DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY
Submission of Proposals
The responsibility for carrying out the DARPA’s SBIR Program rests with the Program Management Office. The DARPA Coordinator for SBIR is Bud Durand.
DARPA invites the small business community to send proposals directly to DARPA under the following address:
Attention: Bud Durand
1400 Wilson Blvd.
Arlington, VA 22209-2308
The proposals will be processed in the Program Management Office and distributed to the appropriate technical office for evaluation and action.
DARPA has identified 38 technical topics to which small businesses may respond. A brief description of each topic is included below. The topics originated from DARPA technical offices.
DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY
FY 1988 Small Business Innovation Research Topics
SB88-001 Composite zero pressure and super pressure high altitude balloons
SB88-002 Computer architectures for acoustic data processing or high resolution beam forming SB88-003 Synthetic aperture radar signal processors for space and aircraft application SB88-004 Mapping expert systems or artificial intelligence algorithms onto wafer scale circuits SB88-005 Expendable devices for measurement of ocean optical properties
SB88-006 Mapping acoustic propagation model algorithms onto computer architectures/silicon wafers SB88-007 Evaluation of optical scattering layer profiles in ocean areas
SB88-008 Models of ocean surface scattering of light in visible spectrums
SB88-009 Innovative micro-computer based graphical displays for seismic array processing SB88-010 Statistical procedures for determining compliance with yield threshold nuclear test limitations SB88-011 Innovative deposition techniques for durable optical coatings
SB88-012 Integrated optical polishing/coating techniques
SB88-013 Processing algorithms for sensor fusion in visible/infrared/radar
SB88-014 Innovative sensors for detection of strategic relocatable targets
SB88-015 Low observable technology for infrared suppression
SB88-016 Advanced short takeoff and vertical landing technology
SB88-017 Advanced radar cross section measurement analysis
SB88-018 Remotely piloted vehicle technology
SB88-019 National aerospace plane technology
SB88-020 Real time mission planning system
SB88-021 Material structures for three dimensional, nonvolatile mass storage
SB88-022 Non-destructive chemical/structure analytical techniques for semiconductor surfaces and
SB88-023 Real time, in-situ process sensors for advanced materials microelectronics manufacturing SB88-024 Coatings for fibers in high temperature composite materials
SB88-025 High temperature structural composite materials
SB88-026 Application of distributed systems
SB88-027 Automated planning systems for battle management/robotic systems emphasizing dealing with
SB88-028 Algorithms for parallel computers
SB88-029 High level gallium arsenide design tools
SB88-030 Automated planning systems for battle management/robotic systems emphasizing reasoning about
SB88-031 New industrial uses for solid state laser technology (one micron, 100-1000 watts) SB88-032 Advanced electro-optic/infrared sensor concepts for increased performance and survivability SB88-033 Medium power microwave radiation for ―out-of-brand‖ disruption of electronic equipment
SB88-034 Novel techniques to detect and/or neutralize mines and explosives
SB88-035 Novel mine and barrier concepts and technologies
SB88-036 Neural network technology for coupling sensor system outputs to electrical/mechanical effectors SB88-037 New superconductor technology applied to advanced infrared sensor arrays development SB88-038 Advanced superconductor materials and structures
SB88-001 TITLE: Expendable Air Vehicles/High Altitude Balloon Technology
DESCRIPTION: DARPA is interested in exploiting balloon borne communications and surveillance capabilities. Balloons offer several unique capabilities when combined with powerful and lightweight electronics, available today. Two basic kinds of balloons are being considered. One is twenty four hour life, zero pressure balloon intended for 70,000 feet and a nominal 25 pound payload. The other is a super pressure balloon intended for one year endurance at 120,000 feet with a 50 pound payload. Any novel concept related to high altitudes balloons for military applications will be considered but several enabling techniques are specifically needed in this program.
1. Robust launching and gas handling techniques for the smaller balloon. The launch must be made by a ship
at sea with minimum ship board equipment and personnel. A separate ground launch version will also be
2. Novel, unique, expendable and lightweight payloads which have military applications.
3. Power generation and storage systems providing high power density.
4. Long endurance balloon vehicle concepts for balloons having a one year life at 120,000 feet.
5. Propulsors capable of operations at 120,000 feet to provide low velocity (less than 25kt) repositioning
capability. Low cost and weight are critical.
6. Simulations of upper atmosphere balloon drift patterns for 24 hours at 70,000 feet and one year at 120,000
SB88-002 TITLE: Advanced Computer Architecture for Acoustic Data Procession
DESCRIPTION: The U.S. Navy utilizes both fixed and mobile arrays of hydrophones to perform passive and active acoustic detection of Soviet submarines. The processing required to detect, classify, locate, and track targets within the whole ocean area increases with the number of phones and their sensitivity. Algorithms are required to eliminate noise, to perform adaptive beamforming, and perform cross-correlation between fixed-fixed, fixed-mobile systems. In addition, new algorithms are required to integrate information received from both air assets (such as helicopters dipping sonobuoy), surface ships, and underwater vessels as well as fixed arrays. New approaches are sought to determine how to meet the real-time processing requirements for detection, classification, location, and tracking of enemy submarines using acoustic signals. It is anticipated that the investigation of potential solutions will be divided into two phases:
1. Development of new algorithms for parallel processors coupled with a theoretical assessment of the types
of architectures on which the algorithm would perform best.
2. Based on the theoretical results, development and evaluation of selected algorithms on parallel processors
with the most potential for performance movement in order to experimentally verify the utility of the new
SB88-003 TITLE: Lightweight Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Concepts
DESCRIPTION: SAR concepts appropriate for use in all satellites and aircraft are of interest for navel applications. These systems must be relatively inexpensive and capable of detecting all modulations of the ocean surface. Research should address the following areas.
1. SAR hardware technology for all lightweight systems.
2. SAR signal processing technologies where size and cost are critical.
3. Determination of the optimum SAR wave length for detecting modulations of the ocean surface.
SB88-004 TITLE: Mapping Expert Systems to VLSI/Wafer Scale Technology
DESCRIPTION: Considerable effort has been devoted by DARPA and the services to the development of various expert system shells and AI technologies over the past decade. Many of these technologies are well enough understood that the basic ―shell‖ technology or underlying algorithm can be implemented as an application specific
integrated circuit (ASIC). In order to achieve performance gains as well as reduce the size of the supporting hardware so that it may be embedded in operational military systems, these algorithms can be mapped onto VLSI or after-scale chips. Because much of the technology for supporting expert systems or AI algorithms is very dynamic, this will require new design features and characteristics and the trade-off of performance, number of rules, flexibility of the algorithm, etc. New approaches are sought to developing ASICs using AI technology for embedding in operational military systems. It is anticipated that the investigation of candidate systems would be divided into two phases:
1. A conceptual design for mapping specific AI algorithms or expert system technology onto ASICs,
including a theoretical assessment of performance gains, analysis of design tradeoffs, and technical
2. Based on the successful theoretical results and potential benefit, fabricate prototype chips, and demonstrate
and evaluate these chips on a military problem, in an experimental system.
SB88-005 TITLE: Expendable Ocean Optical Measurement Devices
DESCRIPTION: The optical properties of the ocean are of interest to the Navy. These properties must be measured over large ocean areas to support several programs. One approach is to deploy large numbers of expendable optical sensors from aircraft. Cost, therefore, is a major consideration which will require innovative techniques in order to be mass produced inexpensively. Measurements of absorption backscatter and temperature to a depth of 400 feet are of principle interest. Ideas for accomplishing the data collection are also of interest.
SB88-006 TITLE: Acoustic Propagation Models and VLSI
DESCRIPTION: As acoustic signals propagate through water, they encounter conditions which lead to multiple reflections, interference, noise, and attenuation of the original signal. Some of these effects can be eliminated or reduced using propagation models. However, the granularity required to make these models useful requires large data sets and very intensive numeric computations. Current algorithms exceed the capabilities of most commercial processors for 2-D; very few 3-D algorithms can be run. New parallel processing architectures offer potential promise for developing new versions of these algorithms which will be provide significant performance gains. Several factors may be traded off including the data set size, dimensionality and granularity of the algorithm, and speed of execution. New VLSI technology offers potential promise for improving performance of current algorithms by mapping them onto VLSI chips. Several factors may be traded off including chip size, data manipulation requirements, data flow to/from the chip.
New approaches are sought to develop acoustic propagation model algorithms which can yield performance gains of the order of 100-1000 times by mapping them onto parallel processors or VLSI chips. It is anticipated that investigations of candidate algorithms will be divided into two phases:
1. Conceptual design (including simulation) of the algorithm for a parallel processor (or for mapping onto a
VLSI chip) with a theoretical and analytical assessment of the performance gains and feasibility based on
existing environmental and experimental data.
2. Based on successful theoretical results, implement and demonstrate the algorithm on a parallel processor or
fabricate a prototype chip, and demonstrate and evaluate the chip in an experimental setting.
SB88-007 TITLE: Innovative Concepts for Oxygen Extraction
DESCRIPTION: DARPA is pursuing a program to extract dissolved oxygen from seawater for a number of naval and other potential applications. We solicit innovative technology that can either assist the biologically-based approach we are currently pursuing, or offer alternatives to it. Concepts proposed must show potential for efficient and compact systems or show potential ways to improve the present program.
SB88-008 TITLE: Optical Scattering Layers in the Oceans
DESCRIPTION: The DARPA is interested in a survey of available oceanographic data which can be used to characterize optical scattering layers in the ocean. The data must determine the likelihood of encountering a well defined, stratified optical scattering layer across the world’s oceans within 300 feet of the surface. If existing data
can be processed to acquire this information, a detailed follow on study effort will be considered.
SB88-009 TITLE: Innovative Micro-Computer Based Graphical Displays for Seismic Array Processing
DESCRIPTION: New approaches are sought for displaying data from seismic arrays and/or milti-sensor stations that are able to provide a comprehensible estimate of the Azimuth and velocities of the individual phases which are contained in a seismic event. These approaches are expected to be implemented using modern, graphics-assisted computational techniques and are expected to lead to significant advances in analyst productivity in terms of the seismic monitoring of nuclear explosions. Effort should address both the implementation aspects of the approach and how the approach satisfies the need for increased analyst productivity in detecting and locating seismic events. Technologies and areas of high quality waveform graphics and workstations should be exploited in these efforts.
SB88-010 TITLE: Statistical Procedures for Determining Compliance with Yield Threshold Nuclear Test
DESCRIPTION: The Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) is an agreement between the US and the USSR to not detonate a nuclear explosion over 150 kilotons. The principal evidence for compliance consists of yield estimates determined by seismic means. There is a systematic unknown bias in these yield estimates, as well as an element of independent uncertainty from event to event. Although the bias is unknown it is thought to lie within specified bounds.
The problem is to develop statistical techniques which will lead to sound and powerful judgments as to compliance. It is desired to make judgments not only on individual events but also on the complete set of observed yield estimates at any time.
SB88-011 TITLE: Innovative Deposition Techniques for Durable Optical Coatings
DESCRIPTION: Optical coatings are applied to most high-quality optical components in order to eliminate front-surface reflection, boost the reflection, or otherwise modify the spectral reflectance/transmission characteristics of the component. Typically the coating is applied using the technique of evaporative vacuum deposition. In the design of thin flames, individual layers are assumed to be continuous and homogenous. However, resulting film layers are assumed to be porous and nonuniform. Advances in electron microscopy have revealed that optical thin films produced by evaporation are strongly columnar in nature with voids between the columns. This microstructure determines the optical and physical properties of the film. Interference filters often ―drift‖ in time due to the absorption of water vapor into the voids of the microstructure, resulting in a shift of the apparent index of refraction of the structure. Coating hardness and durability are also degraded due to the microstructure.
Current research has investigated modification to traditional deposition techniques in order to decrease the void volume with a corresponding increase in packing density. One technique that has achieved considerable improvement in film performance is ion bombardment of the coating during deposition. However, this techniques would be difficult to implement for coating target optical structures. New approaches for coating deposition are sought to solve the problems discussed above.
Research proposed should be limited to a basic analysis of innovative deposition techniques. The theory of the technique should be well developed with an emphasis on describing basic experimental research which would demonstrate the applicability of the technique to various coating requirements.
SB88-012 TITLE: Integrated Optical Polishing/Coating Techniques
DESCRIPTION: Current commercial optical coating techniques rely on the vacuum deposition of film materials onto optical substrates (e.g. glass plates, mirrors, polished lenses). The coatings are required to modify the spectral reflectance/transmittance properties of the finished optical component. For most quality components, these optical coatings are critical to the final optical performance. However, the polishing process necessary to obtain the required optical figure and the optical coating process are usually accomplished in separate facilities and are often in conflict.
The optical polishing process is macroscopic in nature; that is, the final figure specification is given in terms of macroscopic surface smoothness. The microscopic process of the interaction of the polishing compound and the surface material is not an issue. On the other hand, vacuum deposition techniques require a uniform substrate surface free of surface defects. The presence of even a few defect sites profoundly effects the microstructure of the resulting film.
Innovative techniques are sought which would integrate the polishing and coating processes. The proposed effort should begin with the definition of an integrated polishing/coating technique. An initial experimental effort would be used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed technique.
SB88-013 TITLE: Processing Algorithms for Sensor Fusion in Visible/IR/Radar
DESCRIPTION: A great deal of research has been conducted in the area of fusion of data from sensors operating in different spectral regions (e.g. infrared and radar imagery). The goal is to demonstrate the synergism that would result from the combination of information from dissimilar spectral regions. Recent improvements in imaging radars together with shape and Doppler information provided by laser radars have increased interest in sensor fusion work. However, reality has not lived up to expectations. It is difficult to register scenes from separate sensors, which further might be mounted on separate platforms. The sensors often have different fields-of-view and different resolutions; the platforms often operate at different altitudes and velocities. Existing processing algorithms are unable to compensate for these difficulties.
Innovative techniques are sought to overcome the problems described above. Proposals should focus on the description of new processing techniques. The initial investigation will include an analytical assessment of the technique based on existing experimental data. The proposal should include possible demonstrations of the technique in a laboratory environment.
SB88-014 TITLE: Innovative Sensors for Detection of Relocatable Targets
DESCRIPTION: The Strategic Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA/STO) is investigating the technology for detecting and identifying strategic targets which are capable of relocating on a frequent basis. Examples of this category of targets are rail-mobile and road-mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles. Current target acquisition systems are often based on target emission/reflections using visible, infrared or radar portions of the spectrum. The ability of the target to move stresses the capability of existing sensors and associated processor technologies. In addition, detection capability is further degraded if the target is located in a cluttered environment and employs active deception and denial techniques (e.g. camouflage).
DARPA/STO is interested in innovative techniques for detecting and identifying relocatable targets. Possible approaches may take advantage of other regions in the electromagnetic spectrum, of unique signature phenomenology of man-made versus natural objects, of innovative sensor designs, or of innovative sensor processing technology. It is anticipated that the investigation of innovative concepts would be divided into two phases:
1. Concept definition and analysis. The analysis will include theoretical development based on physical
principals as well as an analytical assessment of available experimental data.
2. Based upon successful conceptual analysis, a laboratory demonstration will be developed to verify the
SB88-015 TITLE: Low Observable Technology for Infrared Suppression
DESCRIPTION: A technology base is required that will allow the suppression of infrared signatures that contribute to aircraft detection or missile guidance against aircraft. Techniques to cool propulsion systems or airframe parts, inherently cool propulsion systems, materials and coatings with reduced propulsion systems, materials and coatings with reduced emissivity or which can deflect aircraft radiance, or techniques to modify plume signatures are all of interest. Also, infrared control techniques and materials which can synergistically support radar and/or optical control signature control requirements are of interest.
SB88-016 TITLE: Advanced Short Take-off/Vertical Landing Aircraft (ASTOVL) Technology
DESCRIPTION: Recent technological advances in high thrust to weight engines, composites aircraft structures, computer integration of flight/propulsion controls, and computation fluid dynamics have indicated that various concepts for ASTOVL aircraft may be feasible in the next decade. Several common technologies to all ASTOVL concepts need further investigation e.g., hot gas reingestion (computer modeling scaling laws, nozzle geometry); Fan Air Collection, valves, ducting (design code development, turning and mixing losses, low loss duct flow, etc.); Thrust Augmentation by burning (low loss, compact burner technology), Jet Plume/Aircraft Structure Interaction (analytical prediction of jet plume trajectories, definition of thermal environment, Thermal/Acoustic fatigue testing of lightweight materials); Ground Erosion (code development on jet impingement and surface erosion mechanics, surface material treatments); and Integration of Flight/Propulsion controls (determine impacts on system design, innovative architecture/redundancy).
SB88-017 TITLE: Advanced Radar Cross Section Measurement Analysis
DESCRIPTION: The development of new and innovative techniques to deal with electromagnetic scattering problems are necessary in order to advance the state-of-the-art in radar cross-section control, antenna design, etc. The scope of this problem area includes:
1. Development of new algorithms for the solution of Maxwell’s equations, particularly for low frequency
scattering, and for 3-dimensional complex composite structures.
2. Evaluation and application of non-Von Neuman computer architectures specifically to solve
electromagnetic scattering problems.
3. Interactive systems which assist the designer in evaluating different design options.
4. The application of innovative theoretical or data representations which might offer some advantage in the
solution of Maxwell’s equations, or might assist in the analysis and understanding of radar data.
5. Rapid software prototyping systems which could allow analysts or radar facilities to rapidly reconfigure to
meet new or unanticipated requirements.
6. Innovative radar measurement and analysis techniques.
SB88-018 TITLE: Remotely Piloted Vehicle Technology
DESCRIPTION: Desires to field Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) to the Services which are highly reliable, provide increased utility and are cost effective have increased over the past few years. This situation has placed greater emphasis on achieving combinations of higher altitude, longer endurance, greater payload capacity, higher reliability and increased survivability. To achieve these more efficient cost effective systems it is necessary to exploit various technology areas and extend the state-of-the-art. New and innovative approaches are sought to enhance the capability of the RPV system. It is anticipated that investigation into candidate components, subsystems or systems would be divided into two phases. First, conceptual designs would be generated and validated through theory and analytical assessment and/or testing. Second, based on successful results of the first
phase, fabrication of proof of concept designs and experimental verification of the approach would be made. Areas of intent are as follows:
1. Methods and test techniques to design and test low Reynolds number airfoils with mild stall characteristics,
2. Techniques to reduce turbulent boundary layer and separation drag,
3. Measurement of atmospheric characteristics at high altitudes (greater than 60,000 ft) and developing
techniques and methods to enhance the response of air vehicles to this environment,
4. Core avionics equipment which allow better positive description, control, and relieve air traffic control
5. Advanced propulsion techniques which emphasize low fuel consumption and diesel fuels.
SB88-019 TITLE: National Aero-Space Plane Technology Innovations
DESCRIPTION: The National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program incorporates major technological advances in: high temperature, high strength, oxidation, resistant reusable materials; cryogenic fluid management; advanced turbulence and boundary layer transition modeling; ramjet/scramjet propulsion; active leading edge, nose and structural cooling and advanced high temperature instrumentation. This research task will address any of the areas with innovative new design ideas suitable for eventual incorporation in a flight research vehicle. A first phase program of design, analysis and proof of concept experimentation should be described with sufficient concept descriptions to enable comparison with other approaches. The second phase would involve large scale test and analysis.
SB88-020 TITLE: Real-Time Mission Planning System
DESCRIPTION: The planning of combat air missions for both single and multiple aircraft must consider a dynamic mission environment and a variable series of goals and threats. Missions which are planned for hours before the first flight may be altered enroute, and also new plans must be quickly adapted while refueling and rearming for the next mission. Goal selection and trajectory and waypoint determination must trade3 off the accomplishment of goals against threats, usage of expendables, winds, etc. Current concepts for mission planning have considered many algorithmic approaches, including many versions of dynamic programming, simulated annealing, and other techniques. New methods are sought for new high-speed planning systems with applications for both manned and autonomous aircraft that exploit modern computing techniques such as parallel processing, neural network processing, etc. Such approaches must consider transition to future airborne military computing systems.
SB88-021 TITLE: Material Structures for Three Dimensional Nonvolatile Mass Storage
DESCRIPTION: Parallel processors for data intensive applications, such as those involving artificial intelligence, will soon become memory limited unless major advancements can be made in the mass storage area; i.e., a replacement for magnetic/optical disks. DARPA is interested in exploring the applications of optics to the realization of a high density, nonvolatile, mass storage system capable of reading and writing data in two dimensional formats. Desirable characteristics are: density greater than 100 gigabits/cubic inch, a read speed less than 10 microseconds, a write speed less than 100 microseconds, and non-destruction of stored data upon read-out. One envisioned application would be to provide two-dimensional data fields to two-dimensional spatial light modulators for optical computing. Current research needs are in the areas of materials for three-dimensional optical storage and holographics for beam shaping. The storage media need not be homogeneous, but rather may consist of a layered structure; i.e., a buffered stack of two-dimensional storage planes.
SB88-022 TITLE: Non-Destructive Chemical/Structure Analytical Techniques for Semiconductor Surfaces
DESCRIPTION: Solid State devices are affected by the surface and interface properties of semiconductors at least as much as by bulk properties. However, the techniques for evaluating the physical, chemical, or electrical condition of the surface or the interface region non-destructively are generally not sensitive enough to predict possible device problems.
Techniques that advance the state-of-the-art in surface and interface evaluation of technologically significant semiconductors are being sought. Efforts should concentrate on advancing one or all of the following areas:
1) The identification of surface preparation problems that may result in residual damage.
2) The identification of impurities that may be incorporated at or near surfaces or interfaces.
3) The development of techniques that can be used as quality inspection for incoming wafers and/or as
process control monitors.
In all cases the proposal should be clear on how the correlation to actual device results will be obtained.
SB88-023 TITLE: Real Time In-Situ Process Sensors for Advanced Materials and Microelectronics
DESCRIPTION: Emerging methodologies for control of manufacturing of complex structural and electronic materials (e.g., composites, layered electronic structures) involve the applications of Intelligent Processing strategies based upon artificial intelligence (AI) techniques which integrate sophisticated process models, laboratory scientist and factory process operator knowledge including heuristics, and key in-process sensors to determine local conditions and materials response as the microstructure and chemistry evolves to final product during processing.
As related to both analytical and empirical models, such in-process sensors should enable real time determination of the state of the evolving material and allow the process control system to modify the process trajectory to achieve the desired microstructure, chemistry and final properties in the processed material. Such sensors are sought for process such as:
- MOCVD (Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition)
- Plasma Deposition Processing of Advanced Composites – Bulk Crystal Growth
- Carbonization and Graphitization of Carbon-Carbon
- Chemical Vapor Infiltration of Ceramic Composites
- Hot Isostatic Pressing of Metallic and Ceramic Powders.
SB88-024 TITLE: Coatings for Fibers in High Temperature Composite Materials
DESCRIPTION: Fiber reinforced composites are required for use in extreme environments of stress, high temperature, corrosion and impact loading. It is crucial in many cases that fibers be coated to inhibit high temperature chemical reaction with the matrix, provide the proper interfacial bond (strong/weak) with the matrix, tailor electrical properties of the composites, etc. There are a variety of techniques for coating monofilaments, or fibers in a tow. Often the coatings are not uniform in thickness, do not completely cover the fibers, and do not adhere to the fibers.
New and improved techniques for coating fibers in a tow (specifically graphite and ceramic fibers) are sought with
the view of incorporating them into metallic, carbon, ceramic, and hybrid matrices. Fiber sources can be commercial or experimental. Respondents should indicate which fibers they wish to study and in which composites they could be incorporated. The characterization methods for determining coating uniformity, adherence and effects of coating on fibers mechanical properties should be discussed.
SB88-025 TITLE: High Temperature Structural Composite Material
DESCRIPTION: Composite materials, both fiber reinforces and particulate reinforced, are increased use in DOD weapons systems as the stringent requirements for stronger, stiffer structures mandate the utilization of these engineered materials. Applications include airframes, propulsion systems, missiles, rockets and components in a variety of advanced vehicles.
New approaches are sought to process and fabricate composites with anticipated use temperature of 800 C (1500 F) and above. Composites of interest include, but are not limited to:
; Ti and Nb-intermetallic matrix composites, especially aluminides of Ti and Nb.
; Oxidation inhibited carbon-carbon composites.
; Ceramic matrix composites with substantial toughness.
; Hybrid composites for special application such as low observables.
The research approach should indicate the strategy for choice of reinforcing species, and understanding of the importance of the fiber or particulate/matrix interface, particularly how this is affected by processing conditions, and how the interface will influence mechanical behavior. In addition to mechanical property evaluation, offerors are encouraged to utilize appropriate advance techniques for characterization of microstructures.
SB88-026 TITLE: Application of Distributed Systems
DESCRIPTION: Research on distributed systems has produced many interesting distributed software and hardware systems and concepts over the past few years. These include distributed data bases, distributed signal processing, distributed AI techniques, and distributed debugging. Applications of these and other similar concepts to selected military areas has already included areas such as distributed sensor nets and distributed communication networks. Other new applications of distributed systems are requested that have direct strategic or tactical defense applications. Proposals in this area should show clearly how distributed systems or components of distributed systems can improve military capabilities in the field. In each case, the essential computation as well as computational resources should be fully distributed and shown a significant advantage over a centralized approach. Proposals involving components of distributed systems should show how they contribute to the development of a distributed system. Applications may cover existing capabilities which can be carried out much more efficiently using distributed computation or, preferably, entirely new capabilities not previously possible or practical. Examples that involve only trivial cases of distributed computing or a single central nodal point are not desired.
SB88-027 TITLE: Automated Planning Systems for Battle Management or Robotics Emphasizing
DESCRIPTION: Most automated planners, with few exceptions, have not attempted to deal with the problem of adversaries. Exceptions include work by Lehner and Wilkins’. The classical framework for thinking about adversaries is game trees, in which my moves and my opponent’s alternate. One could import this idea into planning by generating a few plans, making a copy of the temporal database for each one, then generating the opponent’s counterparts as similar temporal database copies, and so forth. Unfortunately, the resulting tree would be artificial. There is no natural ―move‖ structure to impose on real-life planning, so the time after which the enemy
will react is somewhat arbitrary. Furthermore, much of what agents do is hidden from adversaries, so their reactions will be uninteresting. And, of course, it is not obvious how to find quintescent positions where a ―broad evaluation
function‖ can be applied. Still, we must find some way of thinking about how the enemy reacts to what we do. We begin by having some notion of what the enemy’s plan is. To infer it, we must use plan recognition techniques.
Some aspects of the enemy’s plan may suggest goals (e.g., ―stop this advance‖) to be incorporated into our plan. Other aspects (e.g., our belief that the enemy plans to shoot anything that enters a certain field of fire) get added to the ―world physics.‖
Our plan, including our countergoals, is now formulated. It is then projected as usual, and potential problems are noted. At this phase, the enemy’s actions appear as problems in the same sense that nature presents problems. An