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INCO TERMS 2000(English Version)

By Gordon White,2014-11-06 21:24
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INCO TERMS 2000(English Version)

    INCOTERMS 2000 (English Version)

    EXW EX WORKS (... named place)

     Ex works" means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’ s premises or another named place ( i. e. works, factory, warehouse, etc. ) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.

    This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller, and tile buyer has to bear all costs and risks involved m taking the goods from the seller’s premises.

    However, if the parties wish the seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risks and all the costs of such loading, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale1 . This term should not be used when the buyer cannot carry out the export formalities directly or indirectly. In such circumstances, the FCA term should be used, provided the seller agrees that he will load at his cost and risk.

THE SELLERS OBLIGATIONS

    THE BUYERS OBLIGATIONS

    A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

    The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract. B1 Payment of the price

    The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

    A2 Licences, authorizations and formalities

    The seller must render the buyer, at the latter’s request, risk and expense, every, assistance in obtaining, where

    applicable , any export license or other official authorizations necessary for the export of the goods. B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

    The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any export and import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable all customs formalities for the export of the goods.

    A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage No obligations.

    b) Contract of insurance No obligations.

    B3 Contracts Of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage No obligations.

    b) Contract of insurance No obligations.

    A4 Delivery

    The seller must place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the named place of delivery, not loaded on any collecting vehicle, on the date or within the period agreed or, if no such time is agreed, at the usual time, for delivery of such goods. If no specific point has been agreed within the named place, and if there are several points available, the seller may select the point at the place of delivery which best suits his purpose. B4 Taking delivery

    The buyer must take delivery of the goods where they have been delivered in accordance with A4 and A7/B7. A5 Transfer of risks

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

    B5 Transfer of risks

    Buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time, they have been delivered in accordance

with A4; and

    from the agreed date or the expiry date of any period fixed for taking delivery which arise because he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods has been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

    A6 Division of costs

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

    B6 Division of costs

    The buyer must pay all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

    any additional costs incurred by failing either to take delivery of the goods when they have been placed at his disposal, or to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7 provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and where applicable, all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carring out customs formalities payable upon export.

    The buyer must reimburse all costs and charges incurred by the seller in rendering assistance in accordance with A2.

    A7 Notice to the buyer

    The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice as to when and where the goods will be placed at his disposal. B7 Notice to the seller

    The buyer must, whenever he is entitled to determine the time within an agreed period and/or the place of taking delivery, give the seller sufficient notice thereof.

    A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic messages

    No obligations.

    B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic messages

    The buyer must provide the seller with appropriate evidence of having taken delivery.

    packingmarking A9 Checking

    The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of placing the goods at the buyer’s disposal.

    The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to make the goods of the contract description available unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

    B9 Inspection of goods

    The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection, including inspection mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

    A10 Other obligations

    The seller must render the buyer at the latter’s request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any

    documents or equivalent electronic messages issued or transmitted in the country of delivery and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the export and/or import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country.

    The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance. B10 Other obligations

    The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

FCA FREE CARRIER (... named place)

    "Free Carrier" means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller’s premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for unloading.

This term may he used irrespective of the mode of transport, including multimodal transport.

    "Carrier" means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.

    If the buyer nominates a person other than a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they me delivered to that person.

THE SELLERS OBLIGATIONS

    THE BUYERS OBLIGATIONS

A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

    The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract. B1 Payment of price

    The buyer must pay the price as provided m the contract of sale.

    A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

    The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable, all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

    B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

    The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable, all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country. A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage

    No obligations. However, if requested by the buyer or if it is Commercial practice and the buyer does not give an instruction to the contrary in due time, the seller may contract for carriage on usual terms at the buyer’s risk and expense. In either case, the seller may decline to make the con tract and, if he does, shall promptly notify the buyer accordingly.

    b) Contract of insurance

    No obligations.

    B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage

    The buyer must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods from the named place, except when the contract of carriage, is made by the seller as provided for in A3 a).

    b) Contract of insurance

    No obligations.

    A4 Delivery

    The seller must deliver the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the buyer, or chosen by the seller in accordance with A3 a), at the named place on the date or within the period agreed for delivery.

Delivery is completed,

    a) If the named place is the seller’s premises, when the goods have been loaded on the means of transport provided by the carrier nominated by the buyer or another person acting on his behalf.

    b) If the named place is anywhere other than a) when the goods are placed at the disposal of the carrier or another person nominated by the buyer, or chosen by the seller in accordance with A3 a) on the seller’s means of transport

    not unloaded.

    If no specific point has been agreed within the named place, and if there are several points available, the seller may select the point at the place of delivery which best suits his purpose.

    Failing precise instructions from the buyer, the seller may deliver the goods for carnage m such a manner as the transport mode and/or the quantity and/or nature of the goods may require.

    B4 Taking delivery

    The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4. A5 Transfer of risks

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss ofor damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

    B5 Transfer of risks

    The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

    from the agreed date or the expiry date of any agreed period for delivery which arise either because he fails to nominate the carrier or another person in accordance with A4, or because the carrier or the party nominated by the buyer fails to take the goods into his charge at the agreed time, or because the buyer fails to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

    A6 Division of costs

    The seller must, subject to tile provisions of B6, pay

    all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and where applicable, the costs of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes, and other charges payable upon export.

    B6 Division of costs

    The buyer must pay

    all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4;and any additional costs incurred, either because he fails to nominate the carrier or another person in accordance with A4 or because the party nominated by the buyer fails to take the goods into his charge at the agreed time, or because he has failed to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and

    where applicable, all duties, taxes and other charges well as die costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of die goods and for their transit through any country.

    A7 Notice to the buyer

    The seller must the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4, Should the carrier fail to take delivery in accordance with A4 at the time agreed, the seller must notify the buyer accordingly. B7 Notice to the seller

    The buyer must give the seller sufficient notice of the name of the party designated in A4 mid, where necessary . specify the. mode of transport, as well as the date or period for delivering the goods to him and, as the case may be, the point within the place where the goods should be. delivered to that party.

    A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

    The seller must provide the buyer at the seller’s expense.with the usual proof of delivery, of the goods in accordance with A4.

    Unless the document referred to in the preceding paragraph is the transport document, the seller must render the buyer at the latter’s request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining a transport document for the contract of carriage (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non-negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, an air waybill, a railway consignment note, a road consignment note, or a multimodal transport document). When the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may he replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (ED1) message.

    B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

    The buyer must accept the proof of delivery in accordance with A8.

    packing-marking A9 Checking

    The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations (such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4. The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to send the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to he marked appropriately.

    B9 Inspection of goods

    The buyer must pay the costs of any pre-shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

    A10 Other obligations

    The seller must render the buyer at the latter’ s request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted in the country of delivery and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country.

    The seller must provide the buyer, Upon request,with the necessary information for procuring insurance. B10 other obligations.

    The buyer must, pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith and in contracting for carriage in accordance with A3 a) .

    The buyer must give the seller appropriate instructions whenever the seller’sassistance in contracting for carriage is required in accordance with A3 a).

FAS FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP (…named port of shipment)

     Free Alongside Ship" means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment.

    The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

    THIS IS A REVERSAL FROM PREVIOUS INCOTERMS VERSIONS WHICH REQUIRED THE BUYER TO

    ARRANGE FOR EXPORT CLEARANCE.

    However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sales.

This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.

THE SELLERS OBLIGATIONS

    THE BUYERS OBLIGATIONS

    A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

    The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may be required by the contract. B1 Payment of the price

    The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

    A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

    The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable, all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

    B2 Licences, authorisations and. formalities

    The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable , all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country. A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage

    NO obligations.

    b) Contract of insurance

    No obligations.

    B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

     a) Contract of carriage

     The buyer must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods from the named port of shipment. b) Contract of insurance

    No obligation.

    A4 Delivery

    The seller must place the goods alongside the vessel nominated by the buyer at the loading place named by the buyer at the named port of shipment on the date or within the agreed period and in the manner customary at the port.

    B4 Taking delivery

    The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered m accordance with A4. A5 Transfer of risks

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4.

    B5 Transfer of risks

    The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

    from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery which arise because he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, or because the vessel nominated by him fails to arrive on time, or is able to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods. A6 Division of costs

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and

    where applicable,the costs of customs formalities as well as all duties, taxes, and other charges payable upon export.

    B6 Division of costs

The buyer must pay

    all costs relating to the goods form the time they have been delivered in accordance with A4; and any additional costs incurred, either because the vessel nominated by him has failed to arrive on time, or is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the lime notified in accordance with B7, Or because the buyer has failed to give appropriate notice in accor?dance with B7 provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and where applicable, all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

    A7 Notice to the buyer

    The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have delivered alongside the nominated vessel. B7 Notice to the seller

    The buyer must give the seller sufficient notice of the vessel name, loading point and required delivery time. A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

    The Seller must provide the buyer at the seller’s expense with the proof of delivery of the goods in accordance with A4.

    Unless the document referred to in the preceding paragraph is the transport document, the seller must render the buyer at the latter’s request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining a transport document (for example a negotiable bill of lading, a non - negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document).

    When the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraphs may he replaced by, an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message.

    B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

    The buyer must accept the proof of delivery in accordance with A8.

    A9 Checking-packaging-marking

    The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations ( such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4.

    The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to ship the goods of the contract description packed) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

    B9 Inspection of goods

    The buyer must pay the costs of any pre - shipment inspection, except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

    A10 Other obligations

    The seller must provide the buyer, at the latter’s request,risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any documents or equivalent electronic messages(other than those mentioned in A8)issued or transmitted in the country of shipment and/or of origin which the buyer may require for the import of the goods and,where necessary, for their transit through any country.

    B10 Other obligations

    The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith

FOB FREE ON BOARD(... named port of shipment)

    Free on Board" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB

    term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the FCA term should he used.

THE SELLERS OBLIGATIONS

    THE BUYERS OBLIGATIONS

    A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

    The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity winch may be required by the contract. B1 Payment of the price

    The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

    A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

    The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable , all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

    B2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

    The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable, all customs formalities for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country .

    A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage

    No obligation.

    b) Contract of insurance

    No obligation .

    B3 Contract of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage

    The buyer must contract at his own expense for the carriage of the goods from the named port of shipment. b) Contract of insurance

    No obligations.

    A4 Delivery

    The seller must deliver the goods on the date or within the agreed period at the named port of shipment and in the manner customary at the port on board the vessel nominated by the buyer.

    B4 Taking delivery

    The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4. A5 Transfer of risks

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment.

    B5 Transfer of risks

    The buyer must bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have passed the ship’s rail at the

    named port of shipment; and

    from the agreed date or the expiry date of the agreed period for delivery which arise because he fails to give notice in accordance with B7, or because the vessel nominated by him flails to arrive on time, or is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.

    A6 Division of costs

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B6, pay

    all costs relating to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment; and

    where applicable , the costs of customs formalities necessary for export as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export.

    B6 Division of costs

    The buyer must pay

    all costs relating to the goods from the time they have passed the ship’ s rail at the named port of shipment; and

    any additional costs incurred, either because the vessel nominated by him fails to arrive on time, or is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, or because the buyer has failed to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7, provided, however, that the goods have been duly appropriated to the contract, that is to say, clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods; and where applicable, all duties, taxes and other charges as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and for their transit through any country.

    A7 Notice to the buyer

    The seller must give the buyer sufficient notice that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4. B7 Notice to the buyer

    The buyer must give the seller sufficient notice of the vessel name, loading point and required delivery time. A8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

    The seller must provide the buyer at the seller’s expense with the usual proof of delivery in accordance with A4.

    Unless the document referred to in the preceding paragraph is the transport document, the seller must render the buyer, at the latter’s request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining a transport document for the contract of carriage (for example, a negotiable bill of lading, a non -negotiable sea waybill, an inland waterway document, or a multimodal transport document) .

    Where the seller and the buyer have agreed to communicate electronically, the document referred to in the preceding paragraph may be replaced by an equivalent electronic data interchange (EDI) message. B8 Proof of delivery, transport document or equivalent electronic message

    The buyer must accept the proof of delivery in accordance with A8.

    A9 Checking - packaging - marking

    The seller must pay the costs of those checking operations ( such as checking quality, measuring, weighing, counting) which are necessary for the purpose of delivering the goods in accordance with A4. The seller must provide at his own expense packaging (unless it is usual for the particular trade to ship the goods of the contract description unpacked) which is required for the transport of the goods, to the extent that the circumstances relating to the transport (for example modalities, destination) are made known to the seller before the contract of sale is concluded. Packaging is to be marked appropriately.

    B9 Inspection of goods

    The buyer must pay the costs of any pre - shipment inspection except when such inspection is mandated by the authorities of the country of export.

    A10 Otber obligations

    The seller must render the buyer at the latter’s request, risk and expense, every assistance in obtaining any

    documents or equivalent electronic messages (other than those mentioned in A8) issued or transmitted m the country of shipment and/or of originwhich the buyer may require for the import of the goods and, where necessary, for their transit through any country.

    The seller must provide the buyer, upon request, with the necessary information for procuring insurance. B10 Other obligation

    The buyer must pay all costs and charges incurred in obtaining the documents or equivalent electronic messages mentioned in A10 and reimburse those incurred by the seller in rendering his assistance in accordance therewith.

CFR COST AND FREIGHT ( ... named port of destinaion)

     Cost and Freight means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’ s rail in the port of shipment.

    The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the paned port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, we transferred from the seller to the buyer.

The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

    This term can he used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the CPT term should be used.

    S OBLIGATIONS THE SELLER

    THE BUYERS OBLIGATIONS

    A1 Provision of goods in conformity with the contract

    The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice, or its equivalent electronic message, in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity which may he required by the contract. B1 Payment of the price

    The buyer must pay the price as provided in the contract of sale.

    A2 Licences, authorisations and formalities

    The seller must obtain at his own risk and expense any export licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable, all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

    B2 Licences, authorisations am formalities

    The buyer must obtain at his own risk and expense any import licence or other official authorisation and carry out, where applicable, A customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transit through any country. A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance

    a) Contract of carriage

    The seller must contract on usual terms at his own expense for the carriage of the goods to the named port of destination by the usual route in a seagoing vessel (or inland waterway vessel as the case may be) of the type normally used for the ~port of goods of the contract description.

    b) Contract of insurance

    No obligations.

    3 Contracts of carriage and insurance B

    a) Contract of carriage

    No obligations.

    b) Contract of insurance

    No obligations.

    A4 Delivery

    The seller must deliver the goods on board the vessel at the port of shipment on the date or within the agreed period.

    B4 Taking delivery

    The buyer must accept delivery of the goods when they have been delivered in accordance with A4 and receive them from the earner at the named port of destination.

    A5 Transfer of risks

    The seller must, subject to the provisions of B5, bear all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until such time as they have passed the ship’s rail at the port of shipment.

    B5 Transfer of risks

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