By Leo Morgan,2014-10-09 13:32
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    Unit 2 Mixed feelings

    Active Reading (1) How Empathy Unfolds

Learning Objectives: students will

    ; Interpret across paragraphs to understand argument points

    ; Identify supporting evidence for opinions

    ; Practice linking devices

    ; Understand some language features and cultural information in the text

    ; Learn some expressions and grammar points for language use

Learning outcomes: students will

    ; Have a general idea on how roughly empathy develops in babies

    ; Be able to identify supporting evidence for opinions

    ; Learn to illustrate opinions by using examples

    ; Use some expressions and grammar points from the text

Learning methods:

    ; Pair / group work

    ; Specific reading tasks

    ; Specific speaking tasks

Time allocated: 90 minutes

Teaching procedures

Active reading 1: Embarkation

    Picture Description

    Work in pairs and describe how the people below feel.

surprise disgust contempt fear joy sadness anger

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    What is EI

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. The elements of Emotional Intelligence include:

    Self-Awareness: Knowing your emotions and their effects.

    Self-Management: Knowing how to manage your emotions, how to keep disruptive

    impulses in check. Being flexible and comfortable with new ideas.

    Social Awareness: An ability to listen, to be persuasive, to collaborate, to nurture relationships.

    Relationship Management: An ability to influence others, handle conflict, develop, lead and work with others.


    Emotional Quotient or EQ is one of the ways to measure a person’s ability to be

    successful in life. The phrase was first developed in the 1980s and asserts that emotional quotient or emotional intelligence is as valuable as intellectual quotient (IQ). According to theories of brain function, a high emotional quotient means someone is self-confident, self-aware, and able to navigate through trying emotional times. EQ is often tied directly to the degree of success one may have in the workplace and in personal relationships.


    IQ is the acronym for intelligent quotient, and refers to a score given for several standardized intelligence tests. Not all intelligence can be measured by an IQ test. In fact, primarily, an IQ test measures mathematical and spatial reasoning, logical ability, and language understanding.

Empathy vs. sympathy

    Read the definitions in Exercise 1 on page 16 and work in your group to decide whether the following feelings or actions are a result of sympathy or empathy. Write S for sympathy and E for empathy.

__ sending a card to someone who is in hospital

    __ feeling happy because your friend has won a scholarship to a prestigious university __ trying to comfort someone who has had bad news

    __ reacting physically when you see that someone is in pain

    __ collecting money to help the victims of a natural disaster

    __ crying at the end of a film

    Keys: SESEEE

    Sympathy= I can imagine your pain.

    Empathy= I feel your pain.


    Check (?) the following statements about babies which you think are true.

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    __ 1 Babies don’t feel emotions.

    __ 2 They only cry when they are hungry or in pain. ? 3 They cry when other babies cry.

    __ 4 They have a strong feeling that they exist as individuals.

    __ 5 They are jealous of other babies. ? 6 They sometimes try to help other babies.

Active reading 1: Navigation


    The following columns show the examples (facts) used in the text. Try to predict

    the possible empathetic reactions of the babies’.

    Example A baby fell


    Phase 1

    Paul cried Example


    Paul kept


    Example A friend cried


    Phase 2 Phase 2 A baby hurts Example fingers 2

    Mother Example cried 3

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    Example baby cries Phase 3

    Baby calms


    Identifying examples

    Identify the examples (facts) used in the text. The left-hand column refers to other

    children’s distress while the right-hand column empathetic reactions.

    Tears welled up in

    Hope’s eyes (9 months Example A baby fell

    old) and he crawled 1

    off to be comforted Root in infancy Michael (15 month

    -old) got teddy bear Example Paul cried for him 2

    Paul kept Michael retrieved his

    crying security blanket

    A One-year-old brought

    his own mother to

    Example comfort while ignoring A friend cried

    1 the friend’s mother

    Feel the Feel the

    A One-year-old difference but difference but A baby hurts Example puts her own confused confused fingers 2 finger in mouth

    Baby wiped Mother Example

    cried own eyes 3

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    Jenny gives

    cookies, follows No Neighbor’s

    around, imitation baby cries Example whimpers to but comfort

    herself, stroke hair

     Jenny looks

    Baby calms worried, brings

    down toys, pats head

    and shoulders

    Phase Phase Others Empathic Others Empathic distress response distress response

    Reactions differ

    Example Response Example Response

    No imitation but


    Response Response Example 3 Example 3 Feel the difference

     but confused Response Response Example 2 Example 2

    Response Response Example 1 Example 1

    Example 2 Response Example 2 Response Example 1 Example 1 Response Response

    Root in infancy

    Text organization

    Work in your group to complete the flow chart to get a general understanding of

    the text. Try to use your own words.

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     The development of Governing idea the empathy starts (Para. 1) very early in human development.

Supporting idea 1 Background Supporting idea 2 Supporting idea 3

    (Para. 2) (Para. 3) (Paras. 4&5) (Para. 6)

     feel sympathetic motor mimicryunderstand the individual ?empathy distress difference differences



    Complete the timeline to see how empathy developed in children.


    Reactions differ Reactions differ


    Mimicry fades Mimicry fades

    What ? What ?

    feel others pain confused feel others pain confused What ? What ?

    AgeAge When ? 2-3 When ? 2-3 1-2 1-2

    ~1 ~1

Understanding examples

    Work in your group to discuss:

    1. How are the examples in paragraph 1 different from the ones used in other paragraphs?

    2. Which idea of empathy is supported by many of the examples?

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    3. Which example is the longest?

    4. Which one is the strangest?

    5. Which one best illustrates the idea of empathy?

For teachers reference:

    1. How are the examples in paragraph 1 different from the ones used in other paragraphs?

    children from different age groups

    wider range in age;

    introduce the thesis

2. Which idea of empathy is supported by many of the examples?

    feel sympathetic distress = feel other children’s pain and discomfort

3. Which example is the longest?


    more words and the longest

4. Which one is the strangest?

    Why security blanket ,not cookies or Michael’s

    else? Funny instead of strange.

    5. Which one best illustrates the idea of empathy?

    Jenny’s behaviour Feel pain and can comfort

Critical thinking

    Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

    1 Do you think the passage successfully presents the idea of empathy? Why / Why not? I agree that the passage shows readers some interesting and concrete examples which illustrate the idea of empathy. It indicates that the development of the empathy starts very early in human development. The examples are quite convincing and thought-provoking.

    Well, I think the examples given in the passage are really useful for readers to understand the concept of empathy and to argue that empathy may develop very early in a child’s

    psychological development. However, I would really like to see more arguments about why some children tend to develop empathy in one way (e.g. cry when others cry) and some do not and how researchers are sure that motor mimicry is evidence for empathy. Also, the passage looks quite authoritative because researchers’ names are mentioned about the development of

    this concept. However, apart from one date given (i.e. Titchener 1920), there is no other reference given in the passage to indicate how currently the theories have developed and what

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    the latest theories are on the idea of empathy.

    2 How important is parental discipline in helping children to grow up?

    It sees to me that parental discipline is very important in bringing up children and helping children to develop in a positive and responsible way. However, parental discipline does not mean that parents can humiliate their child mentally or physically. It is important to listen to your child and explain the reasons for the action you take as a parent.

    3 The passage is an extract from a best-selling book called Emotional Intelligence. How

    closely do you think emotions and intelligence are connected?

    It can be stated that emotions and intelligence are closely connected. To answer this question, it is necessary to discuss concepts of emotions and intelligence. In the emotional intelligence context, it may be fair to define emotions as feelings and an inner state which may influence one’s actions and behaviour. Emotional intelligence in this sense is about the ability and skill to manage one’s emotions in personal and social contexts. Thus the two are very much connected. Some people may have good control or expression of emotional intelligence while they may not necessarily have a high intellectual intelligence, and vice versa. Perhaps it is better to have a balanced intelligence for both emotions and intellect.

Active reading 1: Resources

    be traced (back) to: find the origins of sth. or where sth. came from追溯到

    ; Some people's fear of marriage can be traced back to their parents' divorce.

    ; Most computer crimes can be traced back to hackers.

    ; The earliest money of China can be traced to thousands years ago.


    ; trace: v. find; n. sign踪迹;迹象

    ; The family can trace its history to the 17th century.


    ; Much of the information we have about Columbus is picked up directly from his

    journal, so we are able to trace his footsteps to the New World.

    trace: v. find; n. sign踪迹;迹象

    ; Did the police find any trace of the murderer?

    ; The children were lost without trace in the forest.

    ; New love fills your heart little by little, leaving no room for the old as if it disappeared

    with no trace.

    ; disappear / vanish / sink without trace消失得无影无踪

apart from: except for, aside from / as well as, besides

    ; Apart from the injuries to his face and hands, he broke both legs.

    Apart from English, we study Russian and Spanish.

    ; Apart from the occasional visit, what did you do for your aged parents?

    ; The essay is good apart from a couple of spelling mistakes.

    apart: separated by a distance 被分开

    ; The identical twins live 3,000 miles apart and have not much in common, so there is

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    not any confusion over who's who.

    ; We planted the trees wide apart.

    ; He talk apart from the topic.


    apart: separated by a distance 被分开

    ; I cant imagine my life apart from you.


    ; His use of language sets him apart from most other modern writers.


    virtually: almost the same as the thing that is mentioned; practically

    ; It is virtually impossible to predict the future accurately.

    the same conclusions. ; Two independent investigators have reached virtually

    ; The reply is virtually an acceptance of our offer.

    ; He is virtually a stranger to me though we have met before.

approach: v. to come near; to deal with, begin to tackle 解决、处理 (问题)

    ; As winter approaches, the weather becomes colder.

    ; As we approached the house, we found a man going out of it. approach: v. to come near; to deal with, begin to tackle 解决、处理 (问题)

    ; I find him difficult to approach.

    ; Few writers could approach Shakespeare in greatness.

    ; Workers, above all, should know how to approach the problem correctly. approach: n. a method of doing sth. 方法; going near 靠近

    ; At her approach the children ran off.

    ; All the approaches to the palace were guarded by troops.

    ; He seems to have a good approach to (solving) the problem.

    ; When learning a foreign language, the best approach is the study of the spoken


confuse: v. make sb unable to think clearly, puzzle, perplex, bewilder使困惑

    ; The road signs confused the driver.

    ; I was confused by all the noise.

    ; She had confused feelings about him.

    ; This is a confusing word because it has two meanings. confuse: v. mistake one person or thing for another混淆

    ; You have confused the meanings of the two words.

    ; Don't confuse Austria with Australia.

precursor: indicating something which exists earlier and influences a later development on

    something else

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    disturbance: the interruption of a pleasant, calm, or peaceful situation

    ; The noise of cars passing along the road is a continual disturbance to our quiet at


    ; He was charged with disturbance of public peace.

    ; The news created quite a disturbance among the crowd.

imitate: reproduce someone's behavior or looks

    ; He can imitate his teacher perfectly.

    Children like to imitate adults.

    ; Monkeys often imitate human behavior.

Mimicry is the action of mimicking or copying the behaviour of someone else, or the ability

    to do this. Motor mimicry means copying the movements or actions of someone else.

stem from: develop as a result of sth

    ; Her problems stem from her difficult childhood.

    ; These problems stem from poor management in this company.


distinct from: different from

    ; Astronomy, as distinct from astrology, is an exact science.


    ; Mice are distinct from rats.

    ; Beer has a very distinctive smell; its quite distinct from the smell of wine.



    distinction, distinctive, distinct

    distinct: easily seen, heard, felt or understood 明显的;清晰的;清楚的:clearly different

    or belonging to a different type 明显不同的

    ; There was a distinct smell of gas in the school.

    ; The twins had distinct personalities.

    distinction: n. difference or contrast差别;不同; special element or quality个性;特征;

    ; There is a distinction between what he says and what he does. 区别;区分

    ; Tony has the distinction of being the tallest boy in the class. distinctive: a. having a special quality, character or appearance that is different and

    easy to recognize与众不同的

    ; Beer has a very distinctive smell.

    ; This bird has several distinctive features.

    ; Long complex sentences are distinctive of his later style.

    ; 晚期作品的风格特色是擅长使用长复合句。

repertoire is the full range of things that someone can do; here, it means what a baby can do

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