中国海洋大学外国语学院外国语言学及应用语言学专业研究生山东 青岛( 266071 )
Abstr act:Code - switching is a very common phenomenon as a result of language touch. This paper will make a tentative analysis of code - switching from some daily examples. Its definition, types and functions will be discussed, aiming at deepening the understanding of it.
Key wor ds:code- switching; definition; situational code- switching; metaphorical code- switching; functions
switching languages bilinguals often have the option of choosing which ?.Introduction group to identify with in a particular situation, and thus can convey the Society is a big stage of communication. People come into contact metaphorical meaning which goes along with such choice as well as with different styles of communication every day. People, then, are whatever denotative meaning is conveyed by the code itself. usually required to select a particular code whenever they choose to
In the midst of speaking about work matters in language A, a speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code to another or to sentence or two in language B will be able to show that the two speakers mix codes. Therefore, code - switching (CS for short below) is a very group. are not just fellow employees but also fellow members of an ethnic common phenomenon of language touch. This paper will make an analysis ( Spolsky, 2000: 50 ) For instance, when we go shopping, we usually of this phenomenon. speak Chinese mandarin with the seller at first. But If judged from the ?.A ge ne ra l s urve y of the pre vious s tudie s on code - accent of the seller, he/she is a town fellower of us, we usually naturally s witching switch into our local dialect to bargain with him/her, to show solidarity in CS is a very common phenomenon as result of language touch. Since order to get a good price. 1970s, it has been a great concern of many linguists, including Gumperz, ?.The functions of code - s witching Myers - Scotton, Saville - Troike, Poplack, Auer etc. They study this Our emphasis here is on the variety of functions that CS may have phenomenon from different angles and in different ways, including within or between speech communities. From the above examples about sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, structural linguistics, pragmatics and situational CS and metaphorical CS, the most important functions such as conversational analysis. Great achievements have been made. Inspired by redefinition of a situation, group identification, solidarity have been such studies, the paper tries to analyze CS from some daily examples. mentioned. Additionally, switching languages may serve other purposes: ?.The de finition of code - s witching 5.1Linguistic functions Code is a term which is used instead of language, speech variety, or 5.1.1Lexical need dialect. It is sometimes considered to be a more neutral term than the Switching may occur because of real lexical need, sometimes others. People also use “code”when they want to stress the uses of a because formulaic expressions in one language cannot be satisfactorily language or language variety in a particular community. CS refers to a translated into the second, sometimes because the speaker know the change by a speaker (or writer) from one language variety to another one. desired expression only in one language, and sometimes because access to CS can take place in a conversation when one speaker uses one language one languages is diminished. and the other speaker answers in a different language. A person may start This is a dialogue in my dormitory: speaking one language and then change to another one in the middle of 我的手机今天突然自己关了, 但再打开时时间也变了。 A: their speech or sometimes in the middle of a sentence. CS frequently 手机可能出问题了, 就像 了一样。 B:reset appears in people ’s daily communication in either a bilingual or The English word “reset”is used by the speaker B, because she multilingual communities. Just take our English major students for an 重 启 thought it is better than the Chinese word “”to express the exact example. In English class, we use English to ask and answer questions, meaning. but after class, we usually talk with each other in Chinese. 5.1.2Convenience and vividness ?.The type s of code - s witching More and more acronyms are found in our daily conversation. According to Blom and Gumperz ( qtd, in Saville- Troike,2003: 49 ), “Acronym”is a word made up from first letters of the name of something, we may distinguish between situational CS and metaphorical CS. 信息技术数字 such as “IT (information technology) ; DV (digital video) 4.1Situational CS 录像时代激光唱片电子时代; E- ( electronic time) ; CD(Compact Disk) ; 视频高密光盘数 VCD (Video Compact Disk) ; DVD( Digital Video Disk) Situational CS occurs when a language change accompanies a 字 化 视 频 光 盘 首 席 执 行 官 ”; CEO (Chief Executive Officer) ; MSN change of topics or participants, or any time the communicative situation 微软网络服务流行音乐节目主持 (Microsoft Network) ; DJ(disc jockey) , speaker ’s is redefined. Showing the effect of domain differences, a 人重要人物大人物 ; VIP (Very Important Person) ,etc.”Obviously, these vocabulary will develop differentially for different topics in the two words are very simple and easily can be remembered and recognized. languages. Saville - Troike (2003: 49) describes a very typical example. What’s more, they have been familiar to people. On the contrary, the Within a single conversation, Navajo teachers usually speak English to Chinese equivalents of these words are usually very complicated and one another when discussing matters related to school, for instance, but sometimes very awkward- sounding. Therefore, it is more convenient to may switch to Navajo to discuss their families, rodeos and other use these English acronyms than the Chinese translations. community activities. They may also situationally switch into English if Similar to the English acronyms, some one- English- letter words also non - Navajo speakers join the conversation, so the new arrivals will not appear frequently in fashion genres. They usually occur in the form of be excluded. 字裙形领“English letter + Chinese character”. For instance: “A ; V ; O 4.2Metaphorical CS 形腿; 形台; 次字区” T N ; T . These words are formed by the similarity ofMetaphorical CS occurs within a single situation, but concerned with
role - relationships. It is important to note that each of a bilingual ’s the shapes, i.e. the shape of the object and the shape of the letter. Take languages is likely associated with them. Since speaking different 字裙“A”as an example. There areindeed some similarities betweenthe 2012-07-19################2012-07-19########2012-07-19########languages is an obvious marker of differential group membership, by
shape of the skirt and the shape of the letter “A”. In addition, this kind context and intent of the speaker. If we can comfortably control a number of words can make the language more concise and more vivid. of codes, then we would appear to have an advantage over those who lack
such control. Speaking several of the languages can obviously be 5.1.3Rhetorical device
Code - switching may distinctly advantageous in a multilingual gathering. In recent years, in many children ballads and short messages sent be a very useful social skill. It is a verbal strategy and is to be recognized through the mobile phone, sometimes we can see English words mixed as a dimension of communicative competence. with Chinese phrases. CS makes the wording full of rhythms and can achieve special rhetorical effect. For instance: ?我 在 学 校 读 总 是 想 要 来 来 往 往 结 果 考 了 个book, smoke, bike, Refer ences 老师一扫 [ 1] Saville - Troike,M. The Ethnography of Communication, An egg, desk,
Introduction.[M]. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2003. Stand up, go out. (Hu, 2003(4): 41)
[ 2] Spolsky, B. Sociolinguistics.[M] Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Thanks to the simple pronunciation and rhyme achieved by the last
Education Publisher,2000. phoneme, the insertion of the English words makes the ballads very
lovely. [ 3] Wardhaugh, R. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. [M] Oxford:
5.1.4 Humor Blackwell Publisher,1986,1992.
[ ] 董胜外来词的修辞作用修辞学习 Besides the above functions, CS can also be adopted for humor. In 4..[J]..2004.(3).
[ ] 胡宗哲中小学流行语简析 one opusculum by the well - known actor and actress Zhao Benshan and 5..[J].2003.(4).
[ ] 李海英赵本山小品语言表达手段略述 Song Dandan, Zhao Benshan used CS in his lines: 6..[J].2003.(1).
[ ] 于国栋语码转换的语用学研究外国语 是恁个事, 她说呀, 那么个大楼, 咱别在一块堆挤了。咱俩一个床 7..[J].2000.(6).你说我耽误你学外语你上去感情这玩意儿是距离产生美这我一上 , 。。
楼距离是拉开了美没了看不见我了吃饭也不正经招呼我了打电, , , , 。 更 正 话 通 知 我 , 还 用 外 语 : 啊 , 饭 已 经 了 , 下 来 咪 西 吧 。 Hello OK 因排版失误将包头师范学院王海涛老师刊发在科技信 , 《 息月 日 第 九 期》3 20 《 Cre a t in g a Go o d La n g u a g e Le a rn in g ( Li, 2003, (1): 29) 页的文章摘要和作者简介漏排漏排内 En viro n m e n t 》144~146 , It is known to everyone that Zhao Benshan is very humorous himself. 容如下: In the above example, the insertion of English words makes the language Bibliogr aphy more humorous and fashionable. [ 1] Gardner, R. and W. Lamber (1972). Attitudes and Motivation 5.2Social functions in Second Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 5.2.1To keep the content in secrecy [ 2] Hamer, Jeremy (1983). The Practice of English Language Sometimes speaker switches code that others could not understand in Teaching. New York: longman, Inc. order to keep the content in secrecy. For example, in front of the guests, [ 3] Larsen - Freeman, D. (1987). “From Unity to Diversity: if the family members want to say something secretly, they will use their Twenty - Five Years of Language - Teaching Methodology.” dialect in order not to let the guests understand them. Language Teaching Forum, 25: 2- 10. 5.2.2To show off [ 4] McDonough, Steven. (1981). Psychology in Foreign Language Sometimes CS is used to make a display of his ability of speaking Teaching. London: George Allen and Unwin, Ltd. multi- language. For instance, some people would like to speak English or [ ] “ 5Smith, Melissa. Handling Silence in the Classroom byCantonese in public occasion so as to show off their social status. In a ” Building Students' Confidence.ELI Teaching. 20 (Septemberfamous book Fortress Besieged (qtd, in Dong, 2004 (3): 78) , Miss Bao 1995): 36. 方先生你叫我想起我的 你的相貌和他像said to Mr. Fang“, , finance, [ ] “” 6Wang Caili. How to Create an Active Atmosphere Class.极了 ” .ELI Teaching. 27 (December 1997): 13. In this way, by inserting the French word, Miss Bao showed that she [ 7] Wang Dong. “Motivation in Foreign Language Teaching.” ELI had studied in France. Teaching. 24 (December 1996): 36- 38. 5.2.3 To avoid social embarrassment [ ] “ 8Zhan Jinghui and Lui Wenjing. Cultivating CommunicationWhen talking about some non- free topics in public, CS often occurs, ” Competence in Intensive Reading.ELI Teaching. 25 (Aprilin order to convey information and at the same time, avoid social 1997): 33. embarrassment. [ ] 崔丽超寻找好的学习方法中外书摘 9. [J]. , 2000, (4).A,B,C are three Chinese postgraduates, the dialogue occurred on their way to a conference. 作者简介王海涛男年 月出生 助教 本科学士学 : , , 1977 6 , , 去澳大利亚都看了些什么A:? 位研究方向语言学, : 。 啊! 看到的东西太多了 比如美丽的城市清静的乡村对了 B:, , , , 特此更正。黄金海岸的沙滩美极了 !本刊编辑部 你没有去看 C:Stripper?
B:Frankly speaking, yes. It was really a different experience. And
the performers have excellent figures. Oh, Amazing
(Yu, 2000, (6): 26) 更 正When talking about the Stripper, both B and C switched to English 本刊 年第 期总第 期第 页膜结构在大 2007 6 ( 218 ) 108 《 to avoid embarrassment in public. 跨度结构中的应用第二作者杨国力应为杨国立》“ ”“ ”。 5.2.3 Repair strategy 特此更正并向作者致歉 , !In some cases, CS functions as a repair strategy, when the speaker 本刊编辑部realizes they have been using an inappropriate code, such as telephone
喂你好 conversation. We usually answer the phone by“ , (hello )? ”,but 更 正if a foreign voice comes from the phone, we will immediately changes to 本刊 年第 期总第 期第 页筑路机械修 2007 9 ( 221 ) 194 《《 foreign language. 理教学的几点体会工作单位所在市郑州应为南阳》》“ ”“ ”。 ?.Conclus ion 特此更正并向作者致歉 , !Code - switching is a very common phenomenon in our daily 本刊编辑部conversation. The right choice of code is highly dependent on the social
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