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Evolution Chapter Outlines (Ch

By Curtis Kennedy,2014-05-29 21:58
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Evolution Chapter Outlines (Ch

Evolution Chapter Outlines (Ch. 22-26)

CHAPTER 22: DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION

    1. Identify the three significant historical themes (Aristotle, Linnaeus, Cuvier, Hutton, and Lamarck’s ideas) that set the stage for Darwinian evolutionary theory.

    2. What was the contribution of Carolus Linnaeus to the evolutionary theories?

3. Identify the two principles of Lamarck’s theory of evolution.

    4. What were the two major points made in The Origin of Species?

5. What were the conventional paradigms in the 1800’s when Darwin developed his

    theories?

6. Define descent with modification.

    7. Summarize the observations and inferences recognized as the backbone of evolution by natural selection.

Observations:

    a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________

     Inferences:

    a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________

    8. How do artificial selection and natural selection relate to one another and Darwin’s observations?

    9. How do the examples of the color pattern in guppies and drug resistance demonstrate evolutionary change?

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10. For each of the following, indicate how it is used as evidence of evolution.

a. Fossil record / paleontology

b. Homologous structures

c. Vestigial structures

d. Biogeography

e. Biochemical / molecular level

11. How does “tree thinking” represent the evolutionary relationships of creatures?

CHAPTER 23: THE EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS

    1. What is the smallest group of organisms that can evolve?

    2. What is average heterozygosity within the population?

3. Explain geographic variation.

    4. What is a mutation? What impact can they have on populations?

    5. What is the impact of sexual reproduction on variation?

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23.2 Hardy-Weinberg

    6. Population genetics puts a mathematical approach to the study of microevolution. Define each of the terms commonly used in population genetics.

    a. population:

    _____________________________________________________________

    b. gene pool:

    ______________________________________________________________

    c. gene frequency:

    _________________________________________________________

    7. List the five conditions that must be met by a populations to insure stability (no evolution).

    a. ______________________________________________________________________ b. ______________________________________________________________________ c. ______________________________________________________________________ d. ______________________________________________________________________ e. ______________________________________________________________________

    8. Write the Hardy-Weinberg equation that describes genotype frequencies for distribution of genes in a population.

9. Define the following:

    a. p2 =

    ___________________________________________________________________ b. 2pq =

    __________________________________________________________________ c. q2 =

    ___________________________________________________________________

    10. Work out these practice problems. Find both the gene and genotype frequencies: a. In Drosophilia, the allele for normal length wings is dominant over the allele for vestigial wings. In a population of 1,000 individuals, 160 show the recessive phenotype.

    b. The allele for the hair pattern called "widow's peak" is dominant over the allele for no "widow's peak." In a population of 1,000 individuals, 360 show the dominant phenotype.

    11. What is the H-W assumption that is broken when genetic drift occurs? Explain

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    12. How does genetic drift apply to each of the following? Give an example of each. a. Founder effect:

b. Bottleneck effect:

13. How do each of the following break H-W assumptions?

    a. natural selection:

b. gene flow:

c. mutation:

d. selective mating:

    14. In a biological sense, what is fitness (relative fitness)?

15. Sketch the graphs for the three types of natural selection and summarize each / use an

    example to explain what happens in the population.

    a. Directional

b. Disruptive

c. Stabilizing

    16. What factors of sexual reproduction lead to variations within a population?

17. How does diploidy preserve variation?

18. What is balancing selection or “balanced polymorphism?”

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19. What is heterozygous advantage and how can parasites contribute to balanced

    polymorphism?

20. What is meant by neutral variation?

21. For each of the following, give an example or describe what is meant by the statement.

    a. Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms:

    b. Evolution is limited by historical constraints:

c. Adaptations are often compromises:

d. Not all evolution is adaptive:

    e. Selection can only edit existing variations:

CHAPTER 24: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES

1.Define the term speciation.

2.How do microevolution and m