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Manuscript Submission

    Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities tacitly or explicitly at the institute where the

    work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.


    Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors. Online Submission

    Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online”

    on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.

    Title Page

    The title page should include:

    o The name(s) of the author(s)

    o A concise and informative title

    o The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)

    o The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the

    corresponding author


    Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references. Keywords

    ; Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

    Text Formatting

    Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.

    o Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text. o Use italics for emphasis.

    o Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages. o Do not use field functions.

    o Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar. o Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables. o Use the equation editor or MathType for equations. o Save your file in docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or doc format

    (older Word versions).

    o Word template (zip, 154 kB)

    Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX. o LaTeX macro package (zip, 182 kB)


    Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.


    ; Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.


    Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables. Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.

    Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.


    Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

    Scientific style

    Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units, SI units.



    Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:

    o Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990). o This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman (1996). o This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995;

    Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1999).

    Reference list

    The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.

    o Journal article

    Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S,

    Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart

    rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol

    105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8

    Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of

    “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:

    Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health

    insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325329

    o Article by DOI

    Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated

    cytokine production. J Mol Med. doi:10.1007/s001090000086 o Book

    South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell,


    o Book chapter

    Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The

    rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257 o Online document

    Cartwright J (2007) Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing

    PhysicsWeb. Accessed

    26 June 2007

    o Dissertation

    Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation,

    University of California

    ; Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the

    ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see


    For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.

    o EndNote style (zip, 3 kB)


    o All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.

    o Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive

    numerical order.

    o For each table, please supply a table caption (title)

    explaining the components of the table.

    o Identify any previously published material by giving the

    original source in the form of a reference at the end of the

    table caption.

    o Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript

    lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and

    other statistical data) and included beneath the table body. Artwork and Illustrations Guidelines

    For the best quality final product, it is highly recommended that you submit all

    of your artwork photographs, line drawings, etc. in an electronic format.

    Your art will then be produced to the highest standards with the greatest

accuracy to detail. The published work will directly reflect the quality of the

    artwork provided.

    Electronic Figure Submission

    o Supply all figures electronically.

    o Indicate what graphics program was used to create the


    o For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for

    halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also


    o Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts

    embedded in the files.

    o Name your figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g.,


    Line Art

    o Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.

    o Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines

    and lettering within the figures are legible at final size. o All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide. o Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format

    should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.

    o Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts

    embedded in the files.

    Halftone Art

    o Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine

    shading, etc.

    o If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this

    by using scale bars within the figures themselves. o Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

    Combination Art

    o Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g.,

    halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color

    diagrams, etc.

    o Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of

    600 dpi.

    Color Art

    o Color art is free of charge for online publication.

    o If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that

    the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not

    distinguishable from one another when converted to black

    and white. A simple way to check this is to make a

    xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions

    between the different colors are still apparent.

    o If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in

    the captions.

    o Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel). Figure Lettering

    o To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).

    o Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork,

    usually about 23 mm (812 pt).

    o Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal,

    e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the

    axis label.

    o Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc. o Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.

    Figure Numbering

    o All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals. o Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive

    numerical order.

    o Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c,


    o If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or

    more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the

    main text. Do not number the appendix figures, "A1, A2, A3,

    etc." Figures in online appendices (Electronic

    Supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered


    Figure Captions

    o Each figure should have a concise caption describing

    accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in

    the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file. o Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type,

    followed by the figure number, also in bold type. o No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any

    punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption. o Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption;

    and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs. o Identify previously published material by giving the original

    source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the

    figure caption.

Figure Placement and Size

    o When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column


    o For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129

    mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.

    o For books and book-sized journals, the figures should be 80

    mm or 122 mm wide and not higher than 198 mm.


    If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.


    In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that

    o All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then

    use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)

    o Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for

    conveying information (color-blind users would then be able

    to distinguish the visual elements)

    o Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1

    ; Does Springer provide English language


    Manuscripts that are accepted for publication will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style. This may not be sufficient if English is not your native language and substantial editing would be required. In that

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