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CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS

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CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS

CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS

    SECTION-7, FLIGHT CREW STANDARDS

    SERIES ‘B’, PART VII TH AUGUST, 1999 EFFECTIVE : FORTHWITH ISSUE I 16

    SUBJECT: FLYING TRAINING SYLLABUS FOR GRANT

    OF PILOTS’ LICENCES AND RATINGS.

1. INTRODUCTION

    For acquiring a pilot’s licence or rating, an applicant has to meet the

    applicable requirements stipulated in Schedule-II of the Aircraft Rules,

    1937. Amongst other requirements, a candidate has to undergo flying

    training in accordance with the syllabus prescribed by the Director

    General. This CAR lays down the flying training syllabus for grant of

    various pilots’ licences and ratings in accordance with Schedule-II of

    the Aircraft Rules, 1937. The syllabus is based on the provisions

    contained in ICAO Annex. 1. The CAR is issued under Rule 133A of

    the Aircraft Rules.

2. FLYING TRAINING SYLLABUS

    2.1 Private Pilot Licence (Aeroplane/Microlight)

    A pilot trainee shall receive dual instructions in

    aeroplanes/microlights as applicable, from an authorised Flight

    Instructor who shall ensure that the pilot trainee has operational

    experience in at least the following areas to the level of

    performance required for the private pilot:

    a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance

    determination, aeroplane inspection and servicing;

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    CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

    b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision

    avoidance precautions and procedures;

    c) control of the aeroplane by external visual reference;

    d) flight at critically slow airspeeds; spin avoidance;

    recognition of, and recovery from, incipient and full stalls;

    e) flight at critically high airspeeds; recognition of, and

    recovery from, spiral dives;

    f) normal and cross-wind take-offs and landings;

    g) maximum performance (short field and obstacle

    clearance) take-offs; short-field landings;

    h) flight by reference solely to instruments, including the

    completion of a level 180 degree turn;

    i) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead-

    reckoning and, where available, radio navigation aids;

    j) emergency operations, including simulated aeroplane

    equipment malfunctions; and

    k) operations to, from and transitting controlled aerodromes,

    compliance with air traffic services procedures, radio-

    telephony procedures and phraseology.

    If the privileges of the licence are to be exercised at night as well, the applicant shall receive dual instructions in aeroplanes/microlights in night flying, including take-offs, landings and navigation.

     2.2 Private Pilot Licence (Helicopter)

    A pilot trainee shall receive not less than 20 hours of dual instructions in helicopters from an authorised Flight Instructor who shall ensure that the applicant has operational experience in at least the following areas to the level of performance required for the private pilot.

    a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance

    determination, helicopter inspection and servicing;

    b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision

    avoidance precautions and procedures;

     c) control of the helicopter by external visual reference;

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    CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

    d) recovery at the incipient stage from settling with power;

    recovery techniques from low-rotor rpm within the normal

    range of engine rpm;

    e) ground manoeuvring and run-ups; hovering; take-offs and

    landings normal, out of wind and sloping ground;

    f) take-offs and landings with minimum necessary power;

    maximum performance take-off and landing techniques;

    restricted site operations ; quick stops;

    g) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead-

    reckoning and, where available, radio navigation aids,

    including a flight of at least one hour; diversion

    procedures;

    h) emergency operations, including simulated helicopter

    equipment malfunctions; auto-rotative approach and

    landing;

    i) operations to, from and transitting controlled aerodromes,

    compliance with air traffic services procedures, radio-

    telephony procedures and phraseology; and

    j) operational experience in flight solely by reference to

    instrument, including the completion of a level 180

    degrees turn, in a suitably instrumented helicopter.

    If the privileges of the licence are to be exercised at night as well, the applicant shall receive dual instructions in helicopters in night flying including take-offs, landings and navigation.

     2.3 Pilot Licence (Glider)

    A glider pilot trainee shall have gained, under appropriate supervision, operational experience in gliders in at least the following areas;

    a) pre-flight operation, including glider assembly and

    inspection;

    b) techniques and procedures for the landing method used,

    including appropriate airspeed limitations, emergency

    procedures and signals used;

    c) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision

    avoidance precautions and procedures;

     d) control of the glider by external visual reference;

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CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

     e) flight through the flight envelope;

    f) recognition of, and recovery from, incipient and full stalls

    and spiral dives;

    g) normal and cross-wind launches, approaches and

    landings;

    h) cross-country flying using visual reference and dead-

    reckoning; and

     i) emergency procedures.

     2.4 Pilot Licence (Balloons)

    A balloon pilot trainee shall have gained, under appropriate

    supervision, operational experience in free balloons in at least

    the following areas;

    a) pre-flight operation, including balloon assembly, rigging,

    inflation, mooring and inspection;

    b) techniques and procedures for launching and ascent,

    including appropriate limitation, emergency procedures

    and signals used;

     c) collision avoidance procedures;

     d) control of free balloon by external visual reference;

     e) recognition of, and recovery from, rapid descents;

    f) cross-country flying using visual reference and dead-

    reckoning;

     g) approaches and landings, including ground handling; and

     h) emergency procedures.

    If the privileges of the licence are to be exercised at night, the

    trainee pilot shall have gained, under appropriate supervision,

    operational experience in balloon night flying.

     2.5 Commercial Pilot Licence (Aeroplane)

    A pilot trainee shall have received dual instructions in

    aeroplanes from an authorised Flight Instructor who shall ensure

    that the pilot trainee has operational experience in at least the

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    CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

    following areas to the level of performance required from a Commercial Pilot:

    a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance

    determination, aeroplane inspection and servicing;

    b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision

    avoidance precautions and procedures;

     c) control of the aeroplane by external visual reference;

    d) flight at critically slow airspeeds; spin avoidance;

    recognition of, and recovery from, incipient and full stalls;

    e) flight at critically high airspeeds; recognition of, and

    recovery from, spiral dives;

     f) normal and cross-wind take-offs and landings;

g) maximum performance (short field and obstacle

    clearance) take-offs; short-field landings;

    h) basic flight manoeuvres and recovery from unusual

    attitudes by reference solely to basic flight instruments;

    i) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead-

    reckoning and radio navigation aids; diversion procedures;

     j) abnormal and emergency procedures and manoeuvres;

    k) operations to, from and transitting controlled aerodromes,

    compliance with air traffic services procedures, radio-

    telephony procedures and phraseology; and

    l) dual instructions in aeroplane in night flying, including

    take- offs, landings and navigation.

     2.6 Commercial Pilot Licence (Helicopter)

    A pilot trainee shall have received dual instructions in helicopters from an authorised Flight Instructor, who shall ensure that the pilot trainee has operational experience in at least the following areas to the level of performance required from a commercial pilot:

    a) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance

    determination, helicopter inspection and servicing;

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    CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

    b) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision

    avoidance precautions and procedures;

     c) control of the helicopter by external visual reference;

    d) recovery at the incipient stage from settling with power;

    recovery techniques from low-rotor rpm within the normal

    range of engine rpm;

    e) ground manoeuvring and run-ups; hovering; take-offs and

    landings normal, out of wind and sloping ground steep

    approaches;

    f) take-offs and landings with minimum necessary power;

    maximum performance take-off and landing techniques;

    restricted site operations; quick stops;

    g) hovering out of ground effect; operations with external

    load, if applicable; flight at high altitude;

    h) basic flight manoeuvres and recovery from unusual

    attitudes by reference solely to basic flight instruments;

    i) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead-

    reckoning and radio navigation aids; diversion procedures;

j) abnormal and emergency procedures, including

    simulated helicopter equipment malfunctions, auto-

    rotative approach and landing;

    k) operations to, from and transitting controlled aerodromes,

    compliance with air traffic services procedures, radio-

    telephony procedures and phraseology; and

    l) dual instructions in helicopters in night flying, including

    take-offs, landings and navigation.

     2.7 Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane)

    A pilot applicant shall have received dual flight instructions required for the issue of the commercial pilot licence (aeroplane) and for the issue of Instrument Rating (aeroplane) and acquired flight experience as required in para 1(e) of Section M of Schedule-II of the Aircraft Rules, 1937. The pilot applicant shall have demonstrated the ability to perform as Pilot-in-Command, the following procedures and manoeuvres with a degree of competence appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Aeroplane).

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CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

    a) pre-flight procedures, including the preparation of the

    operational flight plan and filing of the air traffic services

    flight plan;

    b) normal flight procedures and manoeuvres during all

    phases of flight;

    c) procedures and manoeuvres for IFR operations under

    normal, abnormal and emergency conditions, including

    simulated engine failure, and covering at least the

    following:

     - transition to instrument flight on take-off;

     - standard instrument departures and arrivals;

     - en-route IFR procedures and navigation;

     - holding procedures;

     - instrument approaches to specified minima;

     - missed approach procedures;

     - landings from instrument approaches

    d) abnormal and emergency procedures and manoeuvres

    related to failures and malfunctions of equipment, such as

    power plant, systems and airframe; and

    e) procedures for crew incapacitation and crew coordination,

    including allocation of pilot tasks, crew cooperation and

    use of check-lists in case of multi-pilot aeroplanes.

     2.8 Airline Transport Pilot Licence (Helicopter)

    A pilot applicant shall have received the dual flight instructions

    required for the issue of the commercial pilot licence (helicopter)

    and for the issue of Instrument Rating (helicopter) and acquired

    flight experience as required in para 1(e) of Section N of

    Schedule-II of the Aircraft Rules 1937. The pilot applicant shall

    have demonstrated the ability to perform as Pilot-in-Command

    of a helicopter, the following procedures and manoeuvres:

    a) pre-flight procedures, including the preparation of the

    operational flight plan and filing of the air traffic services

    flight plan;

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CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

    b) normal flight procedures and manoeuvres during all

    phases of flight;

    c) abnormal and emergency procedures and manoeuvres

    related to failures and malfunctions of equipment, such as

    power plant, systems and airframe; and

    d) procedures for crew incapacitation and crew coordination

    including allocation of pilot tasks, crew cooperation and

    use of checklists in case of multi-pilot helicopters.

    The pilot shall demonstrate the ability to perform the above

    procedures and manoeuvres with a degree of competency

    appropriate to the privileges granted to the holder of an Airline

    Transport Pilot Licence (Helicopter).

     2.9 Instrument Rating (Aeroplane)

    The applicant shall have gained not less than 10 hours of

    instrument flight time while receiving dual instrument flight

    instructions in aeroplanes from an authorised flight instructor.

    The instructor shall ensure that the applicant has operational

    experience in at least the following areas to the level of

    performance required for the holder of an instrument rating:

    a) pre-flight procedures for IFR flights, including the use of

    the flight manual or equivalent document, and appropriate

    air traffic services documents in the preparation of an IFR

    flight plan;

    b) pre-flight inspection, use of checklists, taxiing and pre-

    take-off checks;

    c) procedures and manoeuvres for IFR operation under

    normal, abnormal and emergency conditions covering at

    least:

    - transition from visual to instrument flight on take off;

     - standard instrument departures and arrivals;

     - enroute IFR procedures;

    - proper understanding and use of Instrument

    Approach Charts;

     - holding procedures;

     - instrument approaches to specified minima;

     - missed approach procedures;

    - landings from instrument approaches, including

    circling;

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CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

     d) in-flight manoeuvres and particular flight characteristics;

    e) If the privileges of the instrument rating are to be

    exercised on multi-engined aeroplanes, the applicant

    shall have received dual instrument flight instruction in

    such an aeroplane from an authorised flight instructor.

    The instructor shall ensure that applicant has operational

    experience in the operation of the aeroplane solely by

    reference to instruments with simulated one engine

    inoperative. The exercises of simulated one engine

    inoperative shall be carried out at safe altitude, unless

    carried out in a flight simulator.

     2.10 Instrument Rating (Helicopter)

    The pilot shall have gained 10 hours of the instrument flight time

    while receiving dual instrument flight instructions in helicopters

    from an authorised flight instructor, who shall ensure that the

    pilot has operational experience in at least the following areas

    and to the level of performance required for the holder of an

    instrument rating:

    a) pre-flight procedures for IFR flights, including the use of

    the flight manual or equivalent document, and appropriate

    air traffic services documents in the preparation of an IFR

    flight plan;

    b) pre-flight inspection, use of check-lists, taxiing and pre-

    take off checks;

    c) procedures and manoeuvres for IFR operation under

    normal, abnormal and emergency conditions covering at

    least;

    - transition from visual to instrument flight on take off;

     - standard instrument departures and arrivals;

     - en-route IFR procedures;

     - holding procedures;

     - instrument approaches to specified minima;

     - missed approach procedures;

    - landings from instrument approaches, including

    circling;

    d) in-flight manoeuvres and particular flight characteristics;

    and

    e) if appropriate, operation of a multi-engine helicopter in the

    above exercises, including operation of the helicopter

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CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7 THSERIES ‘B’ PART VII DATED : 16 AUGUST, 1999

    solely by reference to instruments with one engine

    simulated inoperative. This exercise should be carried

    out at a safe altitude unless carried out in a simulator.

    2.11 Assistant Flight Instructor and Flight Instructor Rating

    (Aeroplane/Helicopter)

    The objective of the Flight Instructor Rating training course is to

    train the student instructor to teach the ground subjects and air

    exercises and to ensure that the student instructor attains a

    sufficiently high standard of flying. The training should comprise

    at least the following areas:

     i) The learning process;

     ii) The teaching process;

     iii) Training philosophies;

     iv) Techniques of applied instructions;

     v) Student evaluation and testing;

     vi) Training programme development;

    vii) Human performance and limitations relevant to flight

    instructions;

    viii) Hazards involved in simulating systems failures and

    malfunctions in the aircraft during flight.

     ix) Training administration.

    x) Use of training aids.

    xi) Elements of effective teaching.

    xii) Lesson planning.

    xiii) Class-room instructional techniques.

    xiv) analysis and correction of student errors.

    The student instructor should complete flight training to practise

    the principles of basic instructions at PPL level. The applicant

    shall have received flying training instructions in at least the

    following applicable areas to the level of performance required

    for the holder of an Assistant Flight Instructor Rating (AFIR) and

    Flight Instructor Rating (FIR) as indicated below:

    Sl.No. Air Exercise AFIR/FIR

    1. Familiarisation with aircraft and cockpit AFIR & FIR

    2. Preparation for and action after flight AFIR & FIR

    3. Air experience, taxiing AFIR & FIR

    4. Effects of controls AFIR & FIR

    5. Straight and level flight AFIR & FIR

    6. Climbing and descending AFIR & FIR

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