

    ; The extracellular material is so thin that there is no room for blood

    vessels, so they rely on blood vessels in loose connective tissue for

    nourishment

    ; Anchoring the epithelium to the connective tissue below is a layer

    of tissue called the _____________________ membrane

    ; Surfaces of epithelium that face the basement membrane

    are basal surfaces

    ; Surfaces that face away from the basement membrane are

    __________________ surfaces

    ; Types of Epithelium:

    ; Simple having only a ___________________ layer of cells

    ; Simple squamous single layer of flat, scale-like cells

    o Found in air sacs of lungs, glomerular capsules of kidneys

    o Allows rapid _______________ or transport through

    membranes

    ; Simple cuboidal single layer of cube-shaped (though perhaps

    rounded) cells

    o Found in the liver, thyroid, many glands

    o For absorption and ___________________

    ; Simple columnar single layer of cells that are taller than they

    are wide greater volume allows more absorption & secretion

    o Found in lining of stomach, intestines, uterus

    o Absorption, secretion of ________________

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    o Simple ______________ columnar epithelium has cilia to

    move the egg through the uterine tubes

    ; Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium that has the appearance

    of having multiple layers (stratified), but which actually has a

    single layer of cells that are not all the same height

    o Found in ___________________ tract

    o Secretes and propels mucus

    ; This tissue has cilia to move mucus and dust ; Stratified having _______ or more layers of cells, with some cells resting on others, rather than being in direct contact with the basement membrane

    ; Stratified squamous multiple layers of flat, scale-like cells

    o Actually, not all of the cells in this tissue will necessarily

    appear flattened. The tissue type is named for the flattened

    cells that appear at the __________________

    o There are two kinds of stratified squamous epithelium, one

    containing the protein keratin, and the other without

    ; Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is found on

    the skin surface and resists water loss and provides

    resistance to _____________ penetration

    o Found in the epidermis

    o Resists abrasion, penetration, water loss

    ; Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium provides a

    surface that is abrasion resistant, but also moist and

    slippery

    o Found in the ______________, esophagus, vagina

     Resists abrasion and penetration by pathogens o

    ; Stratified cuboidal multiple layers of cube-shaped cells

    o Found in sweat gland ducts, in ovaries and testes

    o Contributes to sweat, secretes hormones, produces sperm ; Stratified columnar multiple layers of cells that are taller than

    they are wide

    o Rare, found only in parts of the pharynx, anal canal,

    ______________

    ; Transitional epithelium multiple layers of cells that were

    once thought to represent a transitional stage between

    squamous and columnar

    o Found in the urinary bladder and part of the urethra

    o Stretches to allow _________________ of urinary tract

    ; Connective Tissue

    o Functions:

    ; __________________ of organs tendons bind muscle to bone,

    ligaments bind bone to bone, fat holds the kidneys in place, etc.

    ; Also support, protection, movement, storage, heat production, transport

    o Components:

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    o Cells

    ; Fibroblasts Large flat cells that appear tapered at the ends and

    produce the fibers and ground substance that form the

    ________________ of the tissue

    ; Macrophages Large phagocytic cells that engulf and destroy

    bacteria, foreign matter, or dead and dying cells ; _______________________ White blood cells that react against

    bacteria, toxins, and other foreign agents

    ; Mast cells Cells found along blood vessels that secrete heparin or

    histamine to inhibit blood clotting or increase blood flow ; Adipocytes Fat cells

    o Fibers

    ; Collagenous fibers Tough, flexible fibers, made of collagen ; Reticular fibers Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein,

    forming a spongelike network

    ; Elastic fibers Fibers composed of a protein called ____________,

    which has a coiled structure that allows it to stretch and recoil like

    a rubber band

    ; Ground substance Three classes of large molecules that form a

    gel in connective tissue that slowes down the spread of bacteria

    and other pathogens. They also bind tissue components together.

    o Fibrous connective tissue

    ; Loose connective tissue Much space is occupied by ground

    substance

    ; Areolar tissue has fibers that run in random directions and

    has highly variable appearance

    ; It ______________ blood vessels and nerves,

    allowing passage through other tissues

    ; Provides space for immune defense, and provides

    nutrients and waste removal for overlying epithelia

    ; Reticular tissue has a mesh-like appearance and forms the

    structural framework of the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus,

    and bone marrow

    ; Adipose tissue tissue in which adipocytes are the

    dominant cell type

    ; It stores energy and provides cushioning ; Dense connective tissue ________________ take up more space

    than cells or ground substance

    ; Dense regular connective tissue

    ; Has fibers that are closely packed and the fibers run

    _______________________ to the direction of

    force (such as in ligaments and tendons)

    ; Binds muscle to bone and bone to bone

    ; Dense irregular connective tissue

    ; Has thick bundles of collagen which run in

    _________________ directions

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    ; It binds skin to muscle and withstands stress

    in unpredictable directions

    o Cartilage supportive connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix

    ; Hyaline Cartilage Found in the trachea and over the ends of

    ______________ at movable joints

    ; It holds the airway open and eases joint movement

    ; Elastic Cartilage Fount in the external ear and nose

    ; It provides flexible, elastic support

    ; Fibrocartilage Fount in the pubic symphysis and between the

    bones of the ___________________ column

    ; It withstands compression and absorbs shock

    o Bone

    ; Spongy bone is bone tissue that fills the heads of the long bones.

    ; It is made up of many long delicate slivers that give it a

    _____________ appearance

    ; Compact bone is bone tissue that forms the surface of skeleton.

    ; It is more dense calcified tissue, with no spaces visible to

    the naked eye

    o Blood

    ; Plasma is the ground substance part of the blood (the liquid part)

    ; Formed elements are cells and cell fragments that carry oxygen,

    fight infection, or help to form _____________ if an injury occurs

    ; Nervous and Muscular Tissue

    o Nervous Tissue is tissue specialized for rapid communication by means of electrical and chemical signals

    ; Neurons are specialized cells that detect stimuli and transmit

    information __________________ to other cells

    ; Soma cell body that houses the nucleus and other

    organelles

    ; Dendrites processes extending from the cell body that

    ___________________ signals from other cells

    ; Axons processes (1 for each neuron) that send outgoing

    signals from the soma

    ; Glial cells cells that support and assist the neurons

    o Muscular Tissue is tissue that is specialized to contract when stimulated (thus exerting physical force on other tissues)

    ; Skeletal muscle

    ; Long cylindrical cells, with visible _________________

    and multiple nuclei per cell

    ; Muscles attached to bones, but also muscles controlling

    voluntary sphincters

    ; Used for body movements, breathing, speech, and other

    voluntary control

    ; Cardiac muscle

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    ; Short branched cells connected by

    _____________________ discs and having only one

    nucleus per cell

    ; Found in the heart

    ; Used for pumping blood (involuntary)

    ; Smooth muscle

    ; Short fusiform (spindle-shaped) cells, each with one

    nucleus and no striations

    ; Found as sheets of tissue in the walls of internal organs, or

    as part of sphincters of the urethra and anus

    ; Used for movement of ___________through the GI tract or

    urine through the urinary system, etc. that are involuntarily

    controlled

    ; Glands and Membranes

    o Glands are organs or cells that secrete substances for use in the body or for

    elimination from the body

    ; Cells vs organs

    ; Single-celled glands ______________ cells are shaped

    somewhat like a wineglass, and are found in the epithelia of

    many mucous membranes

    ; Multicellular glands include all other glands in which

    multiple cells work together to produce secretions ; Exocrine glands are glands that convey their secretions through

    _______________ to the surface of the body or to the lumen

    (cavity) of another organ

    ; Endocrine glands secrete their products directly into the

    bloodstream for transport to __________________ cells ; Types of secretions

    ; Serous glands produce relatively thin, watery fluids, such

    as perspiration, milk, or tears

    ; Mucous glands produce a glycoprotein called

    ______________, which absorbs water to form mucus

    (note the different spelling)

    ; Mixed glands contain both serous and mucous cells and

    produce a mixture of the two types of secretions

    ; Cytogenic glands release whole cells (sperm or egg cells) ; Methods of secretion

    ; Merocrine glands release their secretions by exocytosis

    (only the secretion is released from the gland)

    ; ______________________ glands accumulate products

    within the cell and then the entire cell disintegrates, so that the

    substance released is a mixture of product and cell fragments

    ; Apocrine glands were named when it was believed that bits

    of apical cytoplasm broke away from the cell surface.

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    Technically this isn’t true, but there are differences between

    these glands and merocrine glands.

    o Membranes

    ; Cutaneous membranes ______________

    ; Stratified squamous epithelium resting on a layer of

    connective tissue

    ; Mucous membranes membranes that line passageways leading to

    the exterior

    ; Digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts

    ; Serous membranes membranes that produce watery serous fluid

    ; Line the insides of some body cavities and form a smooth

    surface on the outer surface of some viscera

    ; Endothelium Simple squamous epithelium that lines the lumens

    of the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels

    ; Synovial membranes Membranes made of connective tissue that

    span the gap from bone to bone and secrete slippery

    _________________ fluid into the joint

    ; Tissue Growth and Repair

    o Growth

    ; Hyperplasia growth through cell multiplication

    ; ___________________- enlargement of existing cells o Repair

    ; Regeneration - Replacement of cells by the same type of cells

    ; Fibrosis Replacement of damaged tissue with ____________

    tissue, composed mainly of collagen

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