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Requirents and Use Case Tplates - American University

By Russell Richardson,2014-11-07 08:10
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Requirents and Use Case Tplates - American University

    CHAPTER 2

    What Is Intercultural Communication?

CHAPTER 2 OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE

Chapter 2 Objectives:

As a result of reading Chapter 2 and participating in related class discussions and activities, you

    should be able to:

(1) Deepen your understanding of a “transactional, process-centered” approach to intercultural

    communication;

(2) Define the specific characteristics of the term, intercultural communication;

    (3) Identify the three facets of meaning in an intercultural encounter process;

    (4) Compare and contrast flexible and inflexible intercultural communication;

    (5) Distinguish the difference between an ethnocentric mindset and an ethnorelative mind-set;

    (6) Discuss the components and criteria of intercultural communication flexibility; and

    (7) Define and use examples to illustrate the four stages of developing intercultural

    communication flexibility.

Chapter 2 Outline:

I. Defining Intercultural Communication: A Process Model

     Intercultural communication occurs when cultural group membership factors affect

     communication process (NOTE: This is a brief description; see textbook for

     complete definitions of all terms.)

     A. Intercultural Communication Process: Overall Characteristics

     Intercultural communicationsee definition in text, which includes the

     following 6 characteristics:

    1. Symbolic exchange: verbal and nonverbal symbols to accomplish shared

     meanings

     a. Digital aspects: content information that we convey

    b. Analogical aspects: “picturesque” or affective meanings

     2. Process: interdependent nature of the intercultural encounter

     a. Transactional: simultaneous encoding and decoding

     b. Irreversible: same message can produce different impressions

    3. Cultural community: interacting group within a bounded unit who uphold

     shared traditions and way of life

     B. Intercultural Communication: Meaning Characteristics

    4. Negotiate shared meanings: goal of having our message understood.

     Three layers of meaning: content, relational, and identity

     5. Interactive situation: occurs in relational, psychological, and physical

     contexts

     6. Embedded societal system: has multilayered contexts

    II. Practicing Intercultural Communication Flexibility

     Introduction:

     1. Flexible intercultural communication: integrate knowledge, open-minded

     attitude, putting into adaptive practice

     2. Inflexible intercultural communication: use our own cultural values,

     judgments, and routines

     3. Ethnocentric mind-set: stuck in our own cultural worldviews and values

     to evaluate others’ behaviors

     4. Ethnorelative mind-set: understanding behaviors from others’ cultural frames

     of reference

     A. Three Content Components

     1. Knowledge: through formal studying and informal learning

     2. Attitude: includes both cognitive and affective layers

     a. Cognitive: suspend ethnocentrism, be open-minded

     b. Affective: emotional commitment to perspective-taking and cultivation

     of an empathetic heart

     3. Skills: operational abilities

     D. Three Criteria

     1. Appropriateness: degree to which exchanged behaviors are regarded as

     proper by cultural insiders

     2. Effectiveness: degree to which communicators achieve mutually shared

     meaning and integrative goal-related outcomes

     3. Communication adaptability: ability to change our interaction behaviors and

     goals to meet needs of situation

    III. Developing Intercultural Communication Flexibility

     A. A Staircase Model: Four Stages of Flexible Intercultural Communication

     1. Unconscious incompetence: blissfully ignorant

     2. Conscious incompetence: semi-awareness

     3. Conscious competence: full mindfulness

     4. Unconscious competence: mindlessly mindful

     B. An Essential Hook: A Mindful Perspectiveincludes:

     1. Training, vast knowledge

     2. Mindful cultural scanning

     3. Understanding of complexity of intercultural communication IV. Deepening Intercultural Process Thinking

     Process Consciousness: Underlying Principles: Intercultural communication involves:

     A. Principle 1: Mismatched expectations stem from group differences

     B. Principle 2: Varying degrees of biased intergroup perceptions

     C. Principle 3: Simultaneous encoding and decoding of verbal and nonverbal messages,

     likely to be misjudged

     D. Principle 4: Multiple goals: content, relational, identity

     E. Principle 5: Understanding and acceptance of diverse communication approaches

     and styles

     F. Principle 6: Involves culture bumps and well-meaning clashes.

     G. Principle 7: Takes place in a context (physical setting, etc.)

     H. Principle 8: Always takes place in embedded systems

    IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables

     A flexible intercultural communicator:

     A. Emphasizes a process-focused approach

     B. Recognizes separate, ethnocentric realities that divide us

     C. Is willing to suspend snap judgments concerning differences

     D. Can deal with ambiguities and paradoxes

     E. Can communicate appropriately, effectively, and adaptively

CHAPTER 2 CHECK-UP

    Check out the following quiz questions related to figures in Chapter 2:

    In an intercultural communication situation, what does each communicator operate from that has to do with his or her own cultural perspectives and ways of viewing appropriate behavior?

     POP-UP ANSWER:

     A cultural frame of reference. To see the other elements in the Process Model of

     intercultural communication, check out Figure 2.1 on page 25 in the text.

    Quiz: What is the highest level of communication competence in the staircase model?

     POP-UP ANSWER:

     Unconscious competence. This is the stage where intercultural communication

     flexibility becomes so natural that one is almost unaware (unconscious) of being

     flexible and competent, or “mindlessly mindful.” To see the other levels in the

     staircase model, check out Figure 2.2 on page 31 in the text.

CHAPTER 2 GLOSSARY-MATCHING QUIZ

    Match the following five terms with their respective definitions:

a. Transactional nature of intercultural communication

    b. Flexible intercultural communication

    c. Inflexible intercultural communication

    d. Ethnocentric mind-set

    e. Ethnorelative mind-set

    ___ 1. Emphasizes the importance of integrating knowledge and an open-minded attitude and

    putting them into adaptive and creative practice in everyday communication.