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The Trachiniae

By Warren Palmer,2014-11-30 10:36
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     430 BC

     THE TRACHINIAE

     by Sophocles

     transalated by R. C. Jebb

     CHARACTERS IN THE PLAY

     DEIANEIRA

     NURSE

     HYLLUS, son of HERACLES and DEIANEIRA

     MESSENGER

     LICHAS, the herald of HERACLES

     HERACLES

     AN OLD MAN

     CHORUS OF TRACHINIAN MAIDENS

     THE TRACHINIAE

     (SCENE:- At Trachis, before the house of HERACLES.

     Enter DEIANEIRA from the house, accompanied by the NURSE.)

     DEIANEIRA

    THERE is a saying among men, put forth of old, that thou canst not rightly judge whether a mortal's lot is good or evil, ere he die. But I, even before I have passed to the world of death, know well that my life is sorrowful and bitter; I, who in the house of my father Oeneus, while yet I dwelt at Pleuron, had such fear of bridals as never vexed any maiden of Aetolia. For my wooer was a river-god, Achelous, who in three shapes was ever asking me from my sire,- coming now as a bull in bodily form, now as serpent with sheeny coils, now with trunk of man and front of ox, while from a shaggy beard the streams of fountain-water flowed abroad. With the fear of such a suitor before mine eyes, I was always praying in my wretchedness that I might die, or ever I should come near to such a bed.

     But at last, to my joy, came the glorious son of Zeus and Alcmena; who dosed with him in combat, and delivered me. How the fight was waged, I cannot clearly tell, I know not; if there be any one who watched that sight without terror, such might speak: I, as I sat

    there, was distraught with dread, lest beauty should bring me sorrow at the last. But finally the Zeus of battles ordained well,- if well indeed it be: for since I have been joined to Heracles as his chosen bride, fear after fear hath haunted me on his account; one night brings a trouble, and the next night, in turn, drives it out. And then children were born to us; whom he has seen only as the husbandman sees his distant field, which he visits at seedtime, and once again at harvest. Such was the life that kept him journeying to and fro, in the service of a certain master.

     But now, when he hath risen above those trials,- now it is that my anguish is sorest. Ever since he slew the valiant Iphitus, we have been dwelling here in Trachis, exiles from our home, and the guests of

    stranger; but where he is, no one knows; I only know that he is gone, and hath pierced my heart with cruel pangs for him. I am almost sure that some evil hath befallen him; it is no short space that hath passed, but ten long months, and then five more,- and still no message from him. Yes, there has been some dread mischance;- witness that tablet which he left with me ere he went forth: oft do I pray to the gods that I may not have received it for my sorrow.

     NURSE

     Deianeira, my mistress, many a time have I marked thy bitter tears and lamentations, as thou bewailedst the going forth of Heracles; but now,- if it be meet to school the free-born with the counsels of a

    slave, and if I must say what behoves thee,- why, when thou art so rich in sons, dost thou send no one of them to seek thy lord;- Hyllus, before all, who might well go on that errand, if he cared that there should be tidings of his father's welfare? Lo! there he comes, speeding towards the house with timely step; if, then, thou deemest that I speak in season, thou canst use at once my counsel, and the man.

     (HYLLUS comes in from the side.)

     DEIANEIRA

     My child, my son, wise words may fall, it seems, from humble lips; this woman is a slave, but hath spoken in the spirit of the free.

     HYLLUS

     How, mother? Tell me, if it may be told.

     DEIANEIRA

     It brings thee shame, she saith, that, when thy father hath been so long a stranger, thou hast not sought to learn where he is.

     HYLLUS

     Nay, I know,- if rumour can be trusted.

     DEIANEIRA

     And in what region, my child, doth rumour place him?

     HYLLUS

     Last year, they say, through all the months, he toiled as bondman to Lydian woman.

     DEIANEIRA

     If he bore that, then no tidings can surprise.

     HYLLUS

     Well, he has been delivered from that, as I hear.

     DEIANEIRA

     Where, then, is he reported to be now,- alive or dead?

     HYLLUS

     He is waging or planning a war, they say, upon Euboea, the realm of Eurytus.

     DEIANEIRA

     Knowest thou, my son, that he hath left with me sure oracles touching that land?

     HYLLUS

     What are they, mother? I know not whereof thou speakest.

     DEIANEIRA

     That either he shall meet his death, or, having achieved this task, shall have rest thenceforth, for all his days to come.

     So, my child, when his fate is thus trembling in the scale, wilt thou not go to succour him? For we are saved, if he find safety, or we

    perish with him.

     HYLLUS

     Ay, I will go, my mother; and, had I known the import of these prophecies, I had been there long since; but, as it was, my father's wonted fortune suffered me not to feel fear for him, or to be anxious overmuch. Now that I have the knowledge, I will spare no pains to learn the whole truth in this matter.

     DEIANEIRA

     Go, then, my son; be the seeker ne'er so late, he is rewarded if he learn tidings of joy.

     (HYLLUS departs as the CHORUS OF TRACHINIAN MAIDENS enters. They are free-born young women of Trachis who are friends and confidantes of DEIANEIRA. She remains during their opening choral song.)

     CHORUS (singing)

     strophe 1

     Thou whom Night brings forth at the moment when she is despoiled of her starry crown, and lays to rest in thy splendour, tell me, pray thee, O Sun-god, tell me where abides Alcmena's son? Thou glorious lord of flashing light, say, is he threading the straits of the sea, or hath he found an abode on either continent? Speak, thou who seest as none else can see!

     antistrophe 1

     For Deianeira, as I hear, hath ever an aching heart; she, the battle-prize of old, is now like some bird lorn of its mate; she can never lull her yearning, nor stay her tears; haunted by a sleepless fear for her absent lord, she pines on her anxious, widowed couch, miserable in her foreboding of mischance.

     strophe 2

     As one may see billow after billow driven over the wide deep by the tireless south-wind or the north, so the trouble of his life, stormy as the Cretan sea, now whirls back the son of Cadmus, now lifts him to honour. But some god ever saves him from the house of death, and suffers him not to fail.

     antistrophe 2

     Lady, I praise not this thy mood; with all reverence will I speak, yet in reproof. Thou dost not well, I say, to kill fair hope by fretting; remember that the son of Cronus himself, the all-disposing king, hath not appointed a painless lot for mortals. Sorrow and joy come round to all, as the Bear moves in his circling paths.

     epode

     Yea, starry night abides not with men, nor tribulation, nor wealth; in a moment it is gone from us, and another hath his turn of gladness, and of bereavement. So would I wish thee also, the Queen, to

    keep that prospect ever in thy thoughts; for when hath Zeus been found so careless of his children?

     DEIANEIRA

     Ye have heard of my trouble, I think, and that hath brought you here; but the anguish which consumes my heart- ye are strangers to that; and never may ye learn it by suffering! Yes, the tender plant grows in those sheltered regions of its own! and the Sun-god's heat

    vexes it not, nor rain, nor any wind; but it rejoices in its sweet, untroubled being, til such time as the maiden is called a wife, and finds her portion of anxious thoughts in the night, brooding on danger to husband or to children. Such an one could understand the burden of my cares; she could judge them by her own.

     Well, I have had many a sorrow to weep for ere now; but I am going to speak of one more grievous than them all.

     When Heracles my lord was going from home on his last journey, he left in the house an ancient tablet, inscribed with tokens which he

    had never brought himself to explain to me before, many as were the ordeals to which he had gone forth. He had always departed as if to conquer, not to die. But now, as if he were a doomed man, he told me what portion of his substance I was to take for my dower, and how he would have his sons share their father's land amongst them. And he fixed the time; saying that, when a year and three months should have passed since he had left the country, then he was fated to die; or, if he should have survived that term, to live thenceforth an untroubled life.

     Such, he said, was the doom ordained by the gods to be accomplished in the toils of Heracles; as the ancient oak at Dodona had spoken of yore, by the mouth of the two Peleiades. And this is the precise moment when the fulfilment of that word becomes due; so that I

    start up from sweet slumber, my friends, stricken with terror at the thought that I must remain widowed of the noblest among men.

     LEADER OF THE CHORUS

     Hush- no more ill-omened words; I see a man approaching, who wears a wreath, as if for joyous tidings.

     (A MESSENGER enters.)

     MESSENGER

     Queen Deianeira, I shall be the first of messengers to free thee from fear. Know that Alcmena's son lives and triumphs, and from battle brings the first-fruits to the gods of this land.

     DEIANEIRA

     What news is this, old man, that thou hast told me?

     MESSENGER

     That thy lord, admired of all, will soon come to thy house, restored to thee in his victorious might.

     DEIANEIRA

     What citizen or stranger hath told thee this?

     MESSENGER

     In the meadow, summer haunt of oxen, Lichas the herald is proclaiming it to many: from him I heard it, and flew hither, that I

    might be the first to give thee these tidings, and so might reap some guerdon from thee, and win thy grace.

     DEIANEIRA

     And why is he not here, if he brings good news?

     MESSENGER

     His task, lady, is no easy one; all the Malian folk have thronged around him with questions, and he cannot move forward: each and all are bent on learning what they desire, and will not release him until they are satisfied. Thus their eagerness detains him against his will; but thou shalt presently see him face to face.

     DEIANEIRA

     O Zeus, who rulest the meads of Oeta, sacred from the scythe, at last, though late, thou hast given us joy! Uplift your voices, ye women within the house and ye beyond our gates, since now we are gladdened by the light of this message, that hath risen on us beyond my hope!

     LEADER OF ONE SEMI-CHORUS (singing)

     Let the maidens raise a joyous strain for the house, with songs of triumph at the hearth; and, amidst them, let the shout of the men go up with one accord for Apollo of the bright quiver, our Defender! And at the same time, ye maidens, lift up a paean, cry aloud to his sister, the Ortygian Artemis, smiter of deer, goddess of the twofold torch, and to the Nymphs her neighbours!

     LEADER OF OTHER SEMI-CHORUS

     My spirit soars; I will not reject the wooing of the flute.- O thou sovereign of my soul! Lo, the ivy's spell begins to work upon me! Euoe!- even now it moves me to whirl in the swift dance of Bachanals!

     CHORUS

     Praise, praise unto the Healer!

     LEADER OF WHOLE CHORUS

     See, dear lady, see! Behold, these tidings are taking shape before thy gaze.

     DEIANEIRA

     I see it, dear maidens; my watching eyes had not failed to note yon company. (Enter LICHAS, followed by Captive Maidens. Conspicuous among them is IOLE.) -All hail to the herald, whose coming hath been so long delayed!- if indeed thou bringest aught that can give joy.

     LICHAS

     We are happy in our return, and happy in thy greeting, lady, which befits the deed achieved; for when a man hath fair fortune, he needs must win good welcome.

     DEIANEIRA

     O best of friends, tell me first what first I would know,- shall

I

    receive Heracles alive?

     LICHAS

     I, certainly, left him alive and well,- in vigorous health, unburdened by disease.

     DEIANEIRA

     Where, tell me- at home, or on foreign soil?

     LICHAS

     There is a headland of Euboea, where to Cenaean Zeus he consecrates altars, and the tribute of fruitful ground.

     DEIANEIRA

     In payment of a vow, or at the bidding of an oracle?

     LICHAS

     For a vow, made when he was seeking to conquer and despoil the country of these women who are before thee.

     DEIANEIRA

     And these- who are they, I pray thee, and whose daughters? They deserve pity, unless their plight deceives me.

     LICHAS

     These are captives whom he chose out for himself and for the gods, when he sacked the city of Eurytus.

     DEIANEIRA

     Was it the war against that city which kept him away so long, beyond all forecast, past all count of days?

     LICHAS

     Not so: the greater part of the time he was detained in Lydia,- no free man, as he declares, but sold into bondage. No offence should attend on the word, lady, when the deed is found to be of Zeus. So he passed a whole year, as he himself avows, in thraldom to Omphale the barbarian. And so stung was he by that reproach, he bound himself by a solemn oath that he would one day enslave, with wife and child, the man who had brought that calamity upon him. Nor did he speak the word in vain; but, when he bad been purged, gathered an alien host, and went against the city of Eurytus. That man, he said, alone of mortals, had a share in causing his misfortune. For when Heracles, an old friend, came to his house and hearth, Eurytus heaped on him the taunts of a bitter tongue and spiteful soul,- saying, 'Thou hast unerring arrows in thy hands, and yet my sons surpass thee in the trial of archery'; 'Thou art a slave,' he cried, 'a free man's broken thrall': and at a banquet, when his guest was full of wine, he thrust him from his doors.

     Wroth thereat, when afterward Iphitus came to the hill of Tiryns, in search for horses that had strayed, Heracles seized a moment when the man's wandering thoughts went not with his wandering

    gaze, and hurled him from a tower-like summit. But in anger at that deed, Zeus our lord, Olympian sire of all, sent him forth into bondage, and spared not, because, this once, he had taken a life by guile. Had he wreaked his vengeance openly, Zeus would surely have pardoned him the righteous triumph; for the gods, too, love not insolence.

     So those men, who waxed so proud with bitter speech, are themselves in the mansions of the dead, all of them, and their city is

    enslaved; while the women whom thou beholdest, fallen from happiness to misery, come here to thee; for such was thy lord's command, which I, his faithful servant, perform. He himself, thou mayest be sure,- so

    soon as he shall have offered holy sacrifice for his victory to Zeus from whom he sprang,- will be with thee. After all the fair tidings that have been told, this, indeed, is the sweetest word to hear.

     LEADER OF THE CHORUS

     Now, O Queen, thy joy is assured; part is with thee, and thou hast promise of the rest.

     DEIANEIRA

     Yea, have I not the fullest reason to rejoice at these tidings of my lord's happy fortune? To such fortune, such joy must needs respond. And yet a prudent mind can see room for misgiving lest he who prospers should one day suffer reverse. A strange pity hath come over me, friends, at the sight of these ill-fated exiles, homeless and fatherless in a foreign land; once the daughters, perchance, of free-born sires, but now doomed to the life of slaves. O Zeus, who turnest the tide of battle, never may I see child of mine thus visited by thy hand; nay, if such visitation is to be, may it not fall while Deianeira lives! Such dread do I feel, beholding these.

     (To IOLE) Ah, hapless girl, say, who art thou? A maiden, or a mother? To judge by thine aspect, an innocent maiden, and of a noble race. Lichas, whose daughter is this stranger? Who is her mother, who her sire? Speak, I pity her more than all the rest, when I behold her; as she alone shows due feeling for her plight.

     LICHAS

     How should I know? Why should'st thou ask me? Perchance the off, spring of not the meanest in yonder land.

     DEIANEIRA

     Can she be of royal race? Had Eurytus a daughter?

     LICHAS

     I know not; indeed, I asked not many questions.

     DEIANEIRA

     And thou hast not heard her name from any of her companions?

     LICHAS

     No, indeed, I went through my task in silence.

     DEIANEIRA

     Unhappy girl, let me, at least, hear it from thine own mouth. It is indeed distressing not to know thy name.

     (IOLE maintains her silence.)

     LICHAS

     It will be unlike her former behaviour, then, I can tell thee, if she opens her lips: for she hath not uttered one word, but hath ever been travailing with the burden of her sorrow, and weeping bitterly, poor girl, since she left her wind-swept home. Such a state is grievous for herself, but claims our forbearance.

     DEIANEIRA

     Then let her be left in peace, and pass under our roof as she wishes; her present woes must not be crowned with fresh pains at my hands; she hath enough already.-Now let us all go in, that thou mayest start speedily on thy journey, while I make all things ready in the house.

     (LICHAS leads the captives into the house. DEIANEIRA starts to follow them, but the MESSENGER, who has been present during the entire scene, detains her. He speaks as he moves nearer to her.)

     MESSENGER

     Ay, but first tarry here a brief space, that thou mayest learn, apart from yonder folk, whom thou art taking to thy hearth, and mayest gain the needful knowledge of things which have not been told to thee. Of these I am in full possession.

     DEIANEIRA

     What means this? Why wouldest thou stay my departure?

     MESSENGER

     Pause and listen. My former story was worth thy hearing, and so will this one be, methinks.

     DEIANEIRA

     Shall I call those others back? Or wilt thou speak before me and these maidens?

     MESSENGER

     To thee and these I can speak freely; never mind the others.

     DEIANEIRA

     Well, they are gone;- so thy story can proceed.

     MESSENGER

     Yonder man was not speaking the straight-forward truth in aught that he has just told. He has given false tidings now, or else his former report was dishonest.

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