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The Urinary System

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The Urinary System

The Urinary System

    Lesson 1 & 2 by: Jessica Wan Lesson 3 & 4 by: Paul Plut

    Date: December 7, 2004

    Course: SCED 313

    Instructor: Jolie Mayer-Smith

Overview Statement

    The activities and structure of our Urinary System Mini Unit are designed to maximize student centered meaningful learning. The Prescribed Learning Outcomes on page 72 of the IRP document (Human Biology Urinary System) will all be addressed

    through the lessons during the course of the unit.

    Our objectives are to provide students with an overview of the structures of the urinary system and their respective functions as well as generate student interest using a multitude of student learning activities. The latter portion of the unit focuses on the role of the urinary system in relation to the function of the human body. Each lesson begins with an anticipatory set that is designed to pique student interest in addition to reviewing the concepts learned in the previous lesson.

    The meaningful learning activities included in our unit are a urinary system concept map, a kidney and nephron game board, a three- dimensional model of the kidney and an information pamphlet about kidney disease. Students will be engaging in group work, which promotes cooperative learning of the concepts covered in class. The products of the learning activities will be assessed by the teacher with the exception of the three dimensional model, which will be assessed by peers if the teacher so chooses.

Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 2

    AssessmentConcept Map - will be assessed based on the number of correct linkages - the full list of vocabulary must be used

    Game Board - will be assessed on creativity and incorporation of the main concepts of the lesson (structure and function) - a detailed description of the five scenarios players may possibly encounter must be included with the assignment

    Model - students will be assessed on the detail and effort put into their models as detailed in the rubric - rubric is designed to allow the teacher to decide whether he or she wants the students to peer assess the projects or mark them him or herself

    Kidney Disease Pamphlet - students will be assessed based on the informational content of the brochure as well the creativity and effort put into it.

    Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 3

    Lesson 1

    Introduction to the Urinary System

IRP: Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System

PLO:

     It is expected that students will identify and give functions for each of the

    following:

    o kidney

    o ureter

    o urethra

    o urinary bladder

     As an introduction to the urinary system, this lesson is meant to give students a broad overview of the entire system, focusing on its function and main components. The demonstration performed by the teacher at the beginning of the lesson is intended to pique students' interest as well as provide them with a visual representation of some of the products of the urinary system. The concept map (learning activity) will allow students to formulate links between their prior knowledge on the urinary system and the new concepts taught during the class. The students will be required to explain the relationship between the linked terms, which will address both the structure and function of the components of the urinary system.

Objective:

Students will be able to:

     List and explain the main functions of the urinary system

     Identify and describe the wastes produced by the urinary system

     Label on a diagram the main structures of the urinary system

     Give the functions of the main structures of the urinary system

Materials Needed:

     Overhead notes on transparencies

     Copy of teacher notes

     Copies of diagrams for students

     Copies of Urinary System Concept Map student handout with rubric

     Overhead pens

     Post-it notes

     Felt pens

     Large chart paper

     3 beakers and 1 small test tube

     Red and yellow food colouring

    Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 4

    Instructor Activities Student Activities Time Anticipatory Set

     - volume demonstration - attempt to match the volume of water to

     - first have the students match up the volume the possible situations 10 minutes

     of water to the situations represented

     - colour the water and explain what each

     volume represents

    Urinary System Notes

     - interactive notes on the overhead - answer questions posed

     - pose questions throughout the lesson to get the - copy down notes off the overhead

     students thinking about the topic - label diagram provided in student handout 30 minutes

     - have them attempt to label the organs in the

     diagram before going over the structures

     - be sure to relate structure to function Urinary System Concept Map

     - explain the assignment - work in groups of 4

     - ensure that students know they must write in - complete the urinary system concept

     words the relationship between linked terms map 30 minutes

     - provide materials necessary to complete the - establish relationships between vocabulary

     assignment terms and main concept presented in class

     - circulate and provide assistance as needed - present and explain the groupings of terms

     on their concept maps Closure

     - collect urinary system concept map assignment - hand in urinary system concept map

     - end of class quiz emphasizing the relationship - complete short end of class quiz on 5 minutes

     between structures of the urinary system and structures of the urinary system and their

     their functions functions

     - collect quiz before students leave

    Anticipatory Set:

    Prior to the lesson, fill four beakers with the following volumes of water:

    o 1200 mL

    o 125 mL

    o 1 mL

    o 1500 mL

    You must also have on hand red and yellow food colouring, which will be used later on

    in the demonstration. At the very beginning of the class, write down on the overhead the

    following situations and have the students make an educated guess as to which volume

    represents each situation:

    Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 5

    o the volume of blood passing through a pair of kidneys in one minute

    o the amount of glomerular filtrate that is produced by both kidneys in one minute

    o the volume of urine produced by both kidneys in one minute

    o the volume of urine produced in a day by an average adult

    You may need to briefly describe and define the term glomerular filtrate to the students, as they most likely have not seen the term previously. This demonstration is meant to get the students interested and prepared for the introductory lesson to come so the definition does not need to be in great detail (see teacher notes for definition). Once the class has generated their responses, proceed to colour the beakers of water as follows:

    o 1200 mL - pink coloured water = volume of blood

    o 125 mL - clear water = glomerular filtrate

    o 1 mL - yellow coloured water = volume of urine (1 minute)

     1500 mL - yellow coloured water = volume of urine (1 day) o

    This demonstration gives the students a visual representation of the products of the urinary system and this image will aid them as they continue through the unit. Some of the volumes may surprise the students and may generate some enthusiasm and interest in the lesson to follow.

Urinary System Notes:

    These notes are meant to assist the teacher during the interactive notes portion of the lesson. Students will be required to copy down the information on the transparencies provided. You should generate discussion while going through the notes portion of the lesson by posing the questions that are dispersed throughout the teacher copy of the notes. Some of the information on the pages for the overhead transparencies has been left out and you will be required to fill in the missing information for the students as you go over the lesson. Allow time for the students to generate some answers to the question posed before revealing the notes. Prior to identifying and describing the function of the structures of the urinary system, the students should be given a copy of the urinary system diagram. As you go through the labels on the diagram, be sure to emphasize the functions of the various parts and how it relates back to structure so that students are not merely copying down definitions. Some of the information on the overhead transparencies has been omitted and should be completed by you during the course of the lesson with the students.

Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 6

    Urinary System (Teacher Copy)

What do you think some of the functions of the urinary system are?

    How is the urinary system related to some of the other systems that you have already learned about?

Functions of the Urinary System

     elimination of chemical/metabolic wastes from the body

    o nitrogenous wastes (byproducts of chemical reactions that are no longer

    useful such as ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine)

     control the volume and composition of body fluids

    o water-salt balance

    ; blood volume is closely associated with the salt balance of the

    body (i.e. the more salt in the blood, the greater the volume of

    blood and the greater the blood pressure)

    ; the kidneys are involved in regulating blood pressure and also

    maintain appropriate levels of certain ions in the blood

    o acid-base balance

    ; the kidneys monitor and control blood pH through the excretion

    and reabsorption of certain ions

     the kidneys are the main organ of excretion

    o principal job is the removal of urea and the regulation of water in the

    bloodstream

Waste Products

     urea

    o end product of amino acid metabolism in body cells

    o water soluble

    o primary end product of the urinary system

    o excreted in urine

     ammonia

    o end product of the deamination of amino groups

    o very toxic to tissues

    o converted to urea in the liver in land mammals

     creatinine

    o end product from creatinine phosphate in muscle metabolism

What are some of the organs of the urinary system?

    Can you give some examples of other organs or organ systems that are involved with excretion?

    What are the excretory products produced by these other organs or organ systems?

Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 7

    Prior to labeling the diagram of the urinary system, have the students attempt to label some of the parts on their own.

    Can you trace the path of excretion just by looking at the diagram?

Structures of the Urinary System

     kidneys

    o reddish brown organs

    o approximately the size of a fist (4 inches long, 2 inches wide, 1 inch thick

    in an average sized adult)

    o located on either side of the spinal column, anchored against the dorsal

    (back) body wall by connective tissue

    o responsible for excretion of urine and the regulation of blood volume and

    pH

     renal vein

    o carries blood from the kidneys back to the heart

     renal artery

    o carries blood into the kidney

     ureter

    o muscular tube

    o moves urine from the kidneys to the bladder through peristalsis

     urinary bladder

    o urine storage, can hold up to 600 to 1000 mL of urine

    o expands and contracts

    ; stretch receptors indicate when it is full, signal notifies the brain

    resulting in the desire to urinate

     urethra

    o tube that connects the urinary bladder to the outside

Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 8

The Components of the Urinary System

    Kidney

    Renal Vein (OUT)

    Renal Artery (IN)

    Ureter

    Urinary Bladder

    Urethra

    Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 9

    Urinary System

    Functions of the Urinary System

     elimination of _______________________________________

    o ______________________________________ (byproducts of

    chemical reactions that are no longer useful such as ammonia,

    urea, uric acid, creatinine)

     control the volume and composition of body fluids

    o __________________________________________________

    ; blood volume is closely associated with the salt balance

    of the body (____________________________________

     ______________________________________________

     _____________________________________________)

    ; the kidneys are involved in regulating blood pressure and

    also maintain appropriate levels of certain ions in the

    blood

    o __________________________________________________

    ; the kidneys monitor and control blood pH through the

    excretion and reabsorption of certain ions

     ________________________________________________________

    o principal job is the removal of urea and the regulation of water

    in the bloodstream

    Biology 12 - Human Biology - Urinary System Paul Plut, Jessica Wan 10

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