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research project

By Lee Campbell,2014-11-08 12:13
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research project

    Develop a Drillability Model to

    Predict Drilling Penetration Rate in

    Different Drilling Situations

    Department: Civil & Mining department

    Superviser: Dr. Abbas Taheri

    Name:

    Alireza Sabetzadeh a1643520

    Tong Lu a1636064

    Baixi Zhu a1633713

Table of Contents

    Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 4

    Drilling and the Importance ................................................................................................................ 4 How to Predict an Accurate Penetration Rate ..................................................................................... 5

    Two Main categories ....................................................................................................................... 5 Literature review ..................................................................................................................................... 6

    Drilling Method .................................................................................................................................. 7

    Where .............................................................................................................................................. 8

    PR is the penetration rate (cm/min) ................................................................................................ 8

    RQD is the rock quality designation (%) ........................................................................................ 8

    BL is the bit load (kg) ..................................................................................................................... 8

    BR is the bit rotation (rpm). ............................................................................................................ 8

    Rotary Drilling ................................................................................................................................ 8

    Percussive Drilling ......................................................................................................................... 9

    Percussive Drilling ......................................................................................... 错误;未定义书签。

    Rotary Blast hole Drills: ................................................................................................................... 9

    Drillability Model ............................................................................................................................... 9

    Factors Affecting .............................................................................................................................. 12

    Operational Variable (Controllable Parameters) ........................................................................... 12

    Drilling Penetration Rate .................................................................................................................. 16

    Specific Energy: ............................................................................................................................ 16

    Resistance to Drilling ................................................................................................................... 17

    Indirect Method to Measure Penetration Rate Index .................................................................... 17

    Pressure loss ................................................................................................................................. 17

    Drilling machine type ................................................................................................................... 18

    Power Transfer ............................................................................................................................. 20

    Impact strength index .................................................................................................................... 22

    Mathematical model of ANN ........................................................................................................ 30

    Review of Literature: ........................................................................................................................ 32 Problem Statement: ............................................................................................................................... 33

    Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 34

    Appendix: .............................................................................................................................................. 34

    Appendix 1: Relation between UCS and PR: ................................................................................... 34

     .......................................................................................................................................................... 34

     .......................................................................................................................................................... 34

    Appendix 2: Relation between BTS and PR: .................................................................................... 34 Appendix 3: Young Module and PR: ................................................................................................ 35 Appendix 4: Saturated and Dry Density ........................................................................................... 35 References ............................................................................................................................................. 36

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    Introduction

    Drilling and the Importance

    During the past years, the vital subject in investigation of preliminary mine site was drilling and blasting.Drilling and drillability are categorized between the significant activities in mining site that less accuracy or mistake to do these activities can bear an extensive cost and risk for mining companies(Thuro, 1997a; Yaşar, Ranjith, & Viete, 2011). Therefore, it is

    important to deeply understand the drillability and the main factors that affect it, and looking for those ways and methods to enhance and improve its efficiency.

    Improvement of drilling process is possible in two different ways, which are increase the rate of drilling velocity (Penetration rate) and reduce the bit wear. Study the literature relate to drilling efficiency show the consensus between scholars about the importance of these two factors on the drilling process. For example, Arabjamaloei and Dehkordi (2012) argued that the most important factors in drilling activity are penetration rate. They showed that understanding of how drilling parameters incorporate to make a specific rate of penetration, result to design an optimized method that used all these parameters to have the highest efficiency and lowest cost for drilling company(Aalizad & Rashidinejad, 2012; Arabjamaloei & Karimi Dehkordi, 2012; Basarir, Tutluoglu, & Karpuz, 2014a; Yaşar et al., 2011). In other

    case, Bruland (1998) argued that one of the important factors in rock blasting and tunnelling is penetration rate, he mentioned that PRI has a great influence on both time and cost and also the method and equipment which have to use during mining activity(Basarir, Tutluoglu, & Karpuz, 2014b; Bruland, 2000).

    Therefore, it can conclude that penetration rate or drilling velocity is one of the most important factors in determining the efficiency of drilling process; however, it is not the only one.

    The other factor which can effect on efficiency of drilling activity is reduction of bit wear (Basarir et al., 2014b; Somerton, 1959; Yarali & Soyer, 2011). For instance Thuro (1997) showed that to achieve the desirable result for a drilling, it is necessary to reduce the bit wear. Moreover, he mentioned that quartes content in the host rock is positively correlated with increase of bit wear(Thuro, 1997a, 1997b). Furthermore, Kahraman et al (2003) after their investigation showed that bit wear is a significant factor to increase efficiency of drilling process and particularly for drilling percussive drilling (Aalizad & Rashidinejad, 2012; S.

    Kahraman et al., 2003). Therefore, it is required to design the tools and methods to reduce the bit wear during drilling activity to increase the efficiency of drilling process. Altogether, it can conclude that the two main factors which can effect on the proficiency of drilling process are penetration rate and bit wear. In this study, it is aimed to focus on penetration rate and how to achieve a formula which can predict it more accurately based on the two vital categories (Controllable Variables and Uncontrollable Variables) which they will explain in detail in literature review.

    How to Predict an Accurate Penetration Rate

    The importance of rock drilling in different mining and petroleum engineering project, because of its high reliability and safety to determine and identify the deep natural resources, causes that it is still used by many engineering project(Basarir et al., 2014b). Moreover,the expensive operational costsin both petroleum and mining project which can be solved by accurate and proper drilling process lead several scholars to consideron both factors and parameters which involved in drilling and can influence on penetration rate. Therefore, today there is a high demand to understand the drilling factors and how to estimate and increase the efficiency of drilling process (Estes, 1971; Lummus, 1970; Moein, Shaabani, & Rezaeian, 2014; Singh, Jain, & Sarkar, 2009).

    As it mentioned in the introduction, drilling performance increase and optimise with two significant factors which are Penetration rate and bit wear(Basarir et al., 2014b). Between these two factors, the most important one is penetration rate and that is why many researchers tried to find the most related factors which can influence on efficiency of penetration rate. Predict an accurate penetration rate which is close to real or actual penetration rate, prevent any dramatic problems and specifically financial problems during the mining activity; therefore, it is important to fully understand all the factors which can effect on penetration rate of drilling process and determine how they effect on it(Yarali & Soyer, 2011).

    Two Main categories

    One of the most important factors to predict the penetration rate is physical, mechanical and petrographic properties of the rock which are all together has vital effect on determining of drilling cost. In this case there are many scholars who consider on different rock properties factor which can be effect on penetration rate. For example, Paone et al (1966) argued that there is significant correlation between the penetration rate and rock properties and particularly uniaxial compressive and tensile strength of the rock(Paone, Bruce, & Virciglio, 1966). In addition, Howarth et al (1986) reported the strong correlation between the

    penetration rate and rock properties such as Dry and saturated density, Saturated p-wave velocity, saturated uniaxial compressive strength and apparent porosity(D. Howarth, W. Adamson, & J. Berndt, 1986). Therefore, from all these academic studies, it can conclude that one of the important categories to estimate the penetration rate is rock mass properties. On the other hand, there are several researchers who considered the operational properties (Drilling equipment and facilities) as the other important categories that can influence on penetration rate(Karpuz, Paşamehmetogˇlu, Dinçer, & Müftüoglu, 1990). For example, Paone

    et al (1966) argue that thrust and rotational speed are the most important equipment factors that can influence on penetration rate(Paone et al., 1966). Moreover, Ersoy and Waller (1995) after their investigation, showed that rate of penetration is significantly correlated with operational properties such as weight on the bit and rotational speed (Ersoy & Waller, 1995). Therefore, the second important category which can effect on rate of penetration is equipment properties.

    Based on the review of all these academic studies, it can conclude that the most relevant categories which effect on penetration rate are rock mass properties ( for instance Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Rock quality Designation) and machine or operational properties (Bit Load and Bit Rotation)(Alvarez Grima & Babuška, 1999; Bruines, 1988).

    Literature review

    By the explanation of the materials in introduction parts, now in this part (Literature review), it is

    aimed to deeply explain about:

    ; Drilling method

    ; Diamond

    ; Percussive

    ; Rotary

    ; Drillability Model

    ; Specific Energy

    ; Resistance to Drilling

    ; Bit Wear Index (BWI)

    ; Cutter Life Index (CLI)

    ; Brittleness Model

    ; Factor Affecting

    ; Rock Properties

     Apparent Porosity

     Uniaxial Compressive Strength

     Rock Quality Designation

     Tensile Strength of the Rock

     Density

     Young Module

     S- Wave Velocity

     P- Wave Velocity

     Schmidt Hammer

     Shore Hardness

     Abrasiveness

    ; Machine Properties

     Hole Diameter

     Hole Length

     Pressure