Outline 3 -

By Tammy Cook,2014-11-12 10:04
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Outline 3 -


    Lecture 3


    Study of Tissues


    ; A tissues is a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete ______________ of an organ and performs a specific function ; A matrix is material that surrounds the cells, and is composed of fibrous proteins and ground substance

    ; Tissue differences:

    ; Types and _____________ of the cells

    ; Characteristic of the matrix (extracellular material) that surrounds

    the cells

    ; Relative amount of space occupied by cells versus ____________

    Primary Tissue Classes

    ; Epithelial Tissue

    o Epithelium is a type of tissue composed of one or more layers of closely

    adhering cells, either covering an organ surface or forming the secretory

    tissue and ducts of a ________________

    ; It’s found in the linings of organs, the lining of body cavities, and

    forms the __________________of the skin

    ; The extracellular material is so thin that there is no room for blood

    vessels, so they rely on blood vessels in loose connective tissue for


    ; Anchoring the epithelium to the connective tissue below is a layer

    of tissue called the _____________________ membrane

    ; Surfaces of epithelium that face the basement membrane

    are basal surfaces

    ; Surfaces that face away from the basement membrane are

    __________________ surfaces

    ; Types of Epithelium:

    ; Simple having only a ___________________ layer of cells

    ; Simple squamous single layer of flat, scale-like cells

    o Found in air sacs of lungs, glomerular capsules of kidneys

    o Allows rapid _______________ or transport through


    ; Simple cuboidal single layer of cube-shaped (though perhaps

    rounded) cells

    o Found in the liver, thyroid, many glands

    o For absorption and ___________________

    ; Simple columnar single layer of cells that are taller than they

    are wide greater volume allows more absorption & secretion

    o Found in lining of stomach, intestines, uterus

    o Absorption, secretion of ________________


    o Simple ______________ columnar epithelium has cilia to

    move the egg through the uterine tubes

    ; Pseudostratified columnar Epithelium that has the appearance

    of having multiple layers (stratified), but which actually has a

    single layer of cells that are not all the same height

    o Found in ___________________ tract

    o Secretes and propels mucus

    ; This tissue has cilia to move mucus and dust ; Stratified having _______ or more layers of cells, with some cells resting on others, rather than being in direct contact with the basement membrane

    ; Stratified squamous multiple layers of flat, scale-like cells

    o Actually, not all of the cells in this tissue will necessarily

    appear flattened. The tissue type is named for the flattened

    cells that appear at the __________________

    o There are two kinds of stratified squamous epithelium, one

    containing the protein keratin, and the other without

    ; Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is found on

    the skin surface and resists water loss and provides

    resistance to _____________ penetration

    o Found in the epidermis

    o Resists abrasion, penetration, water loss

    ; Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium provides a

    surface that is abrasion resistant, but also moist and


    o Found in the ______________, esophagus, vagina

     Resists abrasion and penetration by pathogens o

    ; Stratified cuboidal multiple layers of cube-shaped cells

    o Found in sweat gland ducts, in ovaries and testes

    o Contributes to sweat, secretes hormones, produces sperm ; Stratified columnar multiple layers of cells that are taller than

    they are wide

    o Rare, found only in parts of the pharynx, anal canal,


    ; Transitional epithelium multiple layers of cells that were

    once thought to represent a transitional stage between

    squamous and columnar

    o Found in the urinary bladder and part of the urethra

    o Stretches to allow _________________ of urinary tract

    ; Connective Tissue

    o Functions:

    ; __________________ of organs tendons bind muscle to bone,

    ligaments bind bone to bone, fat holds the kidneys in place, etc.

    ; Also support, protection, movement, storage, heat production, transport

    o Components:


    o Cells

    ; Fibroblasts Large flat cells that appear tapered at the ends and

    produce the fibers and ground substance that form the

    ________________ of the tissue

    ; Macrophages Large phagocytic cells that engulf and destroy

    bacteria, foreign matter, or dead and dying cells ; _______________________ White blood cells that react against

    bacteria, toxins, and other foreign agents

    ; Mast cells Cells found along blood vessels that secrete heparin or

    histamine to inhibit blood clotting or increase blood flow ; Adipocytes Fat cells

    o Fibers

    ; Collagenous fibers Tough, flexible fibers, made of collagen ; Reticular fibers Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein,

    forming a spongelike network

    ; Elastic fibers Fibers composed of a protein called ____________,

    which has a coiled structure that allows it to stretch and recoil like

    a rubber band

    ; Ground substance Three classes of large molecules that form a

    gel in connective tissue that slowes down the spread of bacteria

    and other pathogens. They also bind tissue components together.

    o Fibrous connective tissue

    ; Loose connective tissue Much space is occupied by ground


    ; Areolar tissue has fibers that run in random directions and

    has highly variable appearance

    ; It ______________ blood vessels and nerves,

    allowing passage through other tissues

    ; Provides space for immune defense, and provides

    nutrients and waste removal for overlying epithelia

    ; Reticular tissue has a mesh-like appearance and forms the

    structural framework of the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus,

    and bone marrow

    ; Adipose tissue tissue in which adipocytes are the

    dominant cell type

    ; It stores energy and provides cushioning ; Dense connective tissue ________________ take up more space

    than cells or ground substance

    ; Dense regular connective tissue

    ; Has fibers that are closely packed and the fibers run

    _______________________ to the direction of

    force (such as in ligaments and tendons)

    ; Binds muscle to bone and bone to bone

    ; Dense irregular connective tissue

    ; Has thick bundles of collagen which run in

    _________________ directions


    ; It binds skin to muscle and withstands stress

    in unpredictable directions

    o Cartilage supportive connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix

    ; Hyaline Cartilage Found in the trachea and over the ends of

    ______________ at movable joints

    ; It holds the airway open and eases joint movement

    ; Elastic Cartilage Fount in the external ear and nose

    ; It provides flexible, elastic support

    ; Fibrocartilage Fount in the pubic symphysis and between the

    bones of the ___________________ column

    ; It withstands compression and absorbs shock

    o Bone

    ; Spongy bone is bone tissue that fills the heads of the long bones.

    ; It is made up of many long delicate slivers that give it a

    _____________ appearance

    ; Compact bone is bone tissue that forms the surface of skeleton.

    ; It is more dense calcified tissue, with no spaces visible to

    the naked eye

    o Blood

    ; Plasma is the ground substance part of the blood (the liquid part)

    ; Formed elements are cells and cell fragments that carry oxygen,

    fight infection, or help to form _____________ if an injury occurs

    ; Nervous and Muscular Tissue

    o Nervous Tissue is tissue specialized for rapid communication by means of electrical and chemical signals

    ; Neurons are specialized cells that detect stimuli and transmit

    information __________________ to other cells

    ; Soma cell body that houses the nucleus and other


    ; Dendrites processes extending from the cell body that

    ___________________ signals from other cells

    ; Axons processes (1 for each neuron) that send outgoing

    signals from the soma

    ; Glial cells cells that support and assist the neurons

    o Muscular Tissue is tissue that is specialized to contract when stimulated (thus exerting physical force on other tissues)

    ; Skeletal muscle

    ; Long cylindrical cells, with visible _________________

    and multiple nuclei per cell

    ; Muscles attached to bones, but also muscles controlling

    voluntary sphincters

    ; Used for body movements, breathing, speech, and other

    voluntary control

    ; Cardiac muscle


    ; Short branched cells connected by

    _____________________ discs and having only one

    nucleus per cell

    ; Found in the heart

    ; Used for pumping blood (involuntary)

    ; Smooth muscle

    ; Short fusiform (spindle-shaped) cells, each with one

    nucleus and no striations

    ; Found as sheets of tissue in the walls of internal organs, or

    as part of sphincters of the urethra and anus

    ; Used for movement of ___________through the GI tract or

    urine through the urinary system, etc. that are involuntarily


    ; Glands and Membranes

    o Glands are organs or cells that secrete substances for use in the body or for

    elimination from the body

    ; Cells vs organs

    ; Single-celled glands ______________ cells are shaped

    somewhat like a wineglass, and are found in the epithelia of

    many mucous membranes

    ; Multicellular glands include all other glands in which

    multiple cells work together to produce secretions ; Exocrine glands are glands that convey their secretions through

    _______________ to the surface of the body or to the lumen

    (cavity) of another organ

    ; Endocrine glands secrete their products directly into the

    bloodstream for transport to __________________ cells ; Types of secretions

    ; Serous glands produce relatively thin, watery fluids, such

    as perspiration, milk, or tears

    ; Mucous glands produce a glycoprotein called

    ______________, which absorbs water to form mucus

    (note the different spelling)

    ; Mixed glands contain both serous and mucous cells and

    produce a mixture of the two types of secretions

    ; Cytogenic glands release whole cells (sperm or egg cells) ; Methods of secretion

    ; Merocrine glands release their secretions by exocytosis

    (only the secretion is released from the gland)

    ; ______________________ glands accumulate products

    within the cell and then the entire cell disintegrates, so that the

    substance released is a mixture of product and cell fragments

    ; Apocrine glands were named when it was believed that bits

    of apical cytoplasm broke away from the cell surface.


    Technically this isn’t true, but there are differences between

    these glands and merocrine glands.

    o Membranes

    ; Cutaneous membranes ______________

    ; Stratified squamous epithelium resting on a layer of

    connective tissue

    ; Mucous membranes membranes that line passageways leading to

    the exterior

    ; Digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts

    ; Serous membranes membranes that produce watery serous fluid

    ; Line the insides of some body cavities and form a smooth

    surface on the outer surface of some viscera

    ; Endothelium Simple squamous epithelium that lines the lumens

    of the blood vessels, heart, and lymphatic vessels

    ; Synovial membranes Membranes made of connective tissue that

    span the gap from bone to bone and secrete slippery

    _________________ fluid into the joint

    ; Tissue Growth and Repair

    o Growth

    ; Hyperplasia growth through cell multiplication

    ; ___________________- enlargement of existing cells o Repair

    ; Regeneration - Replacement of cells by the same type of cells

    ; Fibrosis Replacement of damaged tissue with ____________

    tissue, composed mainly of collagen

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