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Foundations c

By Cynthia Thomas,2014-05-29 22:11
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Foundations c

Foundations: c. 8000 B.C.E.600 C.E.

    Major Developments

    1. Locating world history in the environment and time

    A. Environment

    1. Geography and climate: Interaction of geography and climate with the

    development of human society

    a. Five Themes of Geography consider these

     1. Relative location location compared to others

     2. Physical characteristics climate, vegetation and human characteristics

     3. Human/environment interaction how do humans interact/alter environ

     a. Leads to change

     4. Movement peoples, goods, ideas among/between groups

     5. Regions cultural/physical characteristics in common with surrounding

    areas

    b. E. Africa first people 750,000 years ago started to move

     1. moving in search of food

    c. Role of Climate End of Ice Age 12000 BCE large areas of N. America, Europe, Asia became habitable big game hunters already migrated

    1. Geographical changes - 3000 BCE Green Sahara began to dry up, seeds to

    forests N. America

     2. Effect on humans nomadic hunters didn’t move so much

     a. Settle near abundant plant life beginning of civilization

     b. Sedentary life w/ dependable food supply

     3. milder conditions, warmer temperatures, higher ocean levels

    2. Demography: Major population changes resulting from human and environmental factors

    1. 2 million people during Ice Age allowed for growth

    1. big game gone

    2. more usable land available

    2. 50-100 million by 1000 CE

    3. Regional changes altered skin color, race type, quantity of body hair

    B. Time

    1. Periodization in early human history

    1. Early Hominids humans 3.5 million years ago

    1. Australopithecus Lucy found in Africa

    1. Bipedalism

    2. sizable brain

    3. Larynx voice box

    2. 3 million homo habilis handy human crude stone tools

    3. 1 million - homo erectus upright human

    a. First to migrate

    b. Clothed selves skins/furs

    4. 100,000 to 250,000 homo sapiens wise human

    a. social groups

    b. permanent, semi-permanent buildings

5. 100,000 to 200,000 homo sapiens, sapiens

    a. Out of Africa started in Africa and migrated

    b. Multiregional thesis all developed independently 2. Stone Age First period of prehistory - Tool use separates hominids from

    ancestors

    1. Paleolithic Old Stone Age 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago

    1. Crude tools clubs, axes, bones for shelter, protection, food,

    cloth

    2. Natural shelters cave/canyons

    1. Began tentlike structures/huts

    2. Wooden/stone structures by Mesolithic

    3. 1 million years ago fire

    4. Warfare rocks, clubs food preparation tools used for

    combat

    1. Weapons found in bones

    5. Clothes from hides/furs and later plant fibers

     a. Dying cloth for color

    6. Families, clans, tribes

     a. Select sexual partners not seasonal

     b. Long term sexual bonds emotions + child rearing

     c. Family units created clans

    2. Neolithic New Stone Age 5,000-10,000 years ago

    2. Nature and causes of changes associated with the time span

    1. Change due to Great Ice Age Pleistocene Ice Age

    3. Continuities and breaks within the time span

    1. Mesolithic Middle Stone Age 10,000-12,000 years ago transition

    1. Difficult to generalize

    1. Lack of information

    2. Regions developed at different times

    C. Diverse Interpretations

    1. What are the issues involved in using "civilization" as an organizing principle

    in world history?

    1. Westerncentric meaning

     1. food producing w/ surplus

     2. increase in population

     3. specialization of labor

     4. social hierarchy

     5. growth of trade

     6. centralization of religious/political authority

     7. monumental buildings

     8. written records

     9. technical innovation the arts

    2. World historians more broad view importance of human creativity

     1. Interaction of human beings in creative manner

     2. Cultural and material build

    3. What is a civilization

    1. Food surplus

    2. Advanced cities

    3. Advanced technology

    4. Skilled workers

    5. Complex institutions government, religion

    6. System of writing/record keeping

2. What is the most common source of change: connection or diffusion versus

    independent invention?

    1. Connection/diffusion due to interaction vs. invented something new or

    used it in a new way

    a. Diffusion ironwork Assyrians to Kushites

    b. Invention Nok people of Nigeria smelting iron

     2. Farming of certain crops diffusion Middle East > India > Europe > Nile

     a. Others independent sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China,

    Americas

     3. After emergence, diffusion takes over exchange of techniques, seeds, crops

    2. Developing agriculture and technology

     . Agricultural, pastoral, and foraging societies, and their demographic characteristics (Include

    Africa, the Americas, and Southeast Asia.)

    1. Foraging societies small groups of people traveled climate/food availability

     1. Bad - climate, disease, famine, natural disasters

     2. No permanent shelters

     3. Limit to how much land can feed

     4. Mammals, fished, gathered

     5. Organization

     a. Some had chiefs, leaders, religious figures

     b. Coordination needed for hunting large game later used for

    warfare

     6. Worshipped deities buried dead 100,000 years ago burial sites

     a. Sacrifices, ceremonies

     7. Expression through art art 32,000 years old, flutes 30,000 years old

     8. Gender division of labor

     a. Physical differences men hunted, made war, heavy labor

     b. Women gathered, prepared food, maintained home, children

     c. Roles not seen as superior, just different - debatable 2. Pastoral societies domestication of animals

    1. Mountain regions, insufficient rainfall

    2. Small scale agriculture to add to milking

    3. Extended family important

    4. Women w/ few rights, men controlled food production

    5. Power based on size of herd

    6. Couldn’t settle needed to look for food for herd

    1. Seasonal migration

    2. Difficult to become “civilized”

    7. * Began to experiment w/ plants/seeds

    1. Mix animal husbandry w/ plant domestication

    2. By accident latrines sprout veggies, yummy

    3. Women key role

    3. Key points one didn’t disappear

    a. In one area, could have shifting cultivation + migratory farmers + forage +

    hunt/fish + nomadic pastoralism

     4. Polytheism

    a. afterlife matter neither created or destroyed

    b. energy > energy

    c. from animism spirits in anything

    d. anthropologists need control over fate petition gods

    A. Emergence of agriculture and technological change

    1. Neolithic Revolution/Agricultural Revolution 8000-3000 BCE

    1. Nomadic > agricultural > town > city

    2. W/ good soil, water source + cultivate plants could build homes

    1. Domesticated animals/simple tools

    3. Was it a revolution?

     a. Long period of time

     b. At different times

     c. but…no one can argue immense changes

    2. Psychological Issues

     a. Shared land vs. ownership, people come on your land - intruders

     3. Food Surplus

     a. Time to make tools, dig an irrigation ditch, philosopher, religious leader

     b. One farms for 100, you can individualize labor

     1. Armies, towns, writing, art, experiment, technologies

    specialization

     c. Government and religion emerge to keep life orderly

     1. Organize irrigation efforts which increases scope

     4. Calendars, pottery containers, baskets, storehouses

     5. Domestication dog first companionship, security hunting

     a. Later goat both during Paleolithic milk/meat

     b. Advantages of some societies on domestic options

     6. Regional food

     a. Central Africa - plantains, bananas, yams

     b. Americas maize, beans, squash

     c. India millet, barley

     7. Migratory vs. Slash and burn

     a. Ashes kept soil fertile

     b. Replaced with shifting planting, fallow

     8. Changes irrigation, mixing crop types

     9. Fermentation of alcoholic beverages end of Neolithic

    B. Nature of village settlements

    1. Must be near water commerce, barter

    2. Stay in same place

    1. Sense of unity, create cultural traditions

    2. People tied to land property as ownership

    2. Role of women pre-farming food gatherers first to plant/harvest crops

     a. Men were hunters

     b. Gender-related differences women lost status

     1. Political, economic lives controlled by men

     a. Community leaders, warriors, priests, traders, crafts

    b. Patrilineal/patrilocal tracing decent based on male

    line/husband’s home more important

     3. Needed to work together formation of communities

     a. Defense against invaders

     b. A family alone can’t create complex irrigation systems

     4. Self-sufficient, but some trade occurred

     5. Religious rituals become more complex greater variety of gods and goddesses

     a. Forces of nature + spirits of departed ancestors

     b. Built permanent sites of worship shrines, temples, megaliths

     6. Creation of cities

     a. Offer protection for defense

     b. Centers for trading

     c. Different skills/talents live together

     d. Major cities

     1. Jericho Jordan River

     2. Catal Huyuk Turkey

     3. Danpo China

     7. No longer can rely on oral communication need writing

     a. Keep records

     b. Pass on information

     c. Transfer information

     d. Sumerians first 3500-3000 BCE, Incas civilized without

    C. Impact of agriculture on the environment

    1. Land land reconfigured to fit needs of humans

    1. Diverts water

    2. Clears land for farming

    3. Roads built

    4. Stones unearthed for buildings/monuments

    2. Animal kingdom

     a. Animals as food, clothing, beast of burden oxen

     1. Increase food production

    3. Overfarmed depleted land of fertility

     a. Move on to new land sometimes called slash and burn

    D. Introduction of key stages of metal use

    1. Hard granite stones farming tools hoes, plows farm tools priority

    1. Plow key prerequisite of society?

    1. Allowed for food surplus

    2. Pottery for cooking

    3. Weaving for baskets/nets

    4. Complex/comfortable clothing

    5. Wheels for carts sails for boats

    6. Combine copper with tin to make bronze

    1. Weapons, tools Bronze Age

    2. Iron follows

    7. Neolithic Age New Stone Age ends with metalworking

     a. 6600 BCE Copper used in Europe, Asia

     b. Metalurghy extracting from raw ore and metalwork crafting quite difficult

     1. Jewelry predates 6400 BCE, but tools not efficient until later

    8. 3500-3000 BCE Bronze from copper/tin discovered in Middle East, Balkans, Southeast

    Asia later part Neolithic Age Bronze Age

     a. Americas and Asia never had a bronze age tin scarce

     b. Scarcity of tin pushed need for international trade

    9. 1500-1200 BCE Iron Age Hittites

     a. Spread to Europe in 1000 BCE, Africa in 500 BCE

     b. Possible to cultivate hard packed soil/more land

     c. Wave of invasions from outside Mesopotamia

    3. Basic features of early civilizations in different environments: culture, state, and social

    structure

    A. Mesopotamia

     1. Culture

    a. Independent innovation that passed to Egypt/Indus

     b. 4000 BCE bronze, copper

     c. Wheel, irrigation canals

     d. 3500 Sumerians cuneiform first writing stylus objects > sounds

     e. Number system 60 movement of heavenly bodies

     1. navigation

     2. time

     f. Architecture ziggurats 1) glory of civilization, 2) many gods

     1. Clay primary building material

     g. First epic Epic of Gilgamesh 1) great flood story

     1. Kings quest to achieve immortality

     h. great traders

     2. State

    a. Unpredictable flooding need for government irrigation

     b. City-states controlled city + surrounding area

     c. Geography lack of natural barriers invasion defensive walls

     d. Conflicts over water/property rights

     e. Akkadians/Babylonians spread Sumerian culture

     1. Code of Hammurabi first written law code

     a. Different rules for gender/social classes

     b. Very harsh, favored upper class

     c. Systematic, consistent set of regulations, not arbitrary will of a

    ruler

     f. After 900 BCE Assyrians and Persians ruled

     g. king-like figure lugal big man

     3. Social structure

     a. Ruled by elite, rulers, priests

     b. Farmed by slaves could purchase freedom

     c. Patriarchal men could sell wives/children to pay debts

     1. 1600 BCE women wearing veils

     2. But…women could gain power courts, priestesses, scribes, small business B. Egypt

     1. Culture

     a. 3000 BCE Nile River

     b. pharaoh pyramids tombs for self/families

     1. Decorated w/ colorful paintings

     c. polytheists afterlife > mummification

     1. Egyptian Book of the Dead what happened to soul, how to reach

     happy

     2. afterlife > mummification and tombs

     d. bronze tools weapons after Mesopotamia

     e. Kush independent innovation iron spread to Egypt

     f. some trade w/ Kush and Mesopotamia

     g. hieroglyphics from trade contacts Mesopotamia

     1. papyrus paper making

     protected could create unique civilization h. geography

     i. less urban than Mesopotamians

     j. 365 day calendar, medicine, math, astronomy

     2. State

     a. Nile overflowed annually predictable

     b. irrigation led to organization/government

     c. agricultural villages engaged in trade

     d. pharaoh king power

     1. living incarnation of sun god

     e. geography protected from invading people

     f. beginning 3100 when Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt

     g. 2040-1640 BCE Middle Kingdom culturally dynamic

     h. New Kingdom 1500 regained from foreign invaders Hyksos focused on military

     i. by 900 in control of foreign invaders internal disorder, invasions

     3. Social structure

    a. Social classes, but commoners could enter government service rise in social

    status

     b. Patriarchal, but women had some privileges

     1. Women sometimes acted as regents for young rulers, priestesses, scribes

     2. managed household finances/education of children

     3. right to divorce husbands/alimony

     4. could own property

     5. Queen Hatshepsut

    C. Indus 2500 BCE Indus River - Pakistan

     1. Culture

     a. Streets laid out in precise grid houses had running water/sewage

     b. Harappan writing not deciphered much unclear

     c. active trade w/ Indus valley and Sumer ores from one place found in others

     d. blend of Aryans and Indus valley people affected future course of history

     e. quite large size of France/urbanized

     2. State

     a. unpredictable flooding

     b. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

     1. Because of similarities of cities, tightly unified, centrally controlled

     c. Overtaken by Indo-Europeans Aryans

     1. Already dying out 1) river change or 2) earthquake, 3) erosion of soil

     4) salt in wells

     d. whole societies all over Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro only tip, last

     3. Social Structure

     a. little known Dravidians relatively egalitarian

     b. not as patriarchal

     c. Aryans based it on color Varnu

     d. Aryans eventually control politically, but Dravidians would win out culturally

    D. Shang most isolated Huange He valley Yellow River Chinas Sorrow

     1. Culture

     unpredictable flooding a. Isolated by deserts, mountains, and seas

     1. Still some trade w/ Southwest Asia and South Asia

     b. Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 left written records)

     1. Knowledge of bronze metallurgy from Southwest Asia

     2. Strengthened Shang war machine

     3. 1000 BCE Ironworking

     4. Fortune telling and ancestor worship started here

     c. Palaces/tombs built for emperors

     d. Writing oracle bones

     1. Oracle scratch person’s question on bone/shell heat it

     2. Resulting cracks read to learn message from gods

     a. Shoulder

     e. myth of Xia dynasty

     2. State

     1. Dynasties

     2. Central rule to oversee irrigation/flood-control projects

     3. Walled cities center of cultural, military, economic set precedent in villages

    4. Zhou replaced Shang “mandate of heaven” if leader governed wisely and

    fairly, he could claim right to divine rule

     a. Warrior aristocracy

     b. fought northern/western neighbors barbarians expanded empire

     5. Tradition of central authority

     6. Began as small agricultural cities along Yellow River

     3. Social Structure

     1. Stratified ruling elites, artisans, peasants, slaves

     2. Patriarchal father needs to know children are his

     a. Subservient

     b. multiple marriages

     c. preference for sons - infanticide

     3. Ancestor worship

     4. Matrilineal society before Shang E. Mesoamerica and Andean South America

     1. Culture

     a. lacked knowledge of wheel

     b. Olmecs/Maya pyramids/temples

     c. Polytheistic

     d. Cultural diffusion maize, terraced pyramids

     1. Calendars

     2. Ball game on a court

     3. Quetzalcoatl god who would return to rule world in peace

     e. Mayan reached height in 300 CE

     1. system of writing pictographs

     2. value of zero

     3. astronomy predicted eclipses

     4. length of year within a few seconds

     2. State

     1. small city-states ruled by kings fought against each other

     a. Prisoners of war slaves/sacrifices to gods

     2. lack of pack animals/geography prevented communication

     3. Inhabitants cooperated for irrigation systems

     4. Rugged terrain of Andes prevented central gov’t from organizing

     3. Social structure

     a. Elite class of rulers/priests vs. commoners and slaves

     not in valleys of major rivers 4. Geography

     1. smaller rivers/streams near oceans

     2. no large animals/beasts of burden llama biggest animal human labor

    (Students should be able to compare two of the early civilizations above.)

    4. Classical civilizations - China, India, and the Mediterranean

    1. Classical Civilizations those with lasting influence over vast numbers

    A. Political Developments

    a. Major themes

    i. Recurrent invasions from people from North

    ii. Flooding a problem how to control rivers

    b. China

    i. Zhou 1027-771 BCE replaced Shang mandate of heaven

    rationalization

    1. Expanded territory added southern rice valley

    2. further centralized gov’t

    3. Feudal system

    a. Too large to control

    i. Developed bureaucracies bureaus - departments

    b. Worked for couple centuries

    i. But nobles build up wealth/power

    ii. Split off into individual kingdoms

    c. Nobles given power over small regions

    i. King gave noble protection for loyalty

4. Emperors lived lives of luxury

    5. Standardized language

    6. Classical age

    a. Hundreds Schools of Thought

    i. Philosophers practical and metaphysical

    ii. Wanted to see political reform 7. Longest lasting dynasty

    8. Mandate of Heaven

    a. Power as long as gods allowed

    b. Corruption/military defeat weakened a ruler > gods no longer

    in favor

    8. Lasted until 500 BCE when internal conflict Era of Warring States

    ii. Qin after Era of the Warring States 221-202 BCE

    1. Shi Huangdi “First Emperor” > dictatorial

    2. name applied to country

    a. Unified country by conquering warring feudal states

    i. Abolished feudalism

    ii. Instituted centralized gov’t that would be model

    3. one of briefest dynasties

    4. Major precedents

    a. Strong emperor

    b. Large Bureaucracy

    c. Expanded territory to Vietnam

    5. Defensive wall Great Wall

    a. Shows empire well organized, centralized, brutal

    6. Weights, measures, coinage standardized 7. Silk cloth encouraged

    8. Established uniform laws

    9. Legalism state sponsored alternative to Confucianism/Taoism

    a. People are basically evil must be kept in line w/ strict laws 10. Rule cruel/autocratic

    a. Refused to tolerate any dissent

    i. Dissent in book > burned

    ii. Dissent in scholar > killed

    11. Heavy taxes for peasants

    a. Overburdened peasants revolted and overthrew in 207 BCE

    iii. Han 200 BCE 220 CE

    1. Governmental bureaucracy grew stronger

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