Joints 2

By Calvin Kennedy,2014-05-09 20:38
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Joints 2

Joints 2

Plane Joint

    ; Plane joints

    ; Articular surfaces are essentially flat

    ; Allow only slipping or gliding movements

    ; Only examples of nonaxial joints

    Types of Synovial Joints

    ; Hinge joints

    ; Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another

    ; Motion is along a single plane

    ; Uniaxial joints permit flexion and extension only

    ; Examples: elbow and interphalangeal joints Pivot Joints

    ; Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone (and possibly

    ligaments) of another

    ; Only uniaxial movement allowed

    ; Examples: joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint

    Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joints

    ; Oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another

    ; Both articular surfaces are oval

    ; Biaxial joints permit all angular motions

    ; Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints, and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints

    Saddle Joints

    ; Similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement ; Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface ; Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

    Ball-and-Socket Joints

    ; A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another

    ; Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints ; Examples: shoulder and hip joints

    Synovial Joints: Knee

    ; Largest and most complex joint of the body

    ; Allows flexion, extension, and some rotation ; Three joints in one surrounded by a single joint cavity

    ; Femoropatellar joint

    ; Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints

    Synovial Joints: Knee Ligaments and Tendons Anterior View

    ; Tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle

    ; Lateral and medial patellar retinacula

    ; Fibular and tibial collateral ligaments

    ; Patellar ligament

Other Supporting Structures

    ; Anterior cruciate ligament

    ; Posterior cruciate ligament

    ; Medial meniscus (semilunar cartilage)

    ; Lateral meniscus

Posterior Superficial View

    ; Adductor magnus tendon

    ; Articular capsule

    ; Oblique popliteal ligament

    ; Arcuate popliteal ligament

; Semimembranosus tendon

    Synovial Joints: Shoulder (Glenohumeral)

    ; Ball-and-socket joint in which stability is sacrificed to obtain greater freedom of movement

    ; Head of humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula Synovial Joints: Elbow

    ; Hinge joint that allows flexion and extension only ; Radius and ulna articulate with the humerus

    ; Annular ligament

    ; Ulnar collateral ligament

    ; Radial collateral ligament

    Synovial Joints: Shoulder Stability

    ; Weak stability is maintained by:

    ; Thin, loose joint capsule

    ; Four ligaments coracohumeral, and three glenohumeral

    ; Tendon of the long head of biceps, which travels through the intertubercular groove and

    secures the humerus to the glenoid cavity

    ; Rotator cuff (four tendons) that encircles the shoulder joint and blends with the articular


    Synovial Joints: Hip (Coxal) Joint

    ; Ball-and-socket joint

    ; Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum ; Good range of motion, but limited by the deep socket and strong ligaments

    Synovial Joints: Hip Stability

    ; Acetabular labrum

    ; Iliofemoral ligament

    ; Pubofemoral ligament

    ; Ischiofemoral ligament

    ; Ligamentum teres

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)

    ; Mandibular condyle articulate with the temporal bone ; Two types of movement

    ; Hinge depression and elevation of mandible

    ; Side to side (lateral excursion) grinding of teeth Sprains

    ; The ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn ; Partially torn ligaments slowly repair themselves ; Completely torn ligaments require prompt surgical repair Cartilage Injuries

    ; The snap and pop of overstressed cartilage

    ; Common aerobics injury

    ; Repaired with arthroscopic surgery


    ; Occur when bones are forced out of alignment

    ; Usually accompanied by sprains, inflammation, and joint immobilization

    ; Caused by serious falls and are common sports injuries ; Subluxation partial dislocation of a joint

    Inflammatory and Degenerative Conditions

    ; Bursitis

    ; An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction

    ; Symptoms are pain and swelling

    ; Treated with anti-inflammatory drugs; excessive fluid may be aspirated

    ; Tendonitis

    ; Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse

    ; Symptoms and treatment are similar to bursitis


    ; More than 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints ; Most widespread crippling disease in the U.S.

    ; Symptoms pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint

    ; Acute forms are caused by bacteria and are treated with antibiotics ; Chronic forms include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis Osteoarthritis (OA)

    ; Most common chronic arthritis; often called “wear-and-tear” arthritis

    ; Affects women more than men

    ; 85% of all Americans develop OA

    ; More prevalent in the aged, and is probably related to the normal aging process Osteoarthritis: Course

    ; OA reflects the years of abrasion and compression causing increased production of metalloproteinase enzymes that break down cartilage

    ; As one ages, cartilage is destroyed more quickly than it is replaced ; The exposed bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, and restrict movement ; Joints most affected are the cervical and lumbar spine, fingers, knuckles, knees, and hips Osteoarthritis: Treatments

    ; OA is slow and irreversible

    ; Treatments include:

    ; Mild pain relievers, along with moderate activity

    ; Magnetic therapy

    ; Glucosamine sulfate decreases pain and inflammation

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

    ; Chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of unknown cause, with an insidious onset ; Usually arises between the ages of 40 to 50, but may occur at any age ; Signs and symptoms include joint tenderness, anemia, osteoporosis, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular problems

    ; The course of RA is marked with exacerbations and remissions

    Rheumatoid Arthritis: Course

    ; RA begins with synovitis of the affected joint

    ; Inflammatory chemicals are inappropriately released

    ; Inflammatory blood cells migrate to the joint, causing swelling ; Inflamed synovial membrane thickens into a pannus

    ; Pannus erodes cartilage, scar tissue forms, articulating bone ends connect ; The end result, ankylosis, produces bent, deformed fingers

    Rheumatoid Arthritis: Treatment

    ; Conservative therapy aspirin, long-term use of antibiotics, and physical therapy ; Progressive treatment anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants

    ; The drug Enbrel, a biological response modifier, neutralizes the harmful properties of inflammatory chemicals

    Gouty Arthritis

    ; Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by an inflammation response

    ; Typically, gouty arthritis affects the joint at the base of the great toe ; In untreated gouty arthritis, the bone ends fuse and immobilize the joint ; Treatment colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and glucocorticoids Developmental Aspects of Joints

    ; By embryonic week 8, synovial joints resemble adult joints

    ; Few problems occur until late middle age

    ; Advancing years take their toll on joints:

    ; Ligaments and tendons shorten and weaken

    ; Intervertebral discs become more likely to herniate

    ; Most people in their 70s have some degree of OA

    ; Prudent exercise (especially swimming) that coaxes joints through their full range of motion is key

    to postponing joint problems

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