The application of the teaching mode plays an unusual role in the student’s learning
career. The teaching mode comes from the practice of teaching, but also makes the abstract theory to exert its practice function, it is an important media. Using the correct teaching mode to guide the students to study has become the most important part in the process of education. Until 1980, American scholars Joyce and Weir, generalized 23 kinds of teaching mode on the basis of analyze and research on more than 80 kinds of theories and schools, the model of self-regulated learning is just one of them. While under situation of the world’s
education developing faster than before, the model of learning for students in high schools grasp more scholar’s attention. Since the 60’s of last century, the model of teaching
self-regulated learning become to spread around the world. There are already many representative theories and many successful achievements today.
Here according to the concept of self-regulated learning (SRL) and its developed process, we will know more about this teaching model. This essay totally divided into 3 parts: the first part is a briefly introduction for the basic concept; then the second part is the instructional model; while from the instructional model that I make a survey in the high school shows that this model will obviously improve students score.; at last I will tell something about my personal opinion on how to improve student’s ability of self-regulated
learning. All of that can prove one thing: this model can be widely used in high schools.
1. A Brief Introduction of SRL
1.1 The conception and theory of SRL
Gary D. Boris, who comes from United States, has point out that self-regulated learning is not only a teaching method, but also a way of learning in a book which called Effective
Teaching Methods. The model of self-regulated learning (SRL) can make students enter the learning process on their own initiative, to achieve higher levels of the complex behavior. This learning model can also help students to form their own ways of understanding, moreover, will be helpful for students to reasoning the contending, solving problems and make a critical thinking (Zhong 121).
First of all, let me make an introduction of two conceptions. Cognition, it is such a psychological process that it can help students to internalize what they have learned through their understanding, to thinking and to make a memory. This includes self-asking, self-testing, self-supervising skills of thinking and to classify and remember what they have learned. Teacher’s regulating, in order to meet the learning needs of the students’
individuation, to adjust the complex contend. The teacher’s regulated can make a correctly judge of the higher level of the complex situation then the students can gain a lot from it.
The main theories of self-regulated based on the lifelong leaning and creative learning. It is known to all that the future’s society is a world which full of challenge and lasting
changing, it is still a society which needs lifelong learning and continues innovation. Early in the 60s of last century, some famous scholars had come up with the new conceptions of lifelong learning and creative leaning. The UNESCO also write the learn how to learn into related documents, treat it as the basic fundamental conception.
1.2 The current situation of SRL
Some developed countries in the world began a big reform in the education fields since the late fifties of the last century, and the effect of the reform influence many countries by the way of the education’s objectives, contents, methods and concept in many aspects. When
entering 80s of the last century, many countries are began to study the problems of education reform, then their study make the teaching theory concepts and methods updated a
lot. Psychology research has been widely used in education reform, which makes the teaching theory more psychology. Here are some famous theories, such as Rogers’s “learner
centered education”, Kanmubosi’s theory of “teachers should become facilitators during the
process of the education”, Zimmerman's “the circle model of self-regulated learning” (Zhong
47). In addition, the humanistic psychology also focused on the students must know how to learn by themselves.
Under the background of the international’s education reform, the model of the
self-regulated learning (SRL) has been writing into the “Ninth Five-Year Plan” of our
country, and treat this model as an very important research content. It indicate that the importance of this model become a common view in the theoretical field. Therefore, to deepen its research, confirm the meaning and status in the education process become very necessary. The Institute of psychology in china initially design and practice the self-teaching experiment in 60’s of last century. Then at the end of the 70’s, after experiencing a long
period of research, the Yucai Middle School in Shanghai has first began a new experiment and research aiming at insuring the main status of the students and to arouse the students interest and their initiative, to develop student’s thinking and train their abilities of
self-learning, The way of self-teaching absorbs the rational component of the psychologist Skinner's learning theory. Also absorbed cognitive found that spirit, stressed and emphasis on the students’ initiative and learning ability.
UNESCO published a book which called “Learning to Live”, it said that, “The future’s
illiteracy is not a kind of people who do not have knowledge, but those who do not know how to learn by themselves” (Zhong 54). The lifelong learning will not in school and there’s
no teacher accompany with you, all that depends on one person's self-learning ability. From that we can know, the ability of self-learning has become the basic ability of human in a new world.
The self-regulated learning ideas can be traced back to the whole modern education which influenced by Dewey’s “make the high school” and the United States’ individual
teaching in the 20-30 years of the 20th century. However, a systematic practice is something after the 60’s .On the one hand, the aim of the ideological and the flexible module
scheduling is divided the learning time into many different units in order to adapt to the individual difference, some part of the time in accordance with the students’ capacity,
interest, and needs to start the self-regulated learning. They can choose the learning content and make a decision of the learning pace by themselves. On the other hand, in No-graded
student’s academic knowledge and to master the individual-based Institution, in order to add
skills, after the adoption of certain tests, allowing students to learn at their own pace, and select the content of materials themselves.
Afterwards, the model of self- regulated learning used in the education which related to self-directed learners. This kind of teaching included plan and non-directive institution.
The plan is made by the American Institute for Research and the Westinghouse Learning Corporation; it is a special teaching system. While the plan is such a self-regulated model which facing to the primary and middle school. Therefore, it has following the idea of self-regulated learning to teach already. The education which treated the student as the core, need to provide help for student to solve its teaching target firstly. Make a plan of their aim and be responsible for them. Moreover uses the proper method to obtain their achievements. And teaching goals should according to the student’s performance objective.
The non-directive institution was set by the principles of humanism; it is a distinctive type in individual teaching. This principle is emphasizing the basic condition for individual development according to the interpersonal relationship. Similarly, this principle also treat student as the center, teaching methods and content decided by each student’s experiences,
intentions, needs, feelings, interests, etc. Teachers still are the facilitator, while students stand in the dominant position. Under the teacher’s directions to choose their own target,
content and method according to their hobbies and interests. Learn to think independently and make self-evaluation on their result. When refer to the method, the guiding principles of non-directive pay more attention to the confluent education. This principle divided into five steps: Set the problem situation to help. Deep explore of the problems, encourage students to find the problems, teachers help to clarify the students feel. Develop the students thinking. Teachers help students make decisions on their learning plan. Integrate. Student should to learn initially.
Until now, the general definition of self-regulated is: the learner learns how to learn and form the ability of controlling their learning. Thus, the literal meaning of the self-regulated learning, is that treat the students as the key part, self-regulated involves awareness of effective thinking and analyses of one’s own thinking habits, then according the way of
students’ independent analysis, explosion, practice, query and creation or some other
methods to achieve their learning goals. The model of self-regulated learning is a modern way which corresponding to the traditional learning.
1.3 The development of SRL
In the 70’s of last century, self-regulated learning has been widely used in many countries. For the teachers and student’s attitude of this teaching model, it has experienced
from passive to active acceptance process. After that the student’s self-concept has been
improved a lot and obtains the richer learning experience and skills. After familiar with this mode, the students’ score of their school work obviously higher than those who still in traditional study mode. This teaching model had affected Philadelphia, Chicago, New York, Portman, Atlanta and many other cities, schools, and then spread to other countries.
In the 80’s of last century, self-regulated learning as an effective individualized teaching mode has been continue study and spread by many scholars. DelamsF.Miller and many other people summarize the general characteristics of autonomous learning. One, self-regulated learning is an individual learning which based on the student’s needs. Two,
the model of self-regulated learning can use different ways to apply for all the primary schools and middle schools even high schools. Three, this model propose the students take part in actively. Four, this model has the same characteristic of far away education.
Current world trends in education shown that, the self-regulated learning model had become a main characteristic in high school’s teaching. That means to a large extent,
students and adults learning to become a major feature. That is, to a large extent, the merits of student’s academic achievement, the degree of learning effective, that all depends on the learning activity of a student. This is because the high school students are characterized by autonomous self-concept, and can learn by themselves.
According to the incomplete statistics, in Britain, the United States, Canada and other country’s adults’ institutionalized learning, there are 70% of the students study by
themselves. Design their own learning process; select the self-study materials and complete their education through self-struggle to achieve teaching objectives. Therefore, from the contemporary trend, the future direction of development of world education is the self learning. Through various media to learn by self, still be the main form and essence. This is the necessary product of economic progress and technology development.
2. The Instructional Model of SRL
2.1 A research made by Pang Weiguo
Many scholars have made research for SRL, here I find a research made by Pang Weiguo, according to this, I made a research which imamate his research. First let me tell something about his research.
There is a famous scholar, Pang Weiguo; he is the professor of the psychology department in East China Normal University. He had made a research on self-regulated learning model. He considered that self-regulated learning usually refers to the individual person to make a learning target by its own consciousness, to make a learning program, to select the methods of learning, to monitor the process of learning, to evaluate the learning result and the ability of learning.
The model of self-regulated learning not only makes the students benefit much from education of their school life, but also make an necessary psychological foundation for their lifelong.
In Pang Weiguo’s study, he pointed out that until the high school stage, our countries students learning ability still much poor. While one of the main reasons is the integration of the theory of the self-regulated learning model is insufficient, when refers to the inner relation and the common regulation behind them, they had lack so much consideration. Pang Weiguo adopted the method of group experiment in his research, and he makes a compare of the student’s self-regulated learning ability and their learning scores, and is suitable for promotion.
On the research of non-guidance teaching mode made by Carl Rogers, he has referred such a passage that “People are not passive; they are desperately to fulfill their dreams. To uncover the visage of people, their original wish is to gain respect and acceptance when they communicate with others, moreover, to fulfill their achievement (Shang 74).”
While, when the model of self-regulated learning compare to the traditional teaching mode, it has put forward the effect of the values that has already been ignored during the teaching mode and the important meaning to establish the new relationship between the
teachers and student.
The concept of self-regulated learning and its related theories appeared after 50s last century, people had gone through a process from never consciously to self-consciously. And this teaching model provides a new vision for the research of teaching theories, which is more systematic and completed.
When students entered in high schools, their self-regulated ability began to improve day by day. How to grasp this stage played an important role in the long-run development of our countries education and the student’s study career.
The model of self-regulated learning is not generated overnight. It often need more verification, modify, in the process of theories and practice, it has experienced the operated roles of practice-mode-theory-mode-practice and the mechanisms. So, as far as I’m
concerned, the model of self-regulated learning is not only a kind of teaching mode, because it has includes more about the teaching notion, it is more the achievement of many scholars.
2.2 A research of a high school in Suihua
To imitate Pang Weiguo’s research, here is an instructional model I made it myself. My research has chosen 2 grades from a high school in Suihua. The chosen principle is the learning level of the students from the EC (short for experiment class) and the students from the CC (short for compare class) are almost the same before this experiment.
This experiment divided into 2 stages. The first stage is the theory learning and training. This stage totally use 2 weeks and the mission is to training the experiment teacher in order to make the teachers familiar with the model of self-regulated learning. Then the second stage is the true experiment.
Information of the students Table 2.1
Class EC CC EC CC
Boy 22 21 23 20
Girl 18 17 18 19
Average age 16.4 16.6 17.5 17.3
This table is something of the basic information of this research. From this table we can see the numbers of the students and their average age.
Table 2.2 The researches before training
MotivatContent Time Method Process Result Environment Score
EC 47.08 28.68 28.40 65.67 28.50 40.60 18.27 258.23
CC 43.95 26.85 25.58 61.28 25.67 36.69 16.05 226.10
EC 50.04 29.62 27.68 66.50 28.57 40.53 18.15 261.68
CC 43.32 26.56 24.74 61.05 25.97 36.82 16.16 256.79
From the Table 2.2 we can find that from the grade one to grade 2 in this high school, the experiment class students, who use the way of self-learning get a high average score than the compare class. While when we talk about this table, I had to refer the questionnaire: I make small survey, each paper contained 30 questions. According to the questions I attained the data above.
Table 2.3 The scores after training
Grade 1 Grade 2
Chi. Ma. English Chem. Chinese Ph. Bio. Pol.
EC X 55.55 71.50 66.13 61.87 64.89 69.28 68.92 76.20
S 9.51 12.30 8.93 13.12 10.29 12.89 11.61 5.66
CC X 62.08 68.79 58.79 59.74 64.11 60.97 76.00 69.71
S 8.02 12.21 9.70 13.06 8.82 11.39 10.33 6.08
Chi short for Chinese; Ph short for physics, Chem. short for chemistry. Ma. short for math; Bio short for biology; Pol. short for politics. While from the Table2.3 we will see in the grade 1 of the school, the experiment class’s student’s score in math is higher than the
compare class. So does the grades 2.And we also know that from the Table2.3, the experiment class from grade 1 of the high school, their math and chemistry are higher than the compare class. In grade 2 of the high school, the experiment class’s Chinese, physics and politics score are higher than the compare class.
And from the entire table above we will make a conclusion that the student’s score have
obviously related to the self-regulated learning ability.
2.3 The specific analysis about SRL
According to the tables, it indicates that follows the model of self-regulated learning, will improve the students self-learning ability to some degree.
In high schools, the students who come from experiment class, their ability of initiative are higher than those who come from compare class. The reason may be with the strengthening of the ability and independent realize of the high school students, they will be boring with the teacher’s teaching. They hope there will be more time for their free learning. While this model of self-regulated learning has just satisfied their needs to this aspect. So teaching self-regulated learning in high schools might be an effective way.
From the result of the research we will see, firstly, to a certain degree, not only the model for teaching self-regulated learning in high schools can improve the students’ ability of self-regulated learning, but also make the standard of the score improve a lot. Secondly, this model can easily be accepted and mastered by teachers. Moreover, the model also can be widely used in different subjects. To make a conclusion, the model for teaching self-regulated learning can be practiced in high schools.
Such we can see, self-regulated learning is a modern study method which corresponds to the traditional learning method of adoption learning. Treat the students as the main body during learning process. According to the students’ abilities of analysis, explore, practice,
query, creation and others to achieve the final target of study. Let the teaching goal of “teaching him to fish better than give him a fish” comes true.