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A new species of Genus Karstia from caves in Chongqing, China (Araneae-- Theridiosomatidae)

By Rick Moore,2014-09-10 21:01
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A new species of Genus Karstia from caves in Chongqing, China (Araneae-- Theridiosomatidae)

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    A new species of Genus Karstia from caves in Chongqing,

    China (Araneae: Theridiosomatidae)

    DOU Liang, LIN Yucheng

    5 (Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, School of Life

    Sciences, Sichuan University, ChengDu 610064)

    Abstract: A new spider species, Karstia cordata sp. nov., collected from caves of Chongqing, China, is in detail described and illustrated. Type specimens are deposited in the Zoological Museum of the School of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China (SCUM).

    10 Keywords: Karstia; new species; cave spider; China

    0 Introduction

    The family Theridiosomatidae is a small spider group, mainly distributing in leaf litter, caves [1]and under rocks. Up to the present, only 13 species in 8 genera are reported in China. Before

    15 90s in last century, it is blank to study on theridiosomatids in China. Until to 1992, the first

    [2]species, Wendilgarda sinensis, was reported from Hainan Province. Subsequently, the Chinese

    well-known araneologist investigated cave fauna in Yunnan and Hunan, and recorded the other

    [3]one theridiosomatid spider. 2006, the third species in China, Theridiosoma taiwanica, is also

    [4]found and described from Taiwan. The most fruitful study is to research the orb-web

    20 symphytognathoid spiders in the Gaoligongshan region of Yunnan by the scholars cooperation

    between American and Chinese, and the plenty of new spider taxa is described and reported of

    [5]which include 1 new genus, 4 new record genera and 8 new species. The genus Karstia was

    [6~7]erected to accommodate two theridiosomatid species from caves in Guizhou and Guangxi.

    In October, 2010, with the purpose of investigating species diversity of cave spiders, we

    25 carried out expeditions to the region of Chongqing and eastern Sichuan. A considerable number of spider specimens were taken. By the careful examination and identifying, some specimens belong to the theridiosomatid spiders, and were recognized as a new species of genus Karstia. This current paper about the family Theridiosomatidae is reported for the first time from the region.

1 Taxonomy

    [6]30 Karstia Chen, 2010

    [6]Type species by original designation K. upperyangtzica Chen, 2010: 3, figs 114.

    Karstia cordata sp. nov.

    Figs 14

    Type material: Holotype: male (SCUM), Xiaodong Cave (29.53088?N, 107.84695?E; Alt.:

    35 1050 m), Tiansheng Village, Tudi Town, Wolong County, Chongqing City, China, 17 October 2010, Y.C. Lin and L. Dou leg. Paratypes: 1 male and 3 females, same as holotype (SCUM); 2

    males and 10 females, Duozishi Cave (30.28845?N, 106.77005?E), Yanjinggou Village, Yanghe Town, Huaying City, Sichuan Province, China, 16 October 2010, Y.C. Lin and L. Dou leg. (SCUM).

    Foundations: New Teacher Fund for Doctor Station of Ministry of Education of China (No. 20100181120049); National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (No. 31000946)

    Brief author introduction:窦亮,?1986-?,男,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为动物学。

     Correspondance author: 林玉成,?1977-?,男,副教授,主要从事蜘蛛系统分类学和洞穴生物学研究。

    E-mail: linyucheng@scu.edu.cn

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    Fig. 1 Karstia cordata sp. nov. Habitus (male: AC; female: DF). A, D. Dorsal view; B, E. Ventral view; C, F.

    Lateral view.

    40 Etymology. The specific name of this new species derived from Latin word cordatus =

    cordiform, refers to the shape of epigynal plate in female; adjective.

    [6]Diagnosis. This new species is similar to Karstia upperyangtzica Chen, 2010, but can be

    distinguished by the shape of conductor, the course of ejaculatory duct, the structure of embolic

    division in male pedipalp (Figs 2AD, 3AC), and by the heart-shaped epigynal plate, the wider

    45 spermathecae and the shape of copulatory bursae (Fig. 4AC).

    Description. Male: Holotype, total length 1.96. Prosoma length 0.95, width 0.96, maximal

    height 0.46. Opisthosoma length 1.04, width 1.23, height 1.52. Dorsal shield of prosoma pyriform,

    yellow, smooth, thoracic groove indistinct. Eight eyes round, white, in two rows, ALE and PLE

    contiguous, AER and PER slightly procurved. Ocular base black. Cephalic pars covered with few 50 long setae in midline. Clypeus height 0.27, slightly concaved. Chelicerae yellow-brownish.

    Endites subquadrate, with serrula. Labium semicircular, wider than long. Sternum length 0.50,

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    Fig. 2 Karstia cordata sp. nov. Male left pedipalp (AD). A. Ventral view; B. Dorsal view; C. Prolateral view; D. Retrolateral view. Abbrs.: C = conductor; CA = cymbial apophysis; CL = cymbial lobe; EA = embolic apophysis;

    MA = median apophysis; PC = paracymbium; ST = subtegulum; T = tegulum.

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Fig. 3 Karstia cordata sp. nov. Male pedipalpal pars (lactic acid-treated) (AE). A. Conductor, dorsal view; B.

    Embolic devision, dorsal view; C. Same as B, ventral view; D. Pedipalpal bulb (omitted embolic division), ventral view; E. Pedipalpal cymbium, tibia and patella, dorsal view. Abbrs.: C = conductor; CA = cymbial apophysis; CL = cymbial lobe; E = embolus; EA = embolic apophysis; ED = ejaculatory duct; EL = embolic lobe; MA = median

    apophysis; PC = paracymbium; ST = subtegulum; T = tegulum.

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    Fig. 4 Karstia cordata sp. nov. Female epigynum (AC). A. Epigynum (untreated), ventral view; B. Ditto (lactic acid-treated), ventral view; C. Same as B, dorsal view. Abbrs: CB = copulatory bursae; CD = copulatory ducts; EP

     = epigynal plate; EPS = epigynal sclerotized pit; FD = fertilization ducts; S = spermathecae.

    width 0.54, heart-shaped, brown yellow, with a pair of pit organs on prolateral margin. Femora pale yellow, others yellow brown. Femur I with three distal spines, and one on femur II.

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    55 Patellae I-IV with a distal dorsal spine. Tibia I with a proximal, three distal spines and five

    trichobothria, tibia II with a proximal, two distal spines and five trichobothria, Tibiae III and IV

    with a proximal spine and six trichobothria. Metatarsi I-III with only one trichobothrium. Leg

    measurements: I 4.64 (1.46, 0.48, 1.16, 1.07, 0.46); II 3.71 (1.18, 0.43, 0.84, 0.86, 0.40); III 2.48

    (0.80, 0.30, 0.50, 0.57, 0.30); IV 2.94 (0.98, 0.32, 0.63, 0.70, 0.30). Leg formula: 1-2-4-3. 60 Abdomen pale yellow, dorsally round and laterally ovoid, with brown strip. Ventral cuticle rugose,

    black. Colulus present, black. Spinnerets conical, black brown, the anteriors larger than the

    posteriors, the medians smallest. Anal tubercle large, pale (Fig 1 AC).

    Pedipalp large, strongly sclerotized (Fig 2AD). Patella bears a long spine. Three

    trichobothria on tibia dorsally (Fig 3E). Cymbium covered with a cluster of distal long setae, with 65 a dorsal cymbial apophysis, a sclerotized L-shaped paracymbium, and a cymbial lobe (Fig 3E).

    The structure of pedipalpal bulb complex. Tegulum large, yellow, swollen and granulated.

    Subtegulum small and smooth. Median apophysis cuneated, modified with tierd dents (Fig 3D).

    Conductor very large, surface granulated and sculptured, enveloping the complicated embolus.

    Embolic division strongly sclerotized, attaching a translucent embolic lobe. Embolic apophysis 70 with velumen, and the course of ejaculatory duct is intricate (Fig 3AC).

    Female: Total length 1.93 (one of paratypes). Prosoma length 0.93, width 0.98, maximal

    height 0.45, Opisthosoma length 1.21, width 1.27, height 1.43. Clypeus height 0.16. Sternum

    length 0.52, width 0.55. Coloration and modification of dorsal shield of prosoma, ocular pattern,

    mouthparts, sternum, legs and abdomen nearly same as in male. Leg measurements: I 4.11 (1.38, 75 0.46, 0.91, 0.93, 0.43); II 3.39 (1.11, 0.43, 0.70, 0.77, 0.39); III 2.38 (0.77, 0.32, 0.45, 0.53, 0.31);

    IV 3.02 (1.04, 0.34, 0.63, 0.70, 0.32). Leg formula: 1-2-4-3. The chaetotary and number of legs

    same as in male. Colulus smaller than in male. Anal tubercle small and pale (Fig 1 DF).

    Genital area wide, covered with sparse setae at foreside (Fig 4A). Epigynal plate large,

    smooth, heart-shaped and translucent, with a scape beyond posterior margin. Copulatory opening 80 rounded, sclerotized, situates epigynal plate mesially. Vulva simple, spermathecae contacted each

    other at distally, attached a pair of translucent copulatory bursae. Copulatery ducts short, and

    sclerotized distinctly, originated from the base of spermathecae. Fertilization ducts short, weakly

    sclerotized, below spermathecae, and its distal part converged at epigynal posterior margin.

    Spiracles very large, located at epigynal posteromargin laterally (Fig 4BC).

    85 Natural history. The spider species are found under stones and at lacuna of rock wall in the

    dark area of caves.

    Distribution. Known only from the type locality.

    Acknowledgements

    Thanks Mr. Zha Zuwei (Guizhou Normal University) for the kindly help to materials

     90 collection. And thanks anonymous reviewers for cordial comments and suggestions.

     References [1] PLATNICK NI. The world spider catalog, version [12.5]: American Museum of Natural History. [2012]. http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/ (accessed 12 March, 2012)

    95 [2] ZHU M S, WANG X Z. The spider family Theridiosomatidae first found in China, and with description of a

     new species (Araneae)[J]. Acta Arachnologica Sinica, 1992, 1(1): 14-16. (in Chinese) [3] SONG D X, ZHU M S. 1994. On some species of cave arachnids of China [A]. In Chen, Y.Y. (ed.), Sixtieth Anniversary of the Founding of China Zoological Society: Memorial Volume Dedicated to the Hundredth Anniversary of the Birthday of the Late Prof. Sisan Chen (Z. Chen)[C]. Beijing: China Science and Technology 100 Press, 1994: 35-46. (in Chinese)

    [4] ZHANG J X, ZHU M S, TSO I M. First record of the family Theridiosomatidae from Taiwan, with description

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     of a new species (Arachnida: Araneae)[J]. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 2006, 13(7): 265-266. [5] MILLER J A, GRISWOLD C E, YIN C M. The symphytognathoid spiders of the Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Araneoidea): Systematics and diversity of micro-orbweavers[J]. ZooKeys, 2009, 11: 9-195. 105 [6] CHEN H M. Karstia, a new genus of troglophilous theridiosomatid (Araneae, Theridiosomatidae) from

     southwestern China[J]. Guizhou Science, 2010, 28(4): 1-10. [7] ZHU M S, ZHANG J X, CHEN H M. A new species of the genus Wendilgarda from China (Araneae: Theridiosomatidae)[J]. Acta Zoologica Taiwanica, 2001, 12: 1-7.

     重庆洞穴喀蛛属一新种记述(蜘蛛目!球体蛛科) 110

     窦亮,林玉成 ?四川大学生命科学学院,生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室,成都 610064

     要!本文记述了采自中国重庆洞穴内的球体蛛科喀蛛属一新种——心形喀蛛,并提供了详 的形态描述和鉴别特征图。模式标本保存在四川大学自然博物馆。 关键词!动物学,分 类,蜘蛛目,新种,洞穴蜘蛛,中国 115 中图分类号!Q959.226+.2

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