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Biophysics

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Biophysics

    Biophysics

    Coursework ?f „Bi?physics” includes biophysics of human and elements of medical physics. In general biophysics is an interdisciplinary branch of science which develops at the border of physics, chemistry, biology and medical sciences. It employs physical methods and techniques to study phenomena taking place in living organisms at all levels of their organization, from the micro to the macro scale, from molecules to cells and whole organisms. Medical physics means application of physical phenomena and physical methods and techniques (e.g. ultrasounds, light, laser, ionizing radiation, nuclear resonance) in medical diagnosis and therapy.

Teachers:

    Lectures : dr hab. Stefan Kruszewski, prof. UMK

    dr Maciej Bosek

     dr Małg?rzata Pyskir

    dr Blanka Ziomkowska

Contact: dr Blanka Ziomkowska blanka@cm.umk.pl

    Syllabus

    I. Department of Biophysics

    II. Head of the Department: Dr hab. Br?nisław Grzeg?rzewski, pr?f UMK

    III. Faculty of Medicine, first year

    IV. Programme Tutor: dr hab. Stefan Kruszewski, prof UMK

    V. Lectures and tutorials

    VI. Assessment: Examination, 7 ECTS points

    VII. Subject Hours: lectures 30h , exercises 45h, total 75h

    VIII. Aims of the Subject:

    Providing with fundamental laws and research methods of physic in order to describe the features of biological systems and phenomena occurring in them.

    IX. Lecture topics:

    1. Introduction. What is Biophysics. Structure of matter. Fundamental interactions.

    2. Mathematical description of dependences between physical quantity. Derivative,

    integral and differential equations.

    3. Laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic function of state, chemical potential.

    Diffusion, osmosis. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, transport. Open systems.

    Electrochemical potential. Electrode potential, diffusion potential, membrane potential.

    Elements of bioenergetics.

    4. Biophysics of cell. Cell membrane, transmembrane transport. Resting potential. Nervous

    tissue, action potential. Muscular tissue.

    5. Vibration, acoustic wave. Reflection coefficient. Sound features, sound intensity level,

    loudness level. Auditory system, speech organs.

    6. Viscosity, fluid flow. Viscosity of blood, vessel resistance. Circulatory system. 7. Optics. Electromagnetic wave. Optical fiber. Optical systems. Microscopic technique.

    Resolving power. Optical layout of the eye, defects of vision. Vision process. Illumination

    units. Lasers in medicine.

    8. Electricity and magnetism. Maxwell equations. Electric dipole. Cardiac pacemaker.

    Electrocardiography. Einthoven lead.

    9. Electric current. RC, RL and RLC circuits. Electric features of cells and tissues. 10. The influence of physical factors on organism. Mechanical, thermal, electric and magnetic

    factors, ionic radiation.

    11. Physical methods in medical diagnostics.

X. Tutorials

    Students perform the assigned practice, which were chosen from the following list:

1. Transmembrane transport: diffusion, osmosis

    2. The Lambert-Beer law

    3. Fluid flow analysis

    4. Viscosity

    5. Electric model of cell

    6. Spectral analysis of sound

    7. Audiometry

    8. Microwave analysis

    9. Magnetic fields analysis

    10. Elements of biomechanics

    11. Physical basis of electrocardiography

12. Microscope

    13. Optical basis of correction of vision defects

    14. Absorption of gamma radiation

XI. Bibliography:

General reading:

    1) Elements of medical biophysics, edited by Leszek Kubisz, Poznan University of Medical

    Sciences, P?znao 2007

    2) Laboratory Exercises in Biophysics, edited by Marek Tuliszka, Poznan University of Medical

    Sciences, P?znao 2008

    3) Physics in Biology and Medicine, P.Daviodovits, Harcourt Academic Press, 2001

4) Biophysics, R.Glaser, Springer-Verlag 2005

Supplementary reading:

    1) Physics of the Body, Cameron John R., Skofronick James G., and Grant Roderick M., Medical

    Physics Publishing, Medisson, Wisconsin 1992

    th2) College Physics, Willson Jerry D., Buffa Anthony J., Prentice Hall, 4 Edition, 2000

    3) An Introduction to Biophysics with Medical Orientation, L.Berkes, et al., G.Ronto, I. Trajan

    (Eds.), Akademiai Kiado 1994

4) Physics for medicine & biology, R.K. Hobbie, Springer Verlag, 1997

    5) Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, H. Brow, et al., IOP Publishing

    Rules and regulations

     Information about the course

    “Bi?physics” pr?gram is realized in the first semester of first year. The coursework of Biophysics includes 30 hours of lectures and 45 hours of laboratory exercises. Laboratory exercises are realized in Student Laboratory in Biophysics Department. The labs and lectures are prepared in a week cycle. Students have to pass biophysical laboratory exercises i.e. perform nine practical laboratory exercises and pass three test (after performing each three practice exercises). Biophysics is ended with the Final Exam in writing form. Exam covers the topics of lectures and exercises.

    Obligatory textbook:

    1. Elements of medical biophysics, edited by Leszek Kubisz, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, P?znao 2007

    2. Laboratory Exercises in Biophysics, edited by Marek Tuliszka, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, P?znao 2008

    3. Physics in Biology and Medicine, P.Daviodovits, Harcourt Academic Press, 2001

    4. Biophysics, R.Glaser, Springer-Verlag 2005

Additional textbooks:

    1. Physics of the Body, Cameron John R., Skofronick James G., and Grant Roderick M., Medical Physics Publishing, Medisson, Wisconsin 1992

    th2. College Physics, Willson Jerry D., Buffa Anthony J., Prentice Hall, 4 Edition, 2000

    3. An Introduction to Biophysics with Medical Orientation, L.Berkes, et al., G.Ronto, I. Trajan (Eds.), Akademiai Kiado 1994

    4. Physics for medicine & biology, R.K. Hobbie, Springer Verlag, 1997

    5. Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, H. Brow, et al., IOP Publishing

    REGULATIONS OF STUDENTS LABORATORY IN THE BIOPHYSICS DEPARTMENT

    I. The aims of the laboratory.

     The aim of the biophysics laboratory is to introduce students to the commonly encountered

    measuring apparatus, development of a scientific understanding of biological phenomena,

    logical observations and facts recollection as well as the development of a critical view on the

    outcomes of measurements.

     Students realize above aims by individually conducting experiments.

II. The course of classes in the laboratory.

    1. The experiments in the laboratory are performed according to the course of study. 2. Classes are forerun with an introduction, during which regulations, experiment assignment,

    methods of data collection and processing are discussed. Safety training is carried out. 3. Experiments curriculum, theoretical knowledge requirements and literature suggestions are on

    the board of announcements in the department of biophysics.

    4. A student is expected to realize 9 experiments, take a test and come up with measurement

    results and write lab report.

    5. Every experiment is realized by two students simultaneously.

    6. To every experiment a student has to prepare theoretical knowledge. Preparation will be tested

    by the tutor during the experiment.

    Attention! In case of unfamiliarity with the material needed for safe and secure performance of the

    given experiment, the tutor has the right to abort the undertaken experiment. 7. The student must complete and pass each exercise performed. The complete passing of an

    experiment is determined by the tutor on the bases of tests, work during class and compiled

    results.

     In the case of wrong experiment or errors in report, tutor inform about the need of repeat of

    experiment or its part or correction of lab report. Every correction has to be realized in the

    laboratory. It is not allowed to take experimental cards to home!

    8. A complete experiment in the lab covers:

     Entrance to the lab: a student is obliged to show his tutor a written compilation of the

    theoretical part and to pick up his experimental card;

     Carrying out the experiment i.e.

     - a thorough familiarization with the instructions to the exercise undertaken.

     - turning on the measuring devices, taking measurements and filling out a experimental card.

    Results should be written in either pen or fountain pen (not in pencil!)

     Preparing the elaboration of the results on an experimental card.

     Finishing of work in the laboratory includes:

     - Tidying up of workplace.

     - Returning filled experimental card together with written compillation of the theory of

    performed exercice.

     If student d?esn’t manage t? prepare the lab rep?rt during classes, he sh?uld rep?rt it and

    return it unfinished. It can be finished in the appointed week. Student can also finish them

    during next classes in the laboratory.

    9. Student can only pass and conduct experiments acc?rding t? his gr?up’s schedule.

    10. The longest acceptable late-coming is 15 minutes. After this time, student cannot participate in

    classes.

    11. Experiment conducted not individually is not treated as completed.

    12. All the absences must be excused at the gr?up’s tut?r. Tut?r sets a new date f?r c?nducting

    particular experiment.

    13. Conditions of getting pass the laboratory work are the following: passing all the tests, carrying

    out indicated experiments and elaborating their results.

III. Order regulations.

    1. All operations during setting the devices should be conducted individually. Turning on electricity

    sources without having it controlled by the tutor is not allowed.

    2. While carrying out experiments all safety rules must be obeyed permanently. 3. Students takes material responsibility for all the damages caused in the laboratory from his own

    fault.

    4. The workplace, after carrying out the experiments, should be left in its initial state. 5. Eating in the laboratory is forbidden.

    6. Using mobile phones in the laboratory is forbidden.

    Bi?physics” ends with a written exam. Be admitted t? the exam is necessary t? pass the Laboratory. Those who do not pass Laboratory Excercises before Exam, are not admitted to exam and will receive an unsatisfactory grade

    Final Exam

    1. The Final Exam is performed in written form - 30 open questions. Questions cover topics of

    lectures and exercises.

    2. Students who failed the Final Exam are obliged to retake the test.

    3. An excuse for absence should be submitted to the examiner the next day, or in justified

    circumstances, within three days after the Final Exam.

    4. The Final Exam will be assessed according to given marks:

    (Fail) less than 55%

    (3) 55%

    (3,5) 63 %

    (4 ) 70%

    (4,5) 80 %

    (5) 90%

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