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Grade Three

By Rose Ellis,2014-07-09 11:44
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Grade Three

     Learning in Motion - Colvin, A. V. (Ed.) DRAFT July 2006

    Grade Three

    The third-grade standards place increasing emphasis on conducting investigations. Students are expected to be able to develop questions, formulate simple hypotheses, make predictions, gather data, and use the metric system with greater precision. Using information to make inferences and draw conclusions becomes more important. In the area of physical science, the standards focus on simple and compound machines, energy, and a basic understanding of matter. Behavioral and physical adaptations are examined in relation to the life needs of animals. The notion of living systems is further explored in aquatic and terrestrial food chains and diversity in environments. Patterns in the natural world are demonstrated in terms of the phases of the moon, tides, seasonal changes, the water cycle, and animal life cycles. Geological concepts are introduced through the investigation of the components of soil.

Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic

    3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

    a) predictions and observations are made;

    ; Students may predict how many times they can toss and catch a ball with a partner

    in one minute.

    ; Other challenges may include:

    ; Pulse rate after 3 minutes of exercise

    ; Number of vertical jumps in 30 sec.

    ; Length of horizontal jump

    b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets;

    ; Students are placed in groups of four; two girls and two boys. This represents two

    sets of students. Each of the children will be asked to perform a locomotor

    movement of their choice. Each child will now be a subset of their original set.

    Challenge student to come up with original ways to practice this concept.

    c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses;

    ; see 3.1 (a) above

    d) volume is measured to the nearest milliliter and liter;

    e) length is measured to the nearest centimeter;

    o Standing long jump is measured in feet and inches and in meters and centimeters

    f) mass is measured to the nearest gram;

    g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph);

    h) temperature is measured to the nearest degree Celsius;

    i) time is measured to the nearest minute;

    ; Students time one another when performing the mile run

    ; Students measure length of time it takes to walk around the school

    j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn; and

    k) natural events are sequenced chronologically.

    ; Working with partners, students practice and then record the sequence of

    events needed to:

    o Throw over hand

    o Catch a ball

    o Kick a ball

    1

    Materials developed to incorporate movement into the Virginia Math, English, and Science Standards of Learning in grades K-5 ?

     Learning in Motion - Colvin, A. V. (Ed.) DRAFT July 2006

    Force, Motion, and Energy

    3.2 The student will investigate and understand simple machines and their uses. Key concepts include

    a) types of simple machines (lever, screw, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, and wedge); b) how simple machines function;

    c) compound machines (scissors, wheelbarrow, and bicycle); and

    d) examples of simple and compound machines found in the school, home, and work

    environment.

    ; Gilbert, 1977, pp. 181 182

    o “Show the class pictures of different levers, such as crowbar,

    scissors, tongs (sugar or ice) wheelbarrow, teeter-totter, etc.

    1. Can you become one of the levers you see in the picture?

    Can you be a crowbar pulling a big nail out of the floor?

    Can your leg be a crowbar? Your arm? Your finger?

    Your whole body?

    2. Let us try scissors. Can your arms be scissors cutting a big

    piece of paper? Your leg? An arm and a leg? Can you cut

    paper on a low level with your arms? On a high level with

    your legs? Can you find a partner and make a giant pair of

    scissors? . . .

    3. Show me how a teeter-totter looks. How would a teeter-

    totter move if two people the same size sat on each end?

    What would happen if a big person sat on one end and a

    little person on the other? Show me. How could we get the

    teeter-totter to move? [Move the big person closer to the

    middle.]

    4. Let us try to sugar and ice tongs. Turn your body into ice

    tongs. Show me how you would pick up a giant block of ice.

    What kind of force are you using? [Strong.} Now be a

    sugar tong and pick up a little sugar cubs. What kind of

    force are you using? [Light.]

    Make up other problems similar to problems 1-4 for the

    other six kinds of simple machines, using the elements of

    space, time, force, and flow.”

    Matter

    3.3 The student will investigate and understand that objects are made of materials that can be described by their physical properties. Key concepts include

    a) objects are made of one or more materials;

    b) materials are composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification; and c) physical properties remain the same as the material is reduced in size.

    2

    Materials developed to incorporate movement into the Virginia Math, English, and

    Science Standards of Learning in grades K-5 ?

     Learning in Motion - Colvin, A. V. (Ed.) DRAFT July 2006

    ; Gilbert (1977, pp. 200 - 203):

    1. “What is the arrangement of molecules in a gas? [The molecules

    are spaced far apart.] Each person is a molecule. Use all the space

    in the room to move about. Move on different levels and in

    different directions. Try some different molecule shapes as you

    move as a gas molecule,

    2. What is the arrangement of molecules in a liquid? [Molecules are

    spaced closer together than they are in a gas.] Each individual be

    a molecule and show me the spatial arrangement of molecules in

    milk. Move around the room but use only one-half of the space we

    have available. (Point out the half you want the students to use.}

    Do you feel other molecules are closer to you than they were when

    you were an oxygen molecule?

    3. What is the arrangement of molecules in a solid? [Molecules are

    spaced very close together.] Each individual be a molecule and

    show me the spatial arrangement of molecules in rock. This time

    we will only use one-eighth of the space in our room. What

    happens to your movement in this small space? [Range of

    movement decreases and molecules bump against each other.]

    4. (Divide the class into groups.) Can each group show me the

    transformation of ice into water and then water vapor? Each

    individual in your group be a molecule and all together

    demonstrate the spatial arrangement of molecules in the solid,

    liquid, and gas. When everyone is ready, we will watch each

    group and discuss the different ways this problem was solved. 5. Let’s work together to form the atoms of some of the elements.

    Can you find a partner and form a hydrogen atom? I should see

    one electron circling one proton. Electrons have a negative charge

    and protons a positive charge. Can you show this somehow

    through your shape or movement?

    Can you work with two other pairs of people to form a helium

    atom? A helium atom has two electrons circling two protons, and

    it also has two neutrons in its nucleus. Neutrons are neutral

    electrically. You remember from working with magnets that like

    charges repel each other. Without the neutrons the protons would

    fly away from one another. Can you show through movement the

    holding quality of the neutrons upon the protons?”

    3

    Materials developed to incorporate movement into the Virginia Math, English, and

    Science Standards of Learning in grades K-5 ?

     Learning in Motion - Colvin, A. V. (Ed.) DRAFT July 2006

    Life Processes

    3.4 The student will investigate and understand that behavioral and physical adaptations allow

    animals to respond to life needs. Key concepts include

    a) methods of gathering and storing food, finding shelter, defending themselves, and rearing

    young; and

    b) hibernation, migration, camouflage, mimicry, instinct, and learned behavior.

Living Systems

    3.5 The student will investigate and understand relationships among organisms in aquatic and

    terrestrial food chains. Key concepts include

    a) producer, consumer, decomposer;

    b) herbivore, carnivore, omnivore; and

    c) predator and prey.

    3.6 The student will investigate and understand that environments support a diversity of plants and

    animals that share limited resources. Key concepts include

    a) water-related environments (pond, marshland, swamp, stream, river, and ocean

    environments);

    b) dry-land environments (desert, grassland, rain forest, and forest environments); and

    c) population and community.

Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems

    3.7 The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and

    importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include

    a) soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;

    b) topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;

    c) rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and

    d) soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.

Earth Patterns, Cycles, and Change

    3.8 The student will investigate and understand basic patterns and cycles occurring in nature. Key

    concepts include

    a) patterns of natural events (day and night, seasonal changes, phases of the moon, and tides);

    and

    b) animal and plant life cycles.

    3.9 The student will investigate and understand the water cycle and its relationship to life on Earth.

    Key concepts include

    a) the energy from the sun drives the water cycle;

    b) processes involved in the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, precipitation);

    c) water is essential for living things; and

    d) water supply and water conservation.

    4

    Materials developed to incorporate movement into the Virginia Math, English, and Science Standards of Learning in grades K-5 ?

     Learning in Motion - Colvin, A. V. (Ed.) DRAFT July 2006

    Resources

    3.10 The student will investigate and understand that natural events and human influences can affect

    the survival of species. Key concepts include

    a) the interdependency of plants and animals;

    b) the effects of human activity on the quality of air, water, and habitat;

    c) the effects of fire, flood, disease, and erosion on organisms; and

    d) conservation and resource renewal.

    3.11 The student will investigate and understand different sources of energy. Key concepts include

    a) the sun’s ability to produce light and heat energy;

    b) sources of energy (sunlight, water, wind);

    c) fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and wood; and

    d) renewable and nonrenewable energy resources.

    5

    Materials developed to incorporate movement into the Virginia Math, English, and Science Standards of Learning in grades K-5 ?

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