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-description for Gallery 1

    Early experimental psychology has its root on neighboring scientific disciplines, especially physiology and physics. Wundt’s main research interests reflect the academic atmosphere of this early experimental psychology. A majority of research work conducted in Wundt’s lab concerns topics of psychophysics and sensations, suggesting that Wundt was strongly influenced by the main leaders of early experimental psychology, Fechner and Helmholtz.

    Fechner pointed out that progress in investigations of psychophysical problems has been accompanied by a growing demand for the production of uniform and precisely controlled sensory stimuli in all of the sensory provinces (for example, devices producing sounds whose loudness can be varied [Fallphonometer], photometers, weights for

    experiments on sensations of tactile pressure, and so on). Another important topic for research is sensation quality, particularly with respect to the specification of the individual sensory modalities involved. Therefore, it is natural that Wundt’s lab was equipped with various and sophisticated instruments which addresses the main focus of psychophysical and sensational studies.

    The inventory of psychological apparatus that is used in acoustic experiments is clearly different from that associated with laboratory work in physics and physiology. For example, the Leipzig laboratory has a set of tuning forks which range in a large number

    of small steps from tones of 32 vibrations to 2,024 vibrations; from 2,024 vibrations upwards, the tuning forks range by rather larger steps up to 60,000 vibrations, including the use of small tuning forks and pipes for those tones known from earlier research to be clearly audible. This set of tuning forks was manufactured partly in the workshops of R. König in Paris, and partly by G. and A. Appun in Hanau. In addition, the laboratory possesses a so-called Appun tone measurer [Tonmesser] that can respond to the

    frequencies of reed-pipe tones between 32 and 1,024 vibrations inclusive, and an overtone apparatus that can respond to each of the 60 overtones associated with a low C (32 vibrations). There are also several devices for studying chords produced by lip- or tongue-operated pipes, devices whereby individual difference tones and overtones can be amplified.

    Wundt’s lab also possesses, in addition to the usual photometric apparatus, a larger apparatus for the splitting and mixing of the colors of the prismatic spectrum, as well as a Helmholtz color-mixer (located in room 4), etc.

    Another category of apparatus concerns physiology, but the instruments are occasionally modified so as to be appropriate for specific purposes related to psychology. These include apparatus for the graphical representation of the pulse rate, the breathing rate, and any variations in blood vessel volume that are associated with the innervations of those vessels. Also deserving of special mention are several instruments used in analogous experiments involving vocalization, notably a recording device that represents the throat movements produced during vocalization. The device has been described by Krueger and Wirth. All of this instrumentation, especially the plethysmographic, sphygmographic,

    and pneumographic recording devices, are used under very specific conditions that are determined by the psychological application in question; they serve as the main means whereby physiological signs associated with feelings and affects can be measured. Tuning Forks -- 1-1

     Tuning Forks generated constant, sound wave frequencies and were made of highly tempered metal. The set shown in the picture was made later than 1909, but provided one example how tuning forks look like. The turning fork set in the picture provided a very small range of frequencies, approximately 1/3 of a semi-tone. A - 435 served as the standard. Such a set would have been ideal for testing auditory discrimination of similar frequencies.

    Tuning forks were also used to test the upper and lower thresholds of auditory perception. thDavis and Merzbach (1975) note the competition amongst 19 century acoustical

    instrument makers to produce tuning forks that corresponded to the limits of human perception. In addition to studies in auditory perception, psychophysical laboratories employed tuning forks as standard timing devices.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: Stimulus presentation device

    Stimulus:

    System: Sound

    Output:

Wundt-Style Stroboscope --1-2

    (Stroboskop nach Wundt.)

    This stroboscope has 8 image holders mounted by spring-held clips on 8 radial pipes and which can be placed at any distance from 21 to 51 cm from the central axis about which the images revolve. The rotation axis can be moved through 90 deg in order to vary the presentation. The image holders are driven with an electrical motor or other suitable source. In order to make the placement secure, the device is mounted on a heavy plate and it can be attached to a table top with clamps. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt). This device can be used to mental chronometry study or memory study as a stimulus presentation device.

    (Source: None given.)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 121). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: Stimulus presentation device

    Stimulus:

System: Vision

    Output:

Heliostat 1-3

    The picture is an example of the heliostat which designed in 1843 by the Frenchman J. T. Silbermann in 1843. The system is adjusted to make the rotating shaft attached to the clockwork motor on the right-hand side parallel to the rotation axis of the earth. Gears give a second, perpendicular motion to the mirror to direct the sunlight in the desired direction.

Helmholtz Color Mixer (Helmholtz' electromagnetic rotator) 1-4

    (Elektromagnetischer Rotations-Apparat nach Helmholtz)

    An early version of a direct-current open-frame electric motor which has a constant speed when rotating and which is capable of varying speeds. The rotation speed is varied through use of a governor. This device could be used for color mixing by turning a pulley which drives a color mixer through a pulley. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt).

    (Source:Herman Helmholtz, illustrated as plate XLIX in Cyon, E. v. (1876). Atlas zur

    Methodik der physiologischen Experimente und Vivisectionen: LIV Tafeln in Holzschnitt.

    Giessen: J. Ricker'sche Buchhandlung.)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 6). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: component

    Stimulus: N/A

    System: N/A

    Output: N/A

    Wundt-style kymograph for experimental plethysmography. 1-5

    (Kymographion nach Wundt zu plethysmographischen versuchen.)

    This kymograph is claimed to suitable for plethysmographical experiments since it is absolutely soundless. It can run up to a speed of 100 mm/sec, and thus complete a record in 5 seconds or move more slowly. The speed regulation is through settable wind-vanes, through changing the friction drive (which appears to be much smaller than typical for a Baltzar-type kymograph), and through placement of weights (on shafts connected to the spring motor?). Vertical arrow-marks can be placed at any point on the record through a sled-like holder which can be moved up or down to any point on the drum. (Expanded

caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt)

    (Source: None given.)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 65). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: component

    Stimulus: marker and plethysmographic signals

    System: N/A

    Output: Extended graphical record of continuous amplitude

Section 2

    

    Reaction time studies that concern accurate measurement of human mental processes were one of the earliest and most important experiments in experimental psychology. It measured how long it takes an individual to respond to different stimuli. Interests in the measurement of human reaction time first began in the field of physiology. Affected by Dutch physiologist F.C. Donders (1865) who was interested in measuring time needed for human mental processes, Wundt conducted mental chronometry study which concerns measuring reaction time of various human mental processes and calculating time of metal processes involved through the subtraction method.

    This category of apparatus frequently refers to instruments for mental chronometry. Mental chronometry is a type of study that is aimed to measure the processing time for various mental processes, and is a broad term that includes reaction time studies and time-sense studies. In the particular context of psychological research, these instruments have undergone development in several widely differing directions. First type of apparatus includes chronograph, which may be categorized as being analogous, in its

    principles of operation, to the graphic recording devices. It permits the measurement of extremely small time intervals all the way down to 1/10,000 of a second, even granted that the limiting values of those time intervals may vary in their general range with the type of experiment (sometimes they are positive, sometimes negative). The Institute owns an older instrument of this kind that was constructed by the technician K. Krille and a more recent version constructed by the current technician for the Institute, E. Zimmermann. Three Hipp chronoscopes were also available, two older and one more

    recent, as well as the necessary accessories that go with them. All of these time-measuring devices were utilized in the context of reaction’ experiments, with their various modifications, to measure the time elapsing from the moment a stimulus has its effect on an observer to the moment at which a voluntary reaction is made by the observer to that stimulus; the researcher also takes a particular interest in the variety of

    psychological processes that may occupy the reaction interval. The calibration of these chronoscopes is facilitated by the use of the chronograph.

    Apparatus designed for the investigation of the mental representation of time can be added to these chronometric instruments. Among these are the varieties of so-called

    time-sense apparatus,’ all of which are designed to present sensory impressions (e.g., sound, visual stimuli) at precisely measured time intervals, at the same time as either keeping constant or systematically varying the intensity and the quality of each individual stimulus. The Institute possesses both a small and a large version of such an apparatus; both can be connected to a kymograph (ideally, a Baltzar kymograph); the larger version

    is particularly well suited for a wide variety of applications.

Wundt-style Chronograph (precision [event] timer) -2-1

    (Chronograph nach Wundt.)

    This device claims to be capable of time measurement to .0001 sec. It is a kymograph drum driven by a “powerful” spring motor and mounted horizontally on low-friction

    rollers. The speed regulation of the spring motor occurs through settable wind-vanes and the use of 60 Kg. Of lead weights, attached to a chain which runs through the spring motor housing. The timing occurs through the provision of a 500 Hz tuning fork which marks a sine wave on the roller with a period of .002 seconds. The tuning fork has an independent electromagnetic excitation source, presumably best supplied from a house/wall current, which is initiated by a secondary fork. The 620 mm circumference drum can be rotated in .1 sec, thus spreading out each of 50 cycles over 12.4 mm, and presumably permitting accurate measurement to .6 mm, giving the accuracy of .0001 sec. The apparatus includes a lever (H) which allows the drum and motor to be quickly stopped.

    In order to provide a time measurement which is longer than a few seconds, the writing-bristle moves in a spiral track on the paper. To do this, a counterbalanced sled-like device holds the writing-bristle which marks the cycles of the tuning fork on the carboned paper. Timed events are marked by one of three electromagnetically driven pens attached to the sled. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt)

    (Source: Wundt (190.). Physiologische Psychologie)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 66-67). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: Component, timing.

    Stimulus: N/A

System: N/A

    Output: time marking

Hipp Chronoscope 2-2

    Peyer & Favarger, Co., Neuchâtel, Switzerland, No.13919

    Purchased by James Mark Baldwin, University of Toronto, in the academic year, 1890-91, from Clay and Torbenson, Co., Philadelphia, $ 87.00.

    A chronoscope is driven by Clock-work, whose movement is regulated by a vibrating tongue. Tt is provided with two dials of 100 divisions each, one recording seconds and 10ths, the other 100ths and 1000ths (sigma). The movement of the pointers is started and stopped by means of a clutch actuated by electromagnets, and there are connections whereby the record may either be started by making the circuit and stopped by breaking it, or vice versa.(Expanded caption Copyright 1934, Warren)

    Researchers used the Hipp Chronoscope primarily as a timing device for reaction time experiments. Titchener (1915, p. 328) cautiously endorsed this instrument as a reliable and durable timing instrument. He would not claim, as did a contemporary, that the "best instrument for measuring reaction times is the Hipp Chronoscope" but was pleased that a fellow psychologist had the courage to do so.

    As Titchener hinted, the Hipp-Chronoscope was not free of controversy. Often the same person, under similar experimental conditions, registered differing reaction-time results. Psychologists viewed these timing discrepancies as an errors of the Hipp Chronoscope. To control error arising from the central timing device, various types of control instrument were used.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: Component, timing.

    Stimulus: N/A

    System: N/A

    Output: time making

Meumann's universal contact (large time-sense apparatus) 2-3

(Universalkontakt-Apparat (Grosser Zeitsinn-Apparat) nach Meumann.)

    This is Meumann's improvement of Wundt's time-sense (Zeitsinn) apparatus. It is supposedly shown with a motor to drive it. It is essentially a large flat disk, running on a low- friction (brass) cone. The purpose is to allow precise placement of switches to permit precise timing based on the rotation of this 28 cm (11 in) diameter wheel. There was apparently a good deal of controversy about how precise this could be made to be, since Schumann's Habilitation was a critique of Wundt's apparatus. Three Contact Pre-selectors (Kontakt-Vorrichtung) are shown in the inset. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt)

    (Source: Wundt, Physiologische Psychologie not otherwise specified.)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 54). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: component, timing, stimulus

    Stimulus: time signal

    System: time-sense

    Output: time judgment

Horizontal Kymograph, 1892 2-4

    maker, source: Charles Verdin, 7 rue Linne, Paris

    year made: 1892, No. 3040

    The Kymograph was used to record the temporal variations of any physiological or muscular process; it consists essentially of a revolving drum, bearing a record sheet (usually of smoked paper) on which a stylus or penpoint travels to and fro at right angles to the motion of the cylinder; the drum is rotated by a mechanism at a presumably uniform rate, or the rate is indicated by a time marker which registers on the sheet. In some types the record sheet surrounds the drum, which rotates spirally, to allow a continuous record at different levels of the sheet; in other cases the record sheet is a long roll. (Expanded caption Copyright 1934, Warren)

    Physiologists first used Kymographs for recording blood pressure. Experimental psychologists adopted the kymograph as an instrument for recording various time-related events: response times, stimulus presentations, muscle exertion and tuning fork vibrations. The three models on display in this exhibition were mechanically driven where a "governor" regulated the speed of the brass drum.

Wundt's Beat (making) Apparatus -------Gallery 2-5

(Taktier-Apparat nach Wundt)

    A drum, rotated by weights, turns in a complete circle in 4 seconds. Pins on the drum are set in rows at different distances so that placing the contact on the slider can select different time intervals and thus different intervals between contact closures. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt)

    (Source: None given.)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 53). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: component, timing, stimulus

    Stimulus: time signal

    System: time sense

    Output: time judgment

Section 3

    

    Relatively little attention was paid to the attention, memory, and association study in Wundt’s Lab. Although not the main focus of Wundt’s lab, there were several memory apparatus that were designed for qualitative and quantitative investigations into the processes of recognition and recall in Wundt’s Lab. The lab possessed more than two such devices built on principles first specified by Ranschburg and improved by Wirth.

    Tachistoscopic apparatus can be included not only in the category of sensation study but also in this study category. These are devices that allow simple sensory impressions (especially visual), or combinations thereof, to affect consciousness within a specified time interval. As a rule, this interval is small and precisely controlled in duration. To these belong the Fall tachistoscope incorporating Atwood’s device for controlling the

    speed, the rotation- and mirror-tachistoscopes constructed by W. Wirth that allow for the repetition of uniform or of deliberately varied impressions within a precisely fixed interval of time, and so on. All these machines can also be used for the purpose of rigorously investigating attention processes as they relate to the span of consciousness. The Institute also possesses other machines and collections of apparatus that could serve equally well for this attention purpose.

    Wirth's memory apparatus 3-1

    (Gedächtnisapparat nach Wirth)

    This apparatus was used for the presentation of verbal stimuli at variable rates. Illustrations show the closed and open box revealing the weight-driven motor used to move the strip on which the syllables or other materials are printed. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt)

(Source: Wundt, Philosophische Studien, XVIII, (4))

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 16). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: research

    Stimulus: syllables, words

    System: memory, vision

    Output: number of trials

Ranschburg Memory Device --3-2

    maker, source: Zimmermann, Liepzig

    year made, acquired: c. 1920

    The Ranschburg Memory Device presents a series of visual stimuli successively, at a specified rate, to be memorized. Symbols, letters, numbers are written on the white disk, and temporarily revealed through the exposure slot. The Disk is driven in discreet steps by an internal motor.

    Ranschburg invented this apparatus based on the work of Herman Ebbinghaus, the pioneer memory researcher. At Toronto, it was used primarily in the teaching laboratory. (Source: None given.)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 14). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: research

    Stimulus: syllables, words

    System: memory, vision

    Output: number of trials

Wundt-style tachistoscope 3-3

    (Tachistoskop nach Wundt)

    This is a device designed to present a visual stimulus for a very short adjustable exposure time by using a gravity operated falling shutter. The onset of the drop (fall) of the shutter is controlled by solenoids. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt) (Source: None given.)

Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 11). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: demonstration

    Stimulus: words, images

    System: vision

    Output: recognition

Wundt's pendulum apparatus for "Complication" studies -- 3-4

    (Pendel-Apparat für Komplikations-Versuche nach Wundt)

    This is like the original apparatus required for Wundt's complication experiment. The "complication" experiment required a subject to visually track the pointer moving across a large dial. The subject had to take either a visual or auditory set and respond to an auditory signal. When the subject had a visual set, the reaction time was longer, and Wundt argued that the task required a "voluntary" switching of attention. It was criticized by Drobisch in 1864. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt) (Source: Wundt's Physiologische Psychologie, not otherwise cited)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 21). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

    DESCRIPTORS:

    Type: research

    Stimulus: pointer position

    System: mental process

    Output: reaction time

    Ranschburg's apparatus for investigation of comprehension, association, and memory 3-5

    (Apparatus zur Untersuchung der Auffassung, Association, und des Gedächtnisses nach Ranschburg)

    This apparatus was used for the presentation of verbal stimuli at variable rates. The apparatus is shown with Römer's sound-key (switch) and a Hipp Chronoscope for measuring reaction time . In addition, there was a switch which was used for timing the stimulus presentations. (Expanded caption Copyright 1998, Edward J. Haupt) (Source: None given.)

    Source of illustration: Zimmermann, E. (1903). XVIII. Preis- Liste über psychologische

    und physiologische Apparate (p. 14). Leipzig: Eduard Zimmermann.

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