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Chapter 3 Practice Test

By Roger Stewart,2014-12-03 16:49
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Chapter 3 Practice Test

    Chapter 21 Practice Test

1. One reason environmental policy tends to be so controversial is that…

    a. So many environmental policy decisions are based on scientific evidence, which tends to be highly

    political.

    b. Environmental policy often takes the form of majoritarian politics, which requires strong emotional

    appeals to overcome the political advantage of client groups.

    c. Environmental policy creates losers, who must pay the costs without getting enough of the

    benefits.

    d. Most people feel that government is already doing enough to control pollution; new programs are

    therefore likely to face stiff opposition.

    e. All of the above.

    2. The text speaks of the importance of entrepreneurial politics in many areas of environmental

    policy making. This term refers to a style of policy making in which…

    a. An unorganized public benefits at the expense of a well-organized group. b. An unorganized public benefits at its own expense.

    c. Two organized groups with a material stake in the outcome fight over who will pay and who will

    benefit.

    d. An organized group benefits at the expense of an unorganized public.

    e. An organized group benefits at the expense of a well-organized public.

    3. An example cited in the text of the adversarial nature of environmental policy making in the U.S. is

    the fact that…

    a. Rules designed to reduce air pollution were written by government and business acting

    cooperatively.

    b. Most environmental issues are settled through majoritarian politics.

    c. The public is prohibited by law from suing the Environmental Protection Agency. d. It took Congress thirteen years to revise the Clean Air Act.

    e. Congress has not passed a substantive environmental law in over twenty-seven years.

4. According to the text, federalism and the separation of powers…

    a. Have reduced the scope of conflicts in environmental policy making.

    b. Ensure efficiency in environmental policy making.

    c. Are responsible for the broad-based public support for anti-pollution laws. d. Reinforce adversarial politics in environmental policy making.

    e. None of the above.

5. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created by…

    a. Franklin Roosevelt

    b. Theodore Roosevelt

    c. Richard Nixon

    d. Gerald Ford

    e. Jimmy Carter

6. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

    a. Most scientists agree the earth has gotten warmer over the last century. b. Global warming is caused when gases are trapped in the earth’s atmospheres.

c. Global warming “activists” have had significant impact on policy-making.

    d. Almost all scientists agree about the certain environmental outcomes from global warming. e. The U.S. signed the Kyoto Protocol pledging to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    7. One provision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 required cities in which smog was still a problem,

    despite emissions controls placed on new cars, to impose rules restricting the public’s use of cars.

    Why did this provision fail?

    a. The EPA adopted an overly zealous command-and-control strategy.

    b. The provision was ruled unconstitutional.

    c. Power client groups worked to defeat the provision.

    d. Public opposition was too great.

    e. Legislators vowed to strengthen the measure if there were not immediate results.

    8. When is the average citizen most likely to support tough environmental protection measures? a. When people believe the benefits are great enough.

    b. When almost everyone benefits from the measures.

    c. When costs of the measures are hidden or deferred.

    d. When benefits are deferred to some later date.

    e. When benefits are perceived as legitimate.

    9. Your state proposes an increase in gasoline taxes. The citizens of the state are most likely to

    support such an increase if the tax revenues will be used to…

    a. Build a new highway.

    b. Reduce air pollution.

    c. Pay for measures to reduce traffic congestion.

    d. Finance a new crime-prevention program.

    e. Finance a new weapons-exchange program.

    10. If burning low-sulfur coal significantly reduces the emission of sulfurous fumes and therefore

    reduces acid rain, why don’t plants in the Midwest and Great Lakes region burn only low-sulfur

    coal?

    a. Because it can be burned only if plants are equipped with scrubbers.

    b. Because it is expensive.

    c. Because it produces far less energy than does high-sulfur coal.

    d. Because the major source of low-sulfur coal is Canada.

    e. Because the major source of low-sulfur coal is Mexico.

    11. Why should many residents of Canada be concerned about the type of coal burned in Midwestern

    U.S. power plants?

    a. Because acid rain caused by these plants affects lakes and forests in eastern Canada. b. Because the Canadian economy is heavily dependent on the sale of high-sulfur coal. c. Because the Canadian economy benefits directly from the sale of smokestack scrubbers. d. Because Canada is a major producer of sulfur dioxide and a source of acid rain. e. Because the extraction of low-sulfur coal in Canada is quite damaging to farm land.

12. The compromise worked out by Congress to deal with acid rain calls for…

    a. Scrubbers in all new plants.

    b. The burning of only low-sulfur coal in all new plants.

    c. Both scrubbers and the burning of only low-sulfur coal in all new plants. d. Both scrubbers and the burning of only low-sulfur coal in all plants, both new and existing.

    e. Scrubbers in old plants and the burning of low-sulfur coal in half of all new plants.

13. In cases in which pesticides, such as DDT, have been taken off the market, public debate of their

    effects tends to lend itself to…

    a. Majoritarian politics.

    b. Entrepreneurial politics.

    c. Interest group politics.

    d. Client politics.

    e. Bipartisan politics.

    14. Many policy entrepreneurs favor measures to control the use of agricultural pesticides. One

    reason they have not been successful in enacting legislation to do this is that…

    a. The EPA is opposed to such legislation.

    b. Extensive media coverage has lent support to farmers.

    c. The costs to the public of pesticide use are high.

    d. Farmers are well-represented in Congress.

    e. Congress and the EPA cannot agree on relevant standards.

    15. Congress orders the U.S. Forest Service to sell timber to the timber industry at below-market

    prices and thereby subsidizes the timber industry. Such a program best illustrates…

    a. Entrepreneurial politics.

    b. Majoritarian politics.

    c. Interest group politics.

    d. Client politics.

    e. Bipartisan politics.

16. Offsets, bubble standards and banks (pollution allowances) are all…

    a. Pollution control devices that effective reduce air contamination. b. Tests conducted by the EPA on agricultural pesticides.

    c. EPA incentives for companies to reduce pollution.

    d. Rules devised by EPA under its command-and-control strategy to improve air and water quality. e. Standards which are employed in order to control the amount of hazardous nuclear waste that is

    discarded in watersheds.

17. The EPA was given responsibility to administer certain laws governing…

    a. Air.

    b. Water.

    c. Pesticides.

    d. All of the above.

    e. None of the above.

    18. The inability of Superfund to treat more than 2,000 waste sites by the year 2000 was, in part,

    attributable to the fact that…

    a. Superfund money went straight to the waste removers.

    b. Finding and suing responsible parties were difficult.

    c. The government provided little in the way of funding.

    d. President Reagan signed a bill which weakened the EPA.

    e. Environmental lobbyists were no longer able to exert pressure on the EPA.

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