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Pacakers - Notes on ICU Nursing

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Pacakers - Notes on ICU Nursing

Liquidity Ratios: Short-Term Solvency

Current Ratio

    _______________________________________________

    2002 2001

    Current assets

    Current liabilities

    _______________________________________________

     The current ratio is a commonly used measure of short-run solvency the ability of a

    firm to meet its short-term debt requirements as they come due. The available cash resources to satisfy these obligations must come primarily from cash or the conversion to cash of other current assets such as accounts receivable and inventories. Accounts receivable and inventory may not be truly liquid. A firm could have a relatively high current ratio but not be able to meet demands for cash because the accounts receivable are of inferior quality or the inventory is salable only at discounted prices.

Quick Ratio

    _____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Current assets inventory

    Current liabilities

    _____________________________________________________

     The quick ratio is a more rigorous test of short-run solvency that the current ratio because the numerator eliminates inventory, considered the least liquid current asset and the most likely source of losses.

Cash Flow Liquidity Ratio

    ______________________________________________________________

     2002 2001 a Cash + Mkt. Securities + CFO

    Current liabilities

    ______________________________________________________________ aCash flow from operating activities

     Another approach to measuring short-term solvency is the cash-flow liquidity ratio, which considers cash flow from operating activities (from the statement of cash flows). The cash flow liquidity ratio uses in the numerator (as an approximation of cash resources) cash and marketable securities, which are truly liquid current assets; and cash flow from operating activities, which represents the amount of cash generated from the firm’s operations, such as the ability to sell inventory and collect the cash. It is helpful to compare this ratio to the current and quick ratios. Contradictory pictures between this ratio and other liquidity ratios should be investigated thoroughly because, ultimately,

    companies need cash to pay high bills. High current and quick ratios combined with low or negative cash flow liquidity ratios could signal problems.

Cash Flow From Operation

    One of the most important numbers in all of the financial statements is Cash Flow From Operations. It is important to evaluate a firm’s success over time by identifying the underlying causes for the trends and the fluctuations of a firm’s cash from operations.

    The relative comparisons of cash provided from operations and the net income over time will frequently give an indication if the company is managing earnings. One of the best indications of earnings management is when the growth of net income is up and smooth and the trend of cash from operations is not. Over time these numbers should track in the same manner. The cash flow from operations are taken directly from the cash flow statement.

Accounts Receivable Turnover

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Net sales

    Accounts receivable

    ____________________________________________________

Inventory Turnover

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Cost of goods sold

    Inventory

    ____________________________________________________

Payables Turnover

    ______________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Cost of goods sold

    Accounts payable

    ______________________________________________________

     The accounts receivable, inventory, and payables turnover ratios measure how many times, on average, accounts receivable are collected in cash, inventory is sold, and payables are paid during the year. These three measures are mathematical complements to the ratios that make up the net trade cycle, and therefore, measure exactly what the average collection period, days inventory held, and days payable outstanding measure for a firm; they provide an alterative way to look at the same information.

Average Collection Period

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

Accounts receivable

    Average daily sales

    ____________________________________________________

     The average collection period for accounts receivable is the average number of days required to convert receivables into cash. This ratio helps gauge the liquidity of accounts receivable the ability of the firm to collect from customers. It may also provide information about a company’s credit policies. For example, if the average collection

    period is increasing over time of is higher than the industry average, the firm’s credit policies could be too lenient and accounts receivable not sufficiently liquid. The loosening of credit could be necessary at times to boost sales, but at an increasing cost to the firm. On the other hand, if credit policies are too restrictive, as reflected in an average collection period that is shortening and less than industry competitors, the firm may be losing qualified customers.

Days Inventory Held

    __________________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Inventory

    Average daily cost of sales

    __________________________________________________________

     The days inventory held is the average number of days it takes to sell inventory to customers. This ratio measures the efficiency of the firm in managing its inventory. Generally, a low number of days inventory held is a sign of efficient management; the faster inventory sells, the fewer funds are tied up in inventory. However, too low a number could indicate understocking and lost orders, a decrease in prices, a shortage of materials, or more sales than planned. A high number of days inventory held could be the result of carrying too much inventory or stocking inventory that is obsolete, slow-moving, or inferior, such as increased demand, expansion, or an expected strike.

Days Payable Outstanding

    _________________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Accounts payable

    Average daily cost sales

    _________________________________________________________

     The days payable outstanding is the average number of days the firm takes to pay accounts payable in cash. This ratio offers insight into a firm’s pattern of payments to

    suppliers. An optimal strategy is to delay payment of payables as long as possible but still make payment by the due date in order to avoid finance charges.

Net Trade Cycle

    _________________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Average collection period

    + days inventory held

    - days payable outstanding

    _________________________________________________________

     The net trade cycle measures the normal cash conversion cycle of a firm which

    consists of buying or manufacturing inventory, with some purchases on credit (creation of accounts payable); selling inventory, with some sales on credit (creation of accounts receivable)’ and collecting cash from accounts receivable. Changes in the net trade cycle help explain why cash flow generation has improved or deteriorated by analyzing the key working capital accounts accounts receivable, inventory, and accounts payable. The shorter the net trade cycle, the more efficient the firm is in managing its cash.

Activity Ratios:

    Asset Liquidity and Asset Management Efficiency

Fixed Asset Turnover

    _______________________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Net sales

    Net property, plant, and equipment

    _______________________________________________________________

Total Asset Turnover

    _____________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Net sales

    Total assets

    _____________________________________________

     The fixed asset turnover and total asset turnover ratios are two approaches to assessing management’s effectiveness in generating sales from investments in assets. The fixed asset turnover considers only the firm’s investment in property, plant, and equipment, and is extremely important for a capital-intensive firm, such as a manufacturer with heavy investments in long-lived assets. Generally, the higher these ratios, the smaller the investment required to generate sales and thus the more profitable the firm. When the asset turnover ratios are low relative to the industry or the firm’s historical record, either the investment in assets is too heavy and/or sales are sluggish. There may, however, be plausible explanations; for example, the firm may have undertaken and extensive plant modernization or placed assets in service at year-end, which will generate positive results in the long-term.

Leverage ratios: Debt Financing and Coverage

Amount of Debt

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

This number is taken directly for the balance sheet.

Debt Ratio (Debt to Asset Ratio)

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Total liabilities

    Total assets

    ____________________________________________________

Long-term Debt to Total Capitalization

    ______________________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Long-term debt

    Long-term debt + stockholder's equity

    ______________________________________________________________

Debt to Equity

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Total liabilities

    Stockholder's equity

    ____________________________________________________

     Each of the three debt ratios measures the extent of the firm's financing with debt. The amount and proportion of debt in a company's capital structure is important to the financial analyst because of thee tradeoff between risk and return. Use of debt involves risk because debt carries a fixed commitment in the form of interest charges and principal repayment. Failure to satisfy the fixed charges associated with debt ultimately results in bankruptcy. A lesser risk is that a firm with too much debt has difficulty obtaining additional debt financing when needed or finds that credit is available only at extremely high rates of interest. Although debt implies risk, it also introduces the potential for increased benefits to the firm's owners.

     The debt ratio considers the proportion of all assets that are financed with debt. The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization reveals the extent to which long-term debt is used for the firm's permanent financing (both long-term debt and equity). The debt to equity ratio measures the overall riskiness of the firm's capital structure in terms of the relationship between the funds supplied by creditors (debt) and investors (equity). The

    higher the proportion of debt, the greater the degree of risk because creditors must be satisfied before owners in the event of bankruptcy. The equity base provides, in effect, a cushion of protection for the suppliers of debt.

Times Interest Earned

    _____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Operating profit

    Interest expense

    _____________________________________________________

Cash Interest Coverage

    _________________________________________________________________

     2002 2001 aCFO + interest paid + taxes paid

    Interest paid

    _________________________________________________________________ aThe amounts for interest paid and taxes paid are found in the supplemental disclosures of the statement of cash flows.

     In order for a firm to benefit from debt financing, the fixed interest payments that accompany debt must be more than satisfied from operating earnings. Generally the higher the times interest earned ratio, the better the firm's situation; however, if a company is generating high profits but no cash flow from operations, this ratio is misleading. It takes cash to make interest payments! The cash interest coverage ratio measures how many times interest payments can be covered by cash flow from operations before interest and taxes.

Fixed Charge Coverage

    _________________________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Operating profit + rent expense

    Interest expense + rent expense

    _________________________________________________________________

     The fixed charge coverage ratio is a broader measure of coverage capability than the times interest earned ratio because it includes the fixed payments associated with operating leases. Lease payments, more commonly referred to as rest expense in the notes, are added back in the numerator because they were deducted as an operating expense to calculate operating profit. Lease payments are similar in nature to interest expense in that they both represent obligations that must be met on an annual basis. The fixed charge coverage ratio is important for firms that operate extensively with operating leases.

Cash Flow Adequacy

    _________________________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    CFO

    Capital expenditures + debt

    Repayments + dividends paid

    _________________________________________________________________

     The cash flow adequacy ratio measures how well a company can cover annual payments of items such as debt, capital expenditures, and dividends from operating cash flow. Cash flow adequacy is generally defined differently by analysts and credit rating agencies; therefore, it is important to understand what is actually being measured. For example, this ratio could be adjusted to include only debt, both debt and lease payments, or any other combination of items the analyst deemed necessary to lease payments, or any other combination of items the analyst deemed necessary to evaluate the adequacy of cash to meet the firm's needs. It is desirable for companies to generate enough cash flow from operations to cover repayments of debt, some new capital expenditures, and any cash dividends paid.

Profitability Ratios: Overall Efficiency and Performance

Amount of Gross Profit

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

Gross Profit Margin

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Gross profit

    Net sales

    ____________________________________________________

Amount of Operating Profit Margin

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

Operating Profit Margin

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Operating profit

    Net sales

    ____________________________________________________

Net Profit Margin

    ____________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Net profit

    Net sales

    ____________________________________________________

     Gross profit margin, operating profit margin, and net profit margin represent the firm's ability to translate sales dollars into profits at different stages of measurement. The gross profit margin, which shows the relationship between sales and the cost of products sold, measures the ability of a company both to control costs of inventories or manufacturing of products and to pass along price increases through sales to customers. The operating profit margin, a measure of overall operating efficiency, incorporates all of the expenses associated with ordinary business activities. The net profit margin measures profitability after consideration of all revenue and expense, including interest, taxes, and nonoperating items.

Cash Flow Margin

    ______________________________________________

     2002 2001

    CFO

    Net sales

    ______________________________________________

     Another important perspective on operating performance is the relationship between cash generated from operations and sales. As pointed out in Chapter 4, it is cash, not accrual-measured earnings, that a firm needs to service debt, pay dividends, and invest in new capital assets. The cash flow margin measures the ability of the firm to translate sales into cash.

Return of Assets (ROA) or Return on Investment (ROI)

    __________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Net profit

    Total assets

    __________________________________________________

Return on Equity (ROE)

    ______________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    Net profit

    Stockholder’s equity

    ______________________________________________________

     Return on assets and return on equity are two ratios that measure the overall efficiency of the firm in managing its total investment in assets indicates the amount of profit earned relative to the level investment in total assets indicates the amount of profit earned relative to the level to common shareholders; this ratio is also calculated as return on common equity if a firm has preferred stock outstanding.

Cash Return on Assets

    _________________________________________________

     2002 2001

    CFO

    Total assets

    _________________________________________________

     The cash return on assets offers a useful comparison to return on assets. Again, the relationship between cash generated from operations and an accrual-based number allows the analyst to measure the firm’s cash-generating ability of assets. Cash is required for

    future investments.

Marker Ratios

    Although a sophisticated investment analysis is beyond the scope of our analysis, several of the following common market ratios are of interest to investors. In many respects these ratios are a scorecard on what the investing public thinks of the future of the company.

Basic Earnings Per Common Share- Regular

    _________________________________________________

     2002 2001

     Net Income Available To Common Stockholders

     Average Number of Common Shares and Common Stock Equivalents

Earnings Per Common Share- Diluted

    _________________________________________________

     2002 2001

     Net Income Available To Common Stockholders + Interest On Dilutive Securities

     Average Number of Common Shares and Common Stock Equivalents-assuming a

     all dilutive securities are converted to common stock

Earnings Per Share- Regular

    _________________________________________________

     2002 2001

     Net Income

     Number of Common Shares and Common Stock Equivalents

Dividend Payout Ratio

    _________________________________________________

     2002 2001

     Cash Dividends

     Net Income

Price to Earnings Ratio

    _________________________________________________

     2002 2001

     Market Price of Stock

     Net Income

     Earnings Per Share is often used in evaluating a firm’s stock price and in assessing the firm’s future earnings and ability to pay dividends. The earnings per share ratio is so important that it is required to be put on the face of the income statement. EPS is a compact indicator of a company’s performance. Entities with simple capital structures will have only Basic Earnings Per Share. If a company has outstanding stock options, warrants, convertible securities, or contingent stock agreements are required to show both numbers on the face of the statement. The Dividend Payout Ratio gives the investor an indication of how much of a cash dividend to expect. The Price Earnings Ratio indicates how much investors are willing to pay for each dollar of earnings. It is not a financial statement ratio, it is a market ratio. This ratio is an indication of expected growth. A relatively high Price Earnings Ratio indicates that investors are expecting high growth.

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