2. Seven years ago, homeowners in nearby Brookville community adopted a set of restriction on how the community’s yards should be
landscaped and what colors the exteriors of homes should be pained. Since then, average property values have tripled in Brookville. In order to raise property values in Deerhaven Acres, we should adopt our own set of restrictions on landscaping and house painting. (1). A threshold assumption upon which the recommendation relies is that Brookville homeowners implemented Brookville’s restrictions
in the first place.
(2).Even assuming that BV homeowners implemented these
restrictions, the committee relies on the additional assumption that this course of action was responsible for the increase in BV property values.
(3).Even assuming that BV’s rising property values are attributable
to the implementation of these restrictions, the committee fails to consider possible differences between BV and DH that might help to bring about a different result for DH.
4. Of the two leading real estate firms in our town-Adams Realty and Fitch Realty-Adams is clearly superior. Adams has 40 real estate agents. In contrast, Fitch has 25, many of whom work only part-time.
Moreover, Adams’ revenue last year was twice as high as that of
Fitch, and included home sales that averaged $16800, compared to Fitch’s14400. Homes listed with Adams sell faster as well: ten years ago, I listed my home with Fitch and it took more than four mouths to sell; last year, when I sold another home, I listed it with Adams, and it took only one mouth. Thus, if you want to sell your home quickly and at a good price, you should use Adams.
(1).The author provides no evidence that the quality of a real estate firm is directly proportional to the number of its agents or the number of hours per week that its agents work.
(2).The author overlooks the possibility that last year’s sales volume
amounted to an aberration, and that in most other years Adams has actually sold fewer properties than Fitch.
(3).The fact that the average sales price of home sold by A is greater than the average price of a home sold by F shows only that the homes that A sells are more valuable on average than the ones that F sells, not that A is more effective in selling homes than F. (4).The disparity that it took F considerably longer to sell one of the author’s homes than it took A to sell another one of her home ten year earlier could be explainable by other plausible factors.
15. Over 80 percent of the respondents to a recent survey indicated a desire to reduce their intake of food containing fats and cholesterol, and today low-fat products abound in many food stores. Since many of the food products currently marketed by Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol, the company’s sales are likely to
diminish greatly and their profits will no doubt decrease. We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholders to sell their shares and other investors not to purchase stock in this company.
(1)The excerpt fails to assure me that the survey results accurately the desires of most consumers, or that the results accurately predict the consumer behavior.
(2)The fact that low-fat foods are in abundant supply in food stores does not necessarily indicate an increasing demand for low-fat dairy products or a diminishing demand for high-fat dairy products. (3)Even assuming an indisputable consumer trend toward
purchasing more low-fat dairy products and fewer high-fat dairy products, the newsletter concludes too hastily that OD profits will decline as a result.
16. Two years ago our neighboring state, Lucria, began a state theory to supplement tax revenues for education and public health. Today,
Lucria spends more per pupil than we do, and Lucria’s public health
program treats far more than people than our state’s program does. If
we were to establish a state lottery like the one in L, the profits could be used to improve our educational system and public health program. The new lottery would doubtless be successful, because a survey conducted in our capital city concludes that citizens of I already spend an average of $50 per person per year on gambling. (1)The fact that L now spends more than I per pupil, in itself, lends no support to the argument.
(2)The fact that L’s health programs treat more people than I’s
programs lends no support to the argument.
(3)The argument unfairly assumes that the lottery I has been profitable.
(4)The fact that I’s residents spend $50 per capita on gambling each year lends little support to the argument.
17. Walnut’s town council has advocated switching from EZ
Disposal(which has had the contract for trash collection services in WG for the past ten years) to ABC Waste, because EZ recently raised its monthly fee from $2000 to $2500 a mouth, whereas ABC’s
fee is still $20000. But the town is mistaken; we should continue
using EZ. EZ collects trash twice a week, while ABC collects only once. Moreover, EZ-which like ABC, currently has a fleet of 20 trucks-has ordered additional trucks. Finally, EZ provides exceptional service; 80 percent of respondents to last year’s town
survey agreed that they were satisfied with EZ’s performance.
(1)The fact that EZ collects trash twice as much as ABC is significant only if the town would benefit from an additional collection each week.
(2)The fact that EZ has ordered more trucks provides little in itself about which service would be the better choice for WG. (3)The mere fact that most respondents to a recent survey considered EZ’s service satisfactory provides little support to the author’s
22. Over the past five years, the population of Steel City has increased by more than 20 percent, and family incomes in Steel city haven risen much faster than the national average. Nationwide sales of houses priced above $15000 have increased more than have sales of lower-priced houses. Such data indicate that we should make changes in our business to increase company profits. First, we should build fewer low-priced houses than we did last year and
focus instead on building houses designed to sell at above $15000. Second, we should hire additional workers so that we can build a larger total number of houses than we did last year.
1. By citing Steel City’s population increase in order to argue for a
step-up in home construction, the speaker relies on certain unsubstantiated demographic assumption.
2. By citing Steel City’s fast-rising family-income level to support
the recommendation, the speaker relies on other tenuous assumptions: One such assumption is that area residents interested in buying new homes can afford homes priced over $15000.
3. Even if this firm builds and can sell expensive homes according to the president’s proposal, the firm’s profits would not necessarily
increase as a result.
24. In order to reduce costs, we should close some of our existing small assembly plants and build a large central plant. Grandview would be an ideal location for this new plant. First, of the locations that we have considered, GV has the largest adult population, so that we will be able to staff our plant quickly and easily. Since the average wage earned by workers in GV is less than that in the other locations, we should be able to keep production costs low. Last, as
an inducement for us to build there, GV’s town council has offered
to allow us to operate for the first three years without paying city taxes.
1. The fact that GV’s adult population is larger than that of any other locales under consideration is scant in itself to assert that GV would be the best location for VT.
2. The fact that the average earning of the Gv’s workers are
comparatively low does not necessarily mean that VT could minimize its labor costs by employing GV residents, as the president suggests.
3. A final problem with the argument involves GV’s willingness to
forego payment of property taxes for the first three years.
27. It has been to my attention that Sparks, the manufacturing company that just moved into our state, is advertising job openings at salaries that are twice as high as those paid to our experienced assembly-line workers. Some of our employees have already left to work for Sparks. In order to keep our best staff, we must pay them salaries equal to those Sparks pays its employees. Otherwise we will continue to lose employees in the future, because Sparks must staff the additional new plants that it plans to build in the state.
1. The memo does not indicate what kinds of jobs Sparks is now advertising-the ones for which salaries are to be twice those paid to Automate’s assembly-line workers.
2. The president assumes that the reason why some Automate workers have defected to Sparks is that Sparks has offered them higher salaries.
3. The president’s argument rests one the additional assumptions that the number of defectors is significant and that these defectors are valuable to Atomate.
4. The mere fact that Sparks plans to build additional new plants in the state amounts to scant evidence that Au will continue to lose valuable employees unless it raises their salaries.
140. Dating her seventeen years as a professor of botany, PT has proved herself to be well worth her annual salary of $50000. Her classes are among the largest at the university, demonstrating her popularity among students. Moreover, the money she has brought to the university in research grants has exceeded her salary in each of the last two years. Therefore, in consideration of PT’s demonstrated
teaching and research abilities, we recommend that she receive a $10000 raise and a promotion to Department Chairperson; without such a raise and promotion, we fear that PT will leave ELM for
1. The assumption that the popularity of PT’s classes is attributable
to her effectiveness as a teacher overlooks other possible reasons for the popularity of these classes.
2. The mere fact that the amount of grant money PT attracted to the university last year exceeded her salary proves nothing about either her teaching abilities or her research abilities.
3. The report provides no evidence whatsoever regarding the likelihood the PT would leave the University if she is not granted the proposed raise and promotion.
143. Your recent article on corporate downsizing in the United States is misleading. The article gives the mistaken impression that many competent workers who lost jobs as a result of downsizing face serious economic hardship, often for years, before finding other suitable employment. But this impression is contradicted by a recent report on the United States economy, which found that since 1992 far more job have been created than that have been eliminated. The report also demonstrates that many of those who lost their jobs have found new employment. Two-thirds of the newly created jobs have been in industries that tend to pay above-average wages, and the vast
majority of these jobs are full-time.
1. The editorial overlooks the possibility that most of the newly created jobs since 1992 are not suitable for job seekers downsized by corporations.
2. The term “many” is far too vague to allow for any meaningful
3. The third finding would lend support to the author’s position only
under two assumptions: (1) that the newly created jobs in those high-paying industries are suitable for downsized corporate employees, and (2) that the new jobs are among the high-paying ones.
146. The librarians in our town’s school system have reported that
the number of trips that our students make to their school library on a voluntary basis has decreased significantly in recent years. For example, the average seventh-grade student visited the school library five times a year, but four of those visits were part of required classroom activities. This shows that our students are reading less than in the past. To address this problem, our town needs to improve the atmosphere of the libraries so that they will be comfortable places in which to work. If students view the libraries as