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Affixesandroots

By Deborah Davis,2014-06-01 03:04
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affixes roots and shoots roots hack roots rootsuperoneclick matlab roots grassroots the roots roots canada the roots of lisp

    Affix词缀

    I. Prefix 前缀

    1. Negative prefix 否定前缀

    a- apolitical, atypical, asocial, amoral

    ab- abnormal

    dis- dislike

    il- illiterate, illogic

    im- impossible, improbable, immature

    in- injustice

    ir- irresistible, irresponsible

    non- nonstop, nonsmoking

    un- unsmiling ,unwilling, unpleasant 2. Pejorative prefixes 贬义前缀

    mis mistake

    3. Prefixes of degree or size 程度和大小的前缀

    co- jointly +n./v. coauthor, cooperation

    extra- very +adj. extra-large ,extra-strong, extraordinary

    hyper- extreme +adj. hyperactive, hyper creative

    macro- large macro-economy

    micro very small Microsoft, microwave

    mini- little +n. mini-bus

    out- surpassing +n./v./adj. outlive, outnumber

    over- excessive +n./v./adj. overweight, overestimate

    super- more than +n./adj. super modern, superman

    under- beneath, underground, underdevelopment,

    insufficient underestimate 4. Prefixes of orientation and attitude 有关态度的前缀

    anti- against +n./adj. anti-war, anti-nuclear 5. Location prefixes 方位前缀

    extra- outside extravert

    fore- front part of forehead

    inter- between, among internet, international

    tele- distant telephone, telescope

    trans- across transplant, translation 6. Prefixes of time and order 时间和顺序前缀

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    fore- before forefather, forward post- after postwar pre- in advance preview, prepare re- again, back reread, review 7. Number prefixes 数字前缀

    bi- two bicycle, bilingual multi- many multimedia, multilingual tri- three triangle uni- one uniform, unity kilo- thousand kilogram, kilometer 8. Conversion prefixes 改变词性的前缀

    a- Asleep, awake, alive

    be- befriend, beloved

    en- enable, endanger, enlarge, enrich em- embitter, empower

    9. Miscellaneous prefixes 混杂前缀

    auto- self automobile, autobiography vice- deputy vice-chairman,

    vice-governor II. Suffixes 后缀

    1. Noun suffixes 名词后缀

    A. Demonical nouns

    1). Concrete nouns 具体名词后缀

    -eer engineer

    -er teenager, westerner

    -ess hostess, actress

    2). Abstract nouns 抽象名词后缀

    -age usage, storage

    -dom freedom

    -ful handful, mouthful

    -hood childhood, brotherhood

    -ing farming, gardening

    -ism socialism, tourism

    -ship friendship

    B. Deverbal nouns 动词变来的名词

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    1). Concrete nouns 具体名词 -ant applicant, occupant -ee employee, addressee -ent respondent

    -er teacher, worker

    2). Abstract nouns 抽象后缀

    -al dismissal, survival -ance insurance, attendance -ation,-ition.-tion,-sion,-ion operation, protection -ence existence, independence -ing building, savings -ment movement, development C. De-adjective nouns 形容词变名词的后缀 -ity ability, morality, popularity -ness illness, happiness D. Noun and adjective suffixes 既是形容词又是名词的后缀

    -ese Chinese, Japanese -an Darwinian

    -ist artist, tourist, scientist -ian musician

    2. Adjective suffixes 形容词后缀 A. Demonical suffixes -ed blue-eyed, giant-sized -ful beautiful, merciful -ish childish, snobbish -less humorless, nameless -ly friendly, soldierly -y sunny, windy

    -ous anxious

    B. Deverbal suffixes 去动词化的后缀 -able,-ible admirable, identifiable -ative,-ive,-sive talkative, active, decisive

    3. Adverbial suffixes 副词后缀

    -ly firmly, happily -ward,-wards homewards, forward, toward

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4. Verbal suffixes 动词后缀

    -ate originate

    -en heighten ,strengthen

    -ify amplify, modify, solidify

    -ize organize, modernize

    Roots词根

    -act- do, move action, transact -aer-,-aero- air aero plane -anim- life animal, animate -annu- year annual, anniversary -arch- rule anarchy, monarchy -astro- star astrology, astronomy -audi- hear audience, audit -bio- life biology -cardi- heart cardinal, cardiac -ced- go precede, exceed -cert- certain certify, certificate -circ- ring circle

    -cosm- world cosmos -cred- believe credit, credible -cycl- circle cycle, bicycle -dent- tooth dentist -dict- say dictation, dictator -ego- I egoist, egocentric -equ- equal equality, equivalent -flu- flow fluent, influence -geo- earth geography, geometry -gram- write sth., written grammar -graph- write photograph, telegraph -hydro- water hydroelectric, hydrology -ject- throw project, inject -later- side unilateral, bilateral -leg-,-legis- law legal, legislate -lingu- language linguistics, bilingual -litter- letter literature, literal -loc- place local, locate -log- speak apology, logic -lun- moon lunar, superlunary -metr- measuring geometry, barometer

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    -nov- new novel, innovate -nutri- nourish nutrition, malnutrition -pel- push propel, expel, repel -port- carry portable, import, export -pos- put expose, compose -rupt- break interrupt, disrupt -scend- climb ascend, descend

    -scribe- write describe, scripture -sol- alone solo, solitary -son- sound sonic, resonant -struct- build structure, construct -thermo- heat thermos -tract- draw tractor, attract -vert- turn subvert, divert, reverse -vis-,-vid- see visible, visit, advise -viv- live survive, revive, vivid

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