By Anne Hall,2014-06-02 00:18
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    Topic: Homosexual disease rates higher

    With the development of society, there has been an Introduction;

    increasing number of homosexuals. Through the survey, This is a high-risk group of AIDS.

    My opinion;

    1. Gay men more susceptible to HIV


    A. Resources from:

    3HIV and AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths

    ; A recent CDC study found that in 2008 one in five (19%) MSM in 21 major US cities were infected with HIV, and nearly half

    (44%) were unaware of their infection. In this study, 28% of black MSM were HIV-infected, compared to 18% of

    Hispanic/Latino MSM and 16% of white MSM. Other racial/ethnic groups of MSM also have high numbers of HIV infections,

    including American Indian/Alaska Native MSM (20%) and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander MSM (18%).

    ; In 2007, MSM were 44 to 86 times as likely to be diagnosed with HIV compared with other men, and 40 to 77 times as likely

    as women.

    ; From 20052008, estimated diagnoses of HIV infection increased approximately 17% among MSM. This increase was

    likely due to a combination of factors: increases in new infections, increased testing, and diagnosis earlier in the course of

    infection; it may also have been due to uncertainty in statistical models.

    ; In 2008, an estimated 17,940 MSM were diagnosed with AIDS in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the US

    dependent areasan increase of 6% since 2005.

    ; By the end of 2007, an estimated 282,542 MSM with an AIDS diagnosis had died in the United States and 5 dependent


    Prevention Challenges

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among MSM means they face a greater risk of being exposed to infection with each sexual encounterespecially as they get older

    Sexual risk accounts for most HIV infections in MSM. These risks include unprotected sex and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The

    practice of not using a condom during anal sex with someone other than a primary, HIV-negative partner continues to pose a significant threat to

    the health of MSM.

    Alcohol and illicit drug use contributes to increased risk for HIV infection and other STDs among MSM. The use of substances such as alcohol

    and other drugs can increase the likelihood of risky sexual behavior.

    Many MSM with HIV are unaware of their HIV infection, especially MSM of color and young MSM. A recent CDC study found that among urban

    MSM in 21 cities in 2008 who were unaware of their HIV infection, 55% had not been tested in the previous 12 months. Low awareness of HIV

    status among young MSM likely reflects several factors: they may have been infected more recently, may underestimate their personal risk, may

    have had fewer opportunities to get tested, or may believe that HIV treatment minimize the threat of HIV. CDC recommends that all MSM get

    tested for HIV once a year and more often if they are at higher risk. MSM at higher risk includes those who have multiple or anonymous sex partners or use drugs during sex.

    Stigma and homophobia may have a profound impact on the lives of MSM, especially their mental and sexual health. Internalized homophobia

    may impact men‘s ability to make healthy choices, including decisions around sex and substance use. Stigma and homophobia may limit the

    willingness of MSM to access HIV prevention and care, isolate them from family and community support, and create cultural barriers that inhibit

    integration into social networks.

    Racism, poverty, and lack of access to health care are barriers to HIV prevention services, particularly for MSM from racial or ethnic minority

    communities. A recent CDC study found a strong link between socioeconomic status and HIV among MSM: prevalence increased as education

    and income decreased, and awareness of HIV status was higher among MSM with greater education and income.

Complacency about HIV may play a key role in HIV risk, particularly among young MSM. Since young MSM did not experience the severity of the

    early HIV epidemic, some may falsely believe that HIV is no longer a serious health threat because of treatment advances and decreased

    mortality. Additional challenges for many MSM include maintaining safe behaviors over time and underestimating personal risk.

    What CDC Is Doing

    In fiscal year 2009, 43% of CDC‘s Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention‘s budget was targeted

    towards MSM and MSM-IDU. CDC provides funding for state and local health departments

    and community-based organizations to support HIV prevention services for MSM in a

    variety of settings, including MSM of color and young transgender persons of color.

    CDC supports the training and technical assistance for five HIV prevention interventions that focus on MSM and two additional interventions that were developed for HIV-positive MSM and others living with HIV. CDC conducts research

    to better understand the factors that lead to HIV infection and identify effective approaches to prevent infection among MSMespecially MSM

    who are at greatest risk. Research includes diagnostic tests, microbicides, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, vaccines, and behavioral

    research on health disparities.

B. Resources from:

Accra, Ghana (PANA) - The openness of gays, their indecent activities and health risks to the society occupied the front pages of Ghanaian

    newspapers this week.

    The newspapers also gave a lot of space to a bloody accident in which 27 people perished. The state-owned Graphic had the headline ―8,000 gays in two regions‖, with the story saying 8,000 homosexuals have been registered by non-governmental organisations(NGOs) in the Western and some parts of the Central regions, with majority of them infected with sexually

    transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS.

    Sadly, they include young people in junior and senior high schools, the polytechnics and workers. ―The rise in STDs, including HIV, in the two regions, according to the NGOs, was due to the fact that almost all those registered were bi-sexual,

    with some having wives and girlfriends. This has resulted in the rapid spread of STDs, including HIV/AIDS.‖

    The Western Regional HIV and AIDS Focal Person, Dr Ronald Sowah, charged health workers in the region not to discriminate against

    homosexuals when they visit the various health facilities with health problems.

    "Dispense health services to them without prejudice because it is their fundamental human right to be taken care of when they are sick," Sowah


    ―Tutor sodomises five students,‖ was a story by the state-owned Ghanaian Times. It said a Mathematics tutor of Adisadel College in Cape Coast, Richard Atta Panyin, has been dismissed by the school authorities.

    Panyin was alleged to have had canal knowledge of five boys of the school in one year.

    ―Sodomy teacher arrested,‖ was the headline of the Graphic, which said the Mathematics teacher had been arrested by the police. Earlier, the Graphic reported that a lesbian lecturer of Takoradi Polytechnic, who allegedly lured some female students into lesbianism was fired

by the institution.

    Meanwhile, the mother of a 15-year-old boy in Takoradi in the Western Region wept as she narrated the ordeal her son now goes through as a result of being sodomized by an adult who is now at large.

    The woman said her son started discharging liquid through his anus uncontrollably and at the hospital, the boy confessed to anal sex with a man. A medical doctor, Dr. Ernest Yorke, has said homosexuality is unnatural and that there is a need to educate people about the dangers associated with it.

    The Ghanaian Times quoted a Catholic Bishop as expressing concern about the upsurge of lesbianism and homosexuality in the country. ―Stop gays, priest charges authorities,‖ was the headline of the newspaper, with the story saying the Catholic Bishop of Sunyani, the Most Rev. Matthew Gyamfi, these two practices posed a danger to the sustainability of the family system, the foundation of the church and Christianity, and should not be allowed to flourish.

    Gyamfi likened the claim of homosexuals to that of kleptomaniacs and asked if they should be allowed to be stealing since the behaviour was inborn.

    The bishop said although there might be some truth in those involved in the practice‘s claim that their desire for same sex was innate, they should not push for its legislation.

    In another development, the Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC) said on Wednesday that it envisaged the risk of the increase of activities of gays and had initiated a series of focused surveillance activities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

    The surveillance is directed among most at risk populations. In a statement issued in Accra by Dr. Angela El-Adas, Director-General of GAC in reaction to reports of gay activities, it said the MSM (Men having Sex with Men) situation in Ghana was an issue the country could not run away from. "The work of the reported NGO that registered up to 8,000 MSM, if true, may just be a microcosm of the real situation on the ground. Activities of MSM may predispose some of them and their other heterosexual partners to HIV. It is important therefore to have the requisite data for planning HIV prevention and treatment interventions," it said.

    The Graphic's headline on the accident read, ―27 die in accident after head-on collision.‖

    It said 27 people died, while nine others sustained serous injuries when a 33-seater Benz bus on which they were travelling was involved in head-on collision with a recovery truck.

    The headline of the Times read ―27 perish

Other resources:




    Summary: According to data I found: MSM more susceptible to HIV.

    2. The reasons of the higher disease rates A. Drug of abuse

    B. Over sexual partner

    C. Do not pay attention to safety measures when they have sex D. The difference between men and womens body structure


    Resources from:


Alon Reininger/Contact Press Images

    Ken Meeks, photographed in San Francisco in September 1986, died three days later. His skin lesions were the result of Kaposi's sarcoma, a rare

    cancer that was a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic.


    Published: May 30, 2011

    At first it seemed an oddity: a scattering of reports in the spring and early summer of 1981 that young gay men in New York and California were ill

    with forms of pneumonia and cancer usually seen only in people with severely weakened immune systems. HIV@30: Revisiting ‗AIDS Doctors‘ (

    Enlarge This Image

Neal Boenzi/The New York Times

    ADVOCACY A protest at New York's City Hall in 1985. In Council hearings on AIDS-related bills, gay residents said they had become victims of

    discrimination and hysteria.

    In hindsight, of course, these announcements were the first official harbingers of AIDS the catastrophic pandemic that would infect more than 60 million people (and counting) worldwide, killing at least half that number. But at the time, we had little idea what we were dealing with didn‘t know that AIDS was a distinct disease, what caused it, how it could be contracted, or even what to call it.

    As AIDS has become entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, a new generation has grown up with little if any knowledge of those dark

    early days. But they are worth recalling, as a cautionary tale about the effects of the bafflement and fear that can surround an unknown disease

    and as a reminder of the sweeping changes in medical practice that the epidemic has brought about. Reports of the initial cases were confusing. The first federal announcement, 30 years ago this week, concerned ―five young men, all active homosexuals,‖ with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, or P.C.P., a disease ―almost exclusively limited to severely immunosuppressed patients.‖ Initial suspicion fell on a known infectious agent, cytomegalovirus.

    A month later, on July 3, 1981, I wrote The New York Times‘s first article about AIDS, this one headlined ―Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals.‖

    (―Gay‖ had yet to be accepted by The Times‘s style manual.) The cancer was Kaposi‘s sarcoma, and until then it had seldom been seen in

    otherwise healthy young men.

    As it gradually became clear that the underlying illness was neither pneumonia nor cancer but a sexually transmitted disease that was profoundly

    damaging the immune system, experts argued their many theories about the cause. A popular one held that the impact of combinations of

    microbes overwhelmed the immune system. Other theoretical causes included sperm deposited in the bowel, or some chemical that would

    damage the immune system.

    It took three years to conclusively identify H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS, and longer to settle disputed claims for the discovery. When doctors learned that it took about a decade to get sick from AIDS after H.I.V. first entered the body, they realized that people had been unwittingly transmitting the virus for years, spreading it to thousands of people in many countries, who in turn spread it to thousands and ultimately millions more.

    Epidemiologists quickly showed that H.I.V. could be transmitted through heterosexual sex; from infected women to their newborns; in transfusions of blood and blood products; and via contaminated needles.

    Patients and doctors feared the disease, often for different reasons. Many doctors, uncertain whether AIDS was an infectious disease, refused to do essential procedures on their patients; sometimes superiors had to order them to. And while most doctors did treat their patients professionally and compassionately, they did fear they might catch the disease because no one knew how it was communicated. A few health care workers were infected when they accidentally stuck themselves with contaminated needles.

    Compassionate care for the dying has always been a difficult issue for doctors of any age. But in the AIDS epidemic, many medical students and doctors in their 20s and 30s suddenly had to cope with dying patients their own age. Many senior medical school professors were ill prepared to advise them.

    For doctors, nurses, patients and anyone who might be deemed at risk, the anxiety was pervasive. Might the first coughs or sneezes from a common cold or some other respiratory infection actually be a sign of P.C.P.? Might a small skin blemish represent Kaposi‘s sarcoma?

    Federal health officials and experts came up with a succession of names for the disease before they settled on acquired immune deficiency syndrome in 1982. (Some of the early efforts smacked of discrimination, like GRID, for gay-related immune deficiency.) But whatever it was called, it carried a bitter stigma.

    Some patients were shunned by friends and relatives. Customers avoided restaurants for fear that gay waiters would spread the virus. Some parents, fearing their children might catch AIDS from infected classmates, kept them out of school. Ryan White, a teenager with AIDS in Indiana, spoke up for all infected children and became a national hero before his death in 1990. His case also helped the medical profession address its obligation to care for all patients.

    Communications to the public often lacked clarity. Because health officials and journalists used the phrase ―bodily fluids‖ instead of specifying

    semen, blood and vaginal secretions, many people feared they could contract AIDS from toilet seats or drinking fountains.

    AIDS appeared shortly after the eradication of smallpox, which had renewed declarations of the demise of infectious diseases. As a result, public health leaders were not well prepared to deal with a newly recognized deadly disease. A common attitude was that all diseases were known, and all that remained for scientists was to fill in the blanks. For example, a newly recognized condition like Legionnaires‘ disease was really a form of pneumonia. Yet it did not seem to occur to many scientists that novel agents

    might also be at work even though viruses like Ebola, Lassa and Marburg, which cause hemorrhagic fever, had been discovered in just the

    past decade or so.

    In covering the emerging AIDS epidemic along with developments like these, I tapped my training in infectious diseases and epidemiology. I joined my doctor friends in late-night telephone bull sessions to discuss the mysteries of AIDS. Some experts thought the agent must be a drug or chemical because no infectious agent fit. (The closest was hepatitis B, which became a model for research and precautions to protect people.)

And some toxicologists used similar exclusionary reasoning to say no known drug or chemical could be responsible, so the cause must be an

    infectious agent.

    Summary: All the data show gay men get higher disease rates or these reasons, so they can reduce and avoid it by solving these problems.

    Conclusion;Through the high incidence of homosexual disease investigation, disease caused by a variety of reasons, so in order to avoid such a high incidence of the disease, the most effective way is to solve the causes of disease. If not controlled, the rate of disease will be higher and higher.

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