Electric potential approximations for an eight node plate finite element

By Zachary Palmer,2014-06-26 04:49
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Electric potential approximations for an eight node plate finite element

    interpretation of the correlation between cash flow and investment is controversial. Some argue that it is caused by financial constraints, others by the correlation between cash flow and investment opportunities that are not properly measured by Tobin??s Q. This paper uses UK firms?? contracted capital expenditure to capture information about opportunities available only to insiders and thus not included in Q. When this variable is added to investment regressions, the explanatory power of cash flow falls for large firms, but remains unchanged for small firms. This suggests that the significance of cash flow stems from its role in capturing the effects of credit frictions. Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Why does cash flow matter for investment? Summary of the principal points of the controversy

    3. Baseline specification and estimation methodology

    4. Main features of the data and descriptive statistics 4.1. The data set

    4.2. The contracted capital expenditure variable

    4.3. Summary statistics

    5. Estimation results

    5.1. Baseline results

    5.2. Introducing contracted capital expenditure and allowing for firm heterogeneity

    5.3. Robustness checks

    6. Conclusion


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     Private cards and the bypass of payment systems by merchants Original Research Article

    Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 34, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 1798-1807

    Marc Bourreau, Marianne Verdier

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    This paper studies the incentives of a merchant to bypass a payment platform by issuing private cards. In our model, a payment platform allocates the total cost of a card transaction between a monopolistic issuer and a monopolistic acquirer by choosing an ??interchange fee??. We determine how the level of the interchange fee impacts a merchant??s

    decision to issue private cards, if there are strategic interactions between merchants. We prove that the payment platform can only deter entry by lowering the level of the interchange fee. If the payment platform chooses to accommodate entry, we find that the total user surplus increases, but that entry is beneficial to social welfare only if the entry cost is sufficiently low.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. The model

    2.1. Merchants

    2.2. Consumers

    2.3. Banks

    2.4. Payment system

    2.5. Other assumptions

    2.6. Timing

    3. A benchmark: No private card

    4. The equilibrium with private cards

    4.1. Stage 5 and 4: Card acceptance decisions and prices 4.1.1. Stage 5: Consumers?? demand if both merchant accept bank cards 4.1.2. Stage 4: Merchants?? prices if both merchant accept bank cards 4.1.3. Card acceptance conditions

    4.2. Stage 3: Choice of transaction fees

    4.3. Stage 2: Decision to issue a private card

    4.4. Stage 1: Choice of the interchange fee

    4.4.1. Comparative statics

    4.4.2. Profit maximising interchange fee

    4.4.3. A numerical example

    5. Extensions and discussions

    5.1. The impact of the banking market structure on the incentives to issue private cards

    5.2. Analysis of the reaction of the second merchant

    6. Conclusion


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     Investment bank releases flow control industry report Pump Industry Analyst, Volume 2010, Issue 8, August 2010, Page 12

     Close preview | Related articles | Related reference work articles AbstractAbstractUS investment bank Jordan, Knauff & Co has published a report on the flow control industry from a capital markets perspective. Purchase

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     Numerical studies on flow amplification at an isolated shelfbreak bank, with application to Porcupine Bank Original Research Article Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issue 9, June 2002, Pages 1325-1338

    Christian Mohn, Aike Beckmann

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    A terrain-following coordinate ocean circulation model is used to study different mechanisms of flow amplification at a shelf-edge submarine bank. The work is motivated by repeated hydrographic surveys which revealed strong currents and anomalous density structures at Porcupine Bank, located at the shelf edge west of Ireland. Both steady and periodic forcing are investigated for weak, moderate and strong stratification. The resulting time-mean flows differ significantly in strength and structure and suggest that flow rectification through resonant amplification of diurnal trapped waves is the main process to explain the observed density and current fields.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Hydrography and circulation at Porcupine Bank

    3. The numerical model

    3.1. Model concept

    3.2. Configuration

    3.3. Sub-gridscale parameterizations

    3.4. Initialization

    3.5. Forcing

    4. Results

    4.1. Steady forcing

    4.2. Periodic forcing

    5. Summary and discussion


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     Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from card readers of access control systems on electronic pocket dosimeters Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 62, Issue 6, June 2005, Pages 951-953

Shizuhiko Deji, Kunihide Nishizawa

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    High-frequency electromagnetic fields in the 120 kHz band emitted from card readers for access control systems caused abnormally high doses on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPDs). All EPDs recovered their normal performance by resetting after the exposure ceased. The electric and magnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were estimated by using the distances needed to prevent electromagnetic interference. Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Materials and methods

    2.1. Card reader

    2.2. EPD

    2.3. Measurement

    3. Results

    4. Discussion

    5. Conclusions

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     The interaction between technical currency trading and exchange rate fluctuations Original Research Article

    Finance Research Letters, Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2006, Pages 212-233

    Stephan Schulmeister

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    This paper examines the mutually reinforcing interactions between exchange rate dynamics and technical trading strategies. I first show that technical trading systems have been quite profitable during the floating rate period. This profitability stems from the successful exploitation of exchange-rate trends and not from taking winning positions relatively frequently. I then show that technical models exert an excess demand pressure on currency markets. When these models produce trading signals, almost all signals are on the same side of the market, either buying or selling. When technical models maintain open positions they are either long or short. Initial exchange rate movements triggered by news or by stop?Closs orders are strengthened

    by technical trading and are often transformed into a trend. This ??multiplier effect?? is reflected by the close relationship between technical trading signals and order flows. Hence, order flows are not only driven by (fundamental) news but also by technical trading, which reinforces exchange rate trends to which it responds.

    Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. The performance of technical currency trading

    3. Aggregate trading behavior and price effects of technical models 3.1. The aggregation of trading signals

    3.2. Similarities in position taking of technical models 3.3. The interaction between technical currency trading and exchange rate movements

    4. Summary and concluding remarks

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     Modelling nutrient transport in Currency Creek, NSW with AnnAGNPS and PEST Original Research Article

    Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 18, Issues 8-9, October-November 2003, Pages 801-808

    B. Baginska, W. Milne-Home, P. S. Cornish

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    The modelling package Annualized Agricultural Nonpoint Source Model (AnnAGNPS) was applied to the prediction of export of nitrogen and phosphorus from Currency Creek, a small experimental catchment within the Hawkesbury?CNepean drainage basin of the Sydney Region. The catchment is 255 ha in area and has experienced extensive soil erosion and losses of nutrients from intensive vegetable cultivation, irrigated dairy pasture and poultry farms. Simulations of nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the Currency Creek catchment were performed at various temporal scales and the degree of calibration was quantified by comparing the simulated data with the monitoring results. In addition, the model independent, nonlinear parameter estimation code PEST, was applied for sensitivity testing to determine and assess the relative importance of the key parameters of the model. Event flows were simulated satisfactorily with AnnAGNPS but only moderate accuracy was achieved for prediction of event-based nitrogen and phosphorus exports. The biggest deviations from the measured data were observed for daily simulations but trends in the generated nutrients matched observed data.

    Despite achieving good resemblance between measured and predicted phosphorus loads the model showed high level of sensitivity to assigned pH values for topsoil. Increase in pH by one unit resulted in up to 34% increase in model generated particulate phosphorus load. Article Outline

    1. Introduction

    2. Implementation of AnnAGNPS model

    2.1. Model description

    2.2. Study area?ªCurrency Creek catchment

    2.3. Catchment schematisation and input parameters

    3. Evaluation of model performance

    3.1. Flow calibration

    3.2. Optimising nutrient loads

    4. Conclusions

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     A Bayesian methodology to explore the effects of memory loss in currency markets Original Research Article

    Review of Financial Economics, Volume 11, Issue 3, 2002, Pages 163-173 Bluford H. Putnam

     Close preview | Related articles | Related reference work articles AbstractAbstract | ReferencesReferencesAbstract As time goes by, people tend to establish new norms based on more recent events and information. Old norms and standards are eclipsed by new developments. The same type of behavior appears to operate in financial markets. New and unexpected information can jolt a market, but over time market participants adjust to new patterns of information, of data flow, of market volatility, and even of structural change. On another level, one can ask the question of how much weight to give new information relative to old information. Market participants do this naturally, as they weigh new information, such as just-released economic data, compare it to their previously held expectations and then revise their expectations of future data releases and potential market reactions. When the question is viewed in this perspective, it seems quite natural to assume that new pieces of information, such as economic data releases, should be given more weight in assessing expectations of future market behavior than releases of the same type of data several months or even several years previously. That is, the information value of certain specific types of information, such as specific economic data releases, probably decays as time passes.

    This study proposes the use of a dynamic Bayesian technology to explore the effects of time decay in the value placed on specific bits of information that are received at regular intervals through time. The methodology that is being proposed is the main focus of this study and, to clarify this methodology, it is applied to the currency markets asking questions about the time decay pattern of certain economic data. The results reported in this example are purely for illustrative purposes, since they are specific to the data studied, the model specification of currency market behavior, and a wide variety of other assumptions embedded in this specific approach to currency analysis.

    Nevertheless, the results are interesting, if only because they demonstrate both the basic idea that new information is more valuable than old information and provide a useful and practical method of analyzing the issue of the time decay factor in how markets process information.

Article Outline

    1. Choosing a statistical methodology for time decay questions 2. A specific Bayesian approach for currency market analysis 3. Currency case study results

    Appendix A. Statistical appendix

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     Regional simulations of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow using a ?Ò-coordinate ocean model Original Research Article

    Ocean Modelling, Volume 35, Issues 1-2, 2010, Pages 31-44 Knut S. Seim, Ilker Fer, Jarle Berntsen

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     Continental slope sea level and flow variability induced by lateral movements of the Gulf Stream in the Middle Atlantic Bight Original Research Article