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Fayetteville, AR

By Kathleen Thompson,2014-07-08 08:38
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Fayetteville, AR

    Get Your Land!

    Free Land!

By: Laura Lindsay

     Haley Haymond

     University of Arkansas

FOCUS

    Overview

    After listening to Charley Sandage’s The Great Earthquakes of 1811, students

    research how the New Madrid earthquake affected the people of the Missouri and

    Louisiana Territories, focusing on the role that government played to encourage

    growth in the area. Students will also look at the area’s inhabitants - white men

    and native populations - focusing on the scarcity of natural resources because of

    the earthquake. After students become familiar with the information, they will

    break into three equal groups and play the role of white men, natives, and

    government to understand what happened after the earthquake, how growth was

    re-established, and what effect it had on the area population.

Background Information

    In 1811, the largest Earthquake in the United States shook the New Madrid

    territory of the state of Missouri. This was before Arkansas was a state, but it

    included areas of what are today Arkansan. Camps were set up in different areas

    for families to live in while their lives were being put back together. A request

    dated January 13, 1814 by William Clark, the territorial governor, asked for

    federal relief for the "inhabitants of New Madrid County". This was possibly the

    first example of a request for disaster relief, which would later become the job of

    the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Madrid_Earthquake). European settlers

    struggled to survive with what they had and with what the government gave them,

    while the Native Americans were forced to leave land they had been on for so

    long.

Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

    PREPARE

    Materials

    1. Charlie Sandage’s The Great Earthquakes of 1811- reference cd (2.30)

    (http://s1.amazon.com/exec/varzea/ts/exchange-

    glance/Y03Y2669646Y3504469/102-4417960-0087354 )

    2. 21+ copies Letter of an Eyewitness Account to read allowed to the class

    3. construction paper

    4. scissors

    5. markers

    6. glue

    7. M&Ms 9 red, 9 blue, and 9 yellow

    8. Each group will have an envelop designated for them, and it will be marked

    according to what role they play:

     blue = European earthquake victims,

     yellow = Native American victims, and

     red = government.

    These envelops will contain pictures of resources, tools, and belongings that

    each group may have had been given after the New Madrid earthquakes.

    a. Blue Group (European earthquake victims)

    i. Resources

    ii. Tools

    iii. Belongings

    b. Yellow Group (Native American victims)

    i. Natural Resources

    ii. Areas of Land

    c. Red Group (Government)

    i. Land certificates

    Construct

    1. Prepare a jar of peanut M&M’s that contains 9 of each of the following colors:

    blue, yellow, and red.

    2. Prepare 3 different envelopes. Refer to end of lesson for examples of contents

    for the blue and yellow group’s envelopes. Each group will have an envelop

    designated for them, and it will be marked according to what role they play:

     blue = European earthquake victims,

     yellow = Native American victims, and

     red = government.

    These envelops will contain pictures of resources, tools, and belongings that

    each group may have had been given after the New Madrid earthquakes. 3. Prepare a box full of markers, scissors, construction paper, glue, and other fun

    little materials that students in the Red group might want to create land deeds

    and camp sites.

    Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

    4. Prepare a CD with Charlie Sandage’s The Great Earthquakes of 1811 that can

    be played on either a CD player or computer. Make sure it will be ready to

    play before you begin the lesson.

    5. Hand out copies of eyewitness account.

    TEACH

    Introduction

     Play Charley Sandage’s The Great Earthquakes of 1811

    The song is upbeat and fun. It begins with how the Europeans came to settle in

    Northeast Arkansas at a disruptive time due to the epicenter of the New Madrid

    Earthquake is in Northeast Arkansas.

    The first stanza says:

    ―Northeast Arkansas land is black

     Down below is a great big crack

     Every once and a while the rock gives way

     And the earth can’t stand still‖

    The song then proceeds to sing about thunder in the ground and smoke in the sky

    and how people were ―repenting and getting baptized‖. The song gives examples

    about geographical changes, such as hills moving, rivers changing course, trees

    falling, and lakes forming. There’s a story about a woman who lived on a river

    bank, and when she went out to fetch a hen her ―heart sank‖ because the

    smokehouse, outhouse, and wells were sitting on the other shore. The song also

    talks about how the earthquake was so big that bells rang in other states. And the

    song ends saying how the northeast corner of Arkansas ―broke clean off and

    landed in Missouri‖. The chorus is humorous and the best line sings, ―I think it

    might have been the devil himself trying to pull us all under‖.

    Refer to end of lesson to find out more about the song, The Great Earthquakes of

    1811 taken from http://www.arkansasstories.com/newmadrid-earthquake-

    two.html.

     1. Start a class discussion by asking the class:

    ; Do you know where the largest Earthquake every recorded in history

    is?

    ; Do you know what happened to the people that lived in those

    territories?

    ; How do you think the Native Americans felt?

    2. Read aloud attached letter of eyewitness account and have students follow

    along.

    Activities

    1. Students will be divided into groups by each individual pulling from a jar one

    peanut M & Ms - each color represents the group they will be in:

    Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

     a) Red = government

     b) Blue = white earthquake victims

     c) Yellow=Native Americans victims

     2. Each group is given a task to complete in 15-20 minutes:

    a) Red group: Give the red group their packet/envelope. Have them, as

    the government, design and create New Madrid Certificates. They will

    then exchange with white victims their ruined lands for new lands

    elsewhere. They will also design a set up for camps for earthquake

    b) Blue group- Give the blue group their packet/envelop. Have them

    choose 5 of the resources that they will need to prosper on their lands.

    They will choose their resources from the pictures in their envelopes.

    They must also decide if they are going to exchange with the government

    their ruined lands for new lands elsewhere. They must also explain why

    they have chosen the resources they have for their new lives.

    c) Yellow group Give the yellow group their packet/envelop. Have them,

    as Native Americans, discuss what natural resources are presented in the

    pictures and for what they might use the natural resources. They will draw

    pictures of the uses. They will also choose where they will move based on

    what the government offers them. Do they have any options with the New

    Madrid Certificates? Students in the Indian group must understand that

     The Indians were not they were not treated the same as the white settlers

    given a choice at all. That is why they have fewer options in their packet.

    The students will have to explain how having fewer materials has affected

    their livelihood.

    3. After each group has finished, they will present their work or findings to the

    class.

    Government (red group) will present their New Madrid Certificates and

    describe who can get them and why.

    European victims (blue group) will present what they expect to get from

    the government, what goods and resources they have chosen and why.

    Native Americans (yellow group) will describe the effects the earthquakes

    had on them and explain what natural resources they have decided to use

    and why. They will also explain whether or not they were allowed to stay

    in their areas.

Evaluation

     Class discussions

     Group presentations

     Informally listening to group discussions

     Journals

     Quiz (see attached)

CONNECT

    Writing

    Journal Writings - Each individual will write in their journal about what they

    learned either from their own group or through the presentations of another group. Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

    Ask students to elaborate in their journals as to how their life might be affected by

    such an event or to think about where their family would go if their home was

    destroyed by an earthquake. Would they want the government to help? Why?

Language Arts

    Discussion with teacher and class about what they know, and present their

    information/findings to the class. Students should demonstrate their

    understanding of the economic impact of the New Madrid earthquakes, and what

    would happen to the modern economy in those areas if another earthquake of

    equal magnitude were to occur today. They should demonstrate this knowledge

    through their presentations.

Art

    Designing land deeds, camp sites, and drawing pictures of what natural resources

    are used by the Native Americans.

CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT

    Economic Standards

    Standard 1: Scarcity- Productive resources are limited. Therefore people can not

    have all the goods and services they want- as a result, they must choose some

    things and give up others.

    Standard 11: Role of Money Money makes it easier to trade, borrow, invest, and

    compare the value of goods and services.

    Standard 16: Role of the government There is an economic role of government

    in a market economy whenever the benefits of a government policy outweigh its

    costs. Governments often provide for national defense, address environmental

    concerns, define and protect property rights, and attempt to make markets more

    competitive. Most government polices aloes redistribute income.

Arkansas History Standard

    Content Standard 2: Students will demonstrate an understanding of how ideas,

    events, and conditions bring about change.

    TCC.2.3. Use a variety of processes such as reading, writing, listening, speaking,

    debating, and role playing to demonstrate continuity and change.

    Content Standard 4: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the

    significance of physical and cultural characteristics of Arkansas.

Grades 5-8 (Student Learning Expectations)

    PPE 2.1. Analyze how humans have adapted to, altered, and been affected by

    physical environments in Arkansas.

Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

    PPE 2.2. Examine various cultures in Arkansas with respect to the five themes of geography: location, place, region, movement, and human-environment interaction using appropriate methods and tools such as field studies, simulations, interactive technology, maps, and globes.

Strand 5: Social Science Processes and Skills

    Content Standard 1: Students will demonstrate critical thinking skills through research, reading, writing, speaking, listening, and problem solving using the tools of social sciences

    SSPS 1.2. Analyze artifacts, oral histories, photographs, landmarks, literature, and the arts to understand Arkansas’ culture by using a variety of methods (e.g.,

    simulations, field studies, library research, debates, presentations, role playing, projects, portfolios, synthesis, etc.).

Strand 4: Power, Authority, and Governance

    Content Standard 1: Students will demonstrate an understanding of our national, state, and local government and of the rights and responsibilities of participating in a democratic society within Arkansas.

    PAG 1.1. Know and understand the role of political leaders, organization, function, and operation of local, county, and state governments in Arkansas. PAG 1.2. Explain the historical and current impact of American public policy on Arkansas’ political, racial, religious, geographic, ethnic, economic, and linguistic

    diversity.

    PAG 1.3. Summarize the characteristics of effective leadership in Arkansas in historical and contemporary time periods.

    Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

    New Madrid Earthquake Quiz

    1. T F The New Madrid Earthquake was the second largest earthquake ever

    recorded in the contiguous United States.

    Answer: The largest earthquake ever recorded in the contiguous U.S.

    2. T F The New Madrid Certificates were made so that people who lost their land

    in the earthquake could obtain new land to rebuild their lives.

3. T F The Earthquake affected the local economy.

4. T F The town of New Madrid was completely destroyed.

     Answer: Destroyed only half the town.

    5. T F The growth that was occurring in Arkansas up to the time before the

     earthquake began to slow down afterwards.

Essay

    If the New Madrid Earthquake happened today, how would it be different, economically, than it was in 1811-12? ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

    Additional Readings

    BOX 3.1 The New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-1812

    For eight weeks during the winter of 1811-1812, the frontier town of New Madrid, on the Mississippi River in the southeast corner of Missouri, was rocked by a series of strong earthquakes. The initial event of December 16, 1811, was followed by a slightly smaller shock six hours later and two other principal shocks on January 23 and February 7, 1812. The last was the largest, destroying New Madrid, damaging houses in St. Louis, and cracking chimneys 600 kilometers away. The events were widely felt through eastern North America and as far away as Boston. Witnesses reported spectacular secondary effects, including soil liquefaction, landslides, sand and water fountains, and changes in the flow of the Mississippi River. Aftershocks strong enough to be felt continued through 1817. In 1815, Congress passed the first relief act for an earthquake disaster, which granted new land in unaffected regions to farmers displaced by ground disturbances and flooding.

    The first scientific study of the New Madrid earthquakes, based on landforms and 1historical accounts, was not published until a century later. Research by Otto Nuttli at St.

    Louis University placed better bounds on the earthquake magnitudes and locations, and he explained the larger isoseismal zones in terms of seismic-wave attenuation, which is 2much lower in the stable continental lithosphere of the central and eastern United States.

    Monitoring by a regional seismic network began in 1974 and has delineated a complex set of interlocking faults in a geologic structure known as the Reelfoot Rift, which spans a 2000-square-kilometer region overlapping the borders of Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. Nuttli’s work implied that the moment magnitudes of the New Madrid earthquakes were very largeas high as 8.1 for the February 7, 1812,

    eventand from the dating of paleoliquefaction events, geologists were able to identify 3at least two events of similar size in the previous thousand years.

    Questions have been raised recently, however, as to whether these levels are overestimates. A reanalysis of isoseismal areas of the three largest shocks in the 1811-41812 sequence has lowered the estimates by a half an order of magnitude or more, and a

    new GPS survey has failed to detect the high levels of regional strain that would be 5expected for an area where great earthquakes occur every 500-1000 years. This

    controversy underlines the need for continuing efforts to understand the seismic hazards of the continental interior.

    M.L. Fuller, The New Madrid Earthquakes, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 494, 119 1 pp., 1912.

    Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

O.W. Nuttli, The Mississippi Valley earthquakes of 1811 and 1812; Intensities and 2 magnitudes, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 63, 227-248, 1973.

    M.P. Tuttle and E.S. Schweig, Archaeological and pedological evidence for large 3 prehistoric earthquakes in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States,

    Geology, 23, 253-256, 1995. A lower limit for the size of these events is about 6.5. S.E. Hough, J.G. Armbruster, L. Seeber, and J.F. Hough, On the Modified Mercalli 4 intensities and magnitudes of the 1811 -1812 New Madrid earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 23,839-23,864, 2000.

    A.V. Newman, S. Stein, J. Weber, J. Engeln, A. Mao, and T.H. Dixon, Slow 5 defo rmation and low seismic hazard at the New Madrid Seismic Zone, Science, 284, 619-621, 1999.

    Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06 Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

The Great New Madrid Earthquake

    Roman numerals indicate estimated Modified Mercalli intensities for a 6.5 magnitude earthquake. Based on maps in W. Atkinson, 1989, The Next New Madrid Earthquake, Southern Illinois University

    Press

    The recent earthquake which struck Kobe, Japan, resulted in the loss of over 5000 lives and millions of dollars in property. However, large parts of the United States are also subject to large magnitude quakes - quakes which could be far more powerful than the Kobe quake! Although we tend to think of California and Alaska as the places where most of our earthquakes occur, the fact is that the central U.S. has been the site of some very powerful earthquakes.

    In the past three centuries, major earthquakes outside of California and Alaska generally occurred in sparsely-settled areas, and damage and fatalities were largely minimal. But some took place in areas that have since been heavily built up. Among them are three earthquakes that occurred in 1811 and 1812 near New Madrid, MO. They are among the Great earthquakes of known history, affecting the topography more than any other earthquake on the North American continent. Judging from their effects, they were of a magnitude of 8.0 or higher on the Richter Scale. They were felt over the entire United States outside of the Pacific coast. Large areas sank into the earth, new lakes were formed, Get Your Land, Free Land! ECON 4103sp06

    Laura Lindsay and Haley Haymond BMCEE

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