By Lynn Simmons,2014-06-01 01:28
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    Ex. Fast Reading


    Happiness and Sadness

     Happiness and sadness are two most basic and familiar feeling for human beingsRecently, people have

    achieved further understanding about them


     University of Illinoispsychologist Ed Diener, who has studied happiness for a quarter century, was in Scotland,

    recently, explaining to members of Parliament and business leaders the value of increasing traditional measures of

    a country‟s wealth with a national index of happinessSuch an index would measure policies known to increase people‟s sense of well-beingsuch as democratic freedomsaccess to health care and the rule of law

     Eric Wilson tried to get with the programUrged on by friendshe bought books on how to become happierHe

    made every effort to smooth out his habitual worried look and wear a sunny smilesince a happy expression can lead to genuinely happy feelingsWilsona professor of English at Wake Forest University, took up jogging

    reputed to boost the brain‟s supply of joyful neuron-chemicals, and began his conversations with “great!” and

    “wonderful!”, the better to exercise his capacity for enthusiasm

     However, some scientists are releasing the most-extensive-ever study comparing moderate and extreme levels of

    happiness, and finding that being happier is not always betterIn surveys of 118,519 people from 96 countries, scientists examined how various levels of subjective well-being matched up with incomeeducationpolitical

    participationvolunteer activities and close relationshipsThey also analyzed how different levels of happiness

    as reported by college studentscorrelated with various outcomesEven allowing for imprecision in people‟s

    self-reported sense of well-beingthe results were unambiguousThe highest levels of happiness go along with the most stablelongest and most contented relationshipsThat iseven a little discontent with your partner can cause you to look around for someone better, until you are at best a serial monogamist and at worst never in a loving

    stable relationship

     Nevertheless, once a moderate level of happiness is achievedfurther increases can sometimes be harmful to incomecareer successeducation and political participation”Diener and colleagues write in the journal Perspectives on Psychological ScienceOn a scale from 1 to 10where 10s is extremely happy, 8s is more successful than 9s and 10sgetting more education and earning moreThat probably reflects the fact that people who are somewhat discontentbut not so depressed as to be paralyzedare more motivated to improve both their own lot (thus driving themselves to acquire more education and seek ever-more-challenging jobs) and the lot of

    their community (causing them to participate more in civic and political life)In contrastpeople at the top of the jolliness charts feel no such urgency”If you‟re totally satisfied with your life and with how things are going in the

    world says Diener, “you don‟t feel very motivated to work for changeBe wary when people tell you that you should be happier


     The drawbacks of constantextreme happiness should not be surprisingsince negative emotions evolved for a reasonFear tips us off to the presence of danger, for instanceSadnesstooseems to be part of our biological inheritanceWilson argues that only by experiencing sadness can we experience the fullness of the human

    conditionHe also asserts that “the happy man is a hollow man but he is hardly the first scholar to see melancholia (精神忧郁症) as inspirationA classical Greek textpossibly written by Aristotleasks, Why is it

    that all those who have become outstanding in philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts are clearly melancholic?”

    Wilson‟s answer is that the blues can be a catalyst (催化剂) for a special kind of geniusa genius for exploring

    dark boundaries between opposites The ever-restlessthe chronically discontentare dissatisfied with the status quobe it in art or literature or politics

     For all their familiarity, these arguments are nevertheless being crushed by the happiness movementLast

    Augustthe novelist Mary Gordon lamented to The New York Times that “among writers…what is absolutely not

    allowable is sadnessPeople will do anything rather than to acknowledge that they are sad AndJess Decourcy

    Hindsan English teacher, recounted how, after her father diedfriends pressed her to distract herself from her profound sadness and sense of loss”Why don‟t people accept that after a parent‟s deaththere will be years of

    grief ? she wrote “Everyone wants mourners to „snap out of it‟ because observing another‟s distress isn‟t easy

     It‟s hard to say exactly when ordinary Americansno less than psychiatrists (精神病学家)began insisting that


    Ex. Fast Reading

    sadness is pathological (病态的)But by the end of the millennium that attitude was well establishedIn

    1999Arthur Miller‟s Death of a Salesman was revived on Broadway 50 years after its premiereA reporter asked two psychiatrists to read the scriptTheir diagnosisWilly Loman was suffering from clinical depressiona

    pathological condition that could and should be treated with drugsMiller was appalled”Loman is not a

    depressive”he told The New York Times”He is weighed clown by lifeThere are social reasons fur why he is where he is”What society once viewed as all appropriate reaction to failed hopes and dashed dreamsit now

    regards as a psychiatric illness

     As NYU‟s Wakefield and Allan Horwitz of Rutgers University point out in The Loss of Sadnessthis message

    has its roots in the bible of mental illnessThe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersIts definition

    of a “major depressive episode” is remarkably broadYou must experience five not-uncommon symptomssuch as

    insomnia (失眠)difficulty concentrating and feeling sad or empty, fur two weeksthe symptoms must cause distress or impairmentand they cannot be due to the death of a loved oneAnyone meeting these criteria is supposed to be treated

     When someone is appropriately sadfriends and colleagues offer support and sympathyBut by labeling

    appropriate sadness pathological, we have attached a stigma to being sad says Wakefield, with the result that depression tends to elicit hostility and rejection” with an undercurrent of Get over ittake a pill. The normal

    range of human emotion is not being tolerated. We don‟t know how drugs react with normal sadness and its functionssuch as reconstituting your life out of the pain says WakefieldThose psychiatrists also express doubts to medicalise the sadness

    1According to Ed Diener, which of the following can be measured by the index of happiness?

     A)The standard of morality B)The freedom of speech

     C)The sense of well-being D)The access to health care

    2In order to be happy, Wilson tried many ways such as .

     A)borrowing books on how to become happier B)trying to keep a sunny smile

     C)starting his conversations with” Hello!” D)trying to have a good rest

    3Who have the highest level of happiness according to the survey in 96 countries?

     A)People with the most wealth B)People with the best health

     C)People with the highest position D)People with the most stable relationship

    4According to Diener‟s statements in Perspectives on Psychological Sciencethe person with the moderate level of happiness will get

     A)more education B)moderate Success C)less earning D)more reputation 5According to Diener, why do those people with the highest level of happiness have less motivation to move


    A)Because they have spent all their time pursuing the happiness

    B)Because they don't allow their work to affect their feeling of happiness

    C)Because they are too satisfied with happiness they have owned

    D)Because they do not like people to tell them to be happier

    6Which of the following is the possible answer to the questions set by Aristotle in Wilson‟s opinion?

    A)The sadness Call make one be stronger

    B)The sadness can make one be intelligent

    C)The sadness can force one to think more deeply

    D)The sadness can make one more depressed

    7After the death of her father, friends of Jess Hinds tried to help her out of

    A)working pressure B)emotional trouble

     C)economic pressure D)marriage problem

    8Willy, the character in Death of a Salesmanwas diagnosed by two psychiatrists to get suffering from

    9One experiencing a major depressive episode” has to experience five not-uncommon symptoms fur a period of .

    10When someone is not in good moodhis friends should give him .


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