You may wonder how candles are formed into different
shapes. The secret lies in the candle molds. Molds are one of
the most important materials in candle making. In the
process, every type requires a unique mold, like the
Types of Molds
; Dipping mold or metal tubing – used in making cylindrical candle.
; Semi-automatic mold – used in vigil candles and esperma.
; Mold made of silicon rubber or plaster of Paris – used in decorative and aroma
; Hand-formed candles – a more recent type of candle making, wherein candles
are hand-shaped and molds are passe.
In making aroma candle, tow molds should be prepared. One is the core candle, 3 inches in diameter and the outer candle, 4 inches in diameter. How to Make Core and Outer Candle Molds
; 3 1/2kg plaster of paris for the core candle mold
; 5 kg plaster of paris for the outer candle mold
; 30 pieces modeling clay
; 1 bar perla soap (to serve as separating agent)
; model of mold with a diameter of 4 inches for the outer candle
; model of mold with a diameter of 3 inches for the core candle Total cost: P 713.15 (based on Dec. 2003 price)
; pentel pen
; corrugated cardboard
; rubber band
; hacksaw blade
Total cost: P 986.25 (based on Dec. 2003 price)
Steps in Making the Two Molds
For the core mold:
1. Draw a vertical line across the model. This can be the basis in dividing the
mold that is being made.
2. Lay the model on top of a table. The position should render a horizontal line
on the model.
3. Put modelling clay on the sides of half the model following the drawn line.
4. Smoothen the modelling clay applied by using a knife. Remove excesses.
5. Leave a one-inch allowance or space measuring from all sides of the model.
6. Cut a cardboard walling and put it around the mold being made. Secure the
cardboard with a rubber band to be sure that it is tightly attached to the sides
of the model. Add clay n the cardboard walling to strengthen the cardboard’s
attachment. Make sure that the top of the cardboard walling is higher than
7. Prepare the plaster. Place 4 1/2 cups of plaster of Paris inside a basin
containing 3 cups of water. Allow the plaster to settle in the water for 3
8. Stir, in one direction, for about 4 to 6 minutes until a sticky mixture is
9. Pour the mixture inside the cardboard walling and let it remain there for 4
10. Once it hardens, remove the clay and the cardboard walling. Using a hacksaw
blade,trim or cut off the first half of the mold by removing the excess plaster.
11. Carve what will serve as locks on the sides of half of the mold. This will serve
as linkages to join together the two halves of the mold.
12. Repeat the procedure for the second half of the mold. Pattern the process
after that applied on the first half of the mold. Be sure to immerse the first
half of the mold inside a pail containing melted Perla soap to act as separating
13. Remove the model and carve underneath the mold a portion for the wick.
14. Clean and smoothen the two molds processed in order to remove any
15. Submerge the newly made molds inside a pail of water for 2 minutes. For the outer mold:
The process is the same as that used for the core candle mold. The difference lines only in the size of the model to be used. The proportion in mixing plaster of paris is 9 cups of the plaster in 6 cups of water.
When the second process is completed and the desired product achieve, then the two molds are ready for making aroma candles. The mold can be used for one year. Melting Wax
Preparation. What you will need to melt your wax
1 - WAX MELTING KIT P0576755
1 - Box (empty)
1 pair of safety goggles
1 kitchen scale (1 lb. capability) or 8-1/2" x11" piece of paper
1/2 gallon of water
Heat source capable of boiling water, (kitchen stove)
1 roll paper towel
Step 1 - Melting Wax Info
To obtain the optimum result in your candles it is necessary to follow a few simple procedures while preparing your wax. For safety reasons we recommend using the double boiler method for melting wax. Since wax is a fuel, and can catch on fire at around 390? F any direct heat method may pose certain risks. Water boils at 212? F which is well below the flash point of wax. Using boiling water to melt your wax greatly reduces the risk of fire.
Another benefit to double boiling over direct heat is that the molecular structure of the wax can be broken if it is brought to too high of a temperature. This could result in a discolored, crumbling, or improperly burning candle. The boiling water will not allow the wax to exceed 212? F which is too low a temperature for the molecular structure of the wax to deteriorate.
Also, it is fairly easy to adjust and regulate the temperature of the water, to arrive at and maintain any given temperature you may need to have your wax at for particular styles of candles.
Step 2 - Safety First
Let's start with an empty box, the block of wax , the pair of safety goggles, and the hammer.
NOTE: We are going to break up the block of wax into small pieces. The smaller the pieces of wax the quicker it will melt. The reason for the box is to help contain the mess that could be made while breaking up the block. It is important to wear protective eyewear while breaking up the block of wax.
Step 3 - Breaking Wax Block
Set one end of the block of wax down into the bottom of the box, holding the other end up with your left hand.
With the hammer, hit the block of wax directly in the center with a good follow through swing. The wax will break into two or more irregular pieces.
Step 4 - Breaking into smaller pieces
Take one of the pieces and prop it up on an angle against another piece so that there is an empty space underneath the first piece.
With a follow through swing, hit the propped up piece with the hammer.
NOTE: Do not worry if none of the pieces are quite square, you just want to get close to this size.
Place pieces of wax onto your kitchen scale until you have the amount of wax you wish to work with.
Step 5 - Fill Steamer Pot
Fill the Steamer Pot half way with water. Put the Steamer pot on a heat source for the water to boil. Bring the water to a boil. After the water has started boiling, turn the heat down to a simmer.
Step 6 - Wax and Dye
Place wax into the Melting Pot.
Add 1 chip of candle dye for each pound of wax being melted (or as your formula requires).
Step 7 - Add Additives
Add any necessary additives that do not require special handling.
Place the melting pot with the wax into the simmering water in the steamer pot. The handle of the melting pot will hang outside of the steamer pot.
NOTE: Do not worry if the melting pot does not rest on the trivet in the steamer pot, it is normal for the melting pot to float inside the steamer pot.
IMPORTANT: Do not allow the water to come to a boil while the melting pot is in the steamer pot. The boiling water will splash up around the sides of the melting pot and may splatter your work surfaces. Also, if water gets into the wax you may end up making an unsatisfactory candle.
Step 8 - "Cooking" the Wax.
After the wax has turned to liquid check the temperature of the wax with the thermometer. The wax should be 190?F. Stir the wax with a stir stick. Keep the wax at 190 ?F for about half an hour.
NOTE: Some waxes that come direct from the refineries can have micro bubbles or even air trapped within the crystalline structure. "Cooking" the wax for about 30 minutes helps reduce the flaws that naturally occur in the wax after it has been made into a candle.
Step 9 - Reduce Heat. Check and Adjust Wax Temperature
Adjust temperature, allow wax to heat or cool to which ever temperature is necessary for your particular candle style. When the wax as it the necessary temperature you are set to continue to your next procedure in making your candle.
Investment Requirements: (All price are in Php based on 2007 market price.)
; Paraffin wax granules (62.00/kg) x 10 kg – 620.00
; Polyethylene wax* (150.00/kg) x 10 kg – 1,500.00
; Crystal wax (160.00/kg) x 8 kg – 1,280.00
; Gel wax (225.00/kg) x 5 – 1,125.00
; Dyes (50.00/pk) x 5 packs – 250.00
; Separator (petroleum jelly, cooking oil, liquid soap, etc. – 100.00
; Nylon wick (30.00/pk) x 2 packs – 60.00
; Bamboo sticks (20.00/bundle) – 20.00
; Scent (75.00 to 300/bottle) x 3 bottles – 225.00
Subtotal – P 5,180.00
* Polyethylene from Germany (150.00/kg) and Thailand (70.00/kg)
Tools and Equipment:
; Heat source (250.00/unit) x 2 – 500.00
; Heating pans (300.00/unit) x 2 – 600.00
; Molders (300.00/molder) x 5 – 1,500.00
Subtotal – P 2,600.00
Total – P 7,780.00
1. Prepare the waxes. For every kg of paraffin wax, add 100 grams of polyethylene wax and 30 to 50 grams of crystal wax. If the paraffin wax is in a slab form, break it first into small pieces.
2. Heat the wax in a container other than the dipping tube. The safest way is to use a double boiler. If without a double boiler, heat the wax slowly in pouring pot or saucepan.
3. Wax is completely melted if the liquid is clear and the bottom of the container is seen. DO NOT BURN WAX (indicated by smoky fumes and brown coloration). 4. Remove from heat source and transfer contents into another container either in dipping tube or metal cup with spout. Add dye and scent (optional). The wax is now ready for dipping and/or molding.
I. Dipped Candles (oldest and simplest means of making candles):
1. Cut wicks into several inches longer than the desired candle length.
2. If you wish to dip several candles at the same time, tie the wicks 2 to 3
inches apart on a rod or a hoop.
3. Dip the wick into the melted wax. Withdraw the wick and pull on the other
end to make it taut. Dip the wick again after the first layer of wax hardens.
4. Continue dipping the candles until it reaches the desired thickness. Allow each
layer of wax to cool and harden after every dipping.
5. To make the bottoms of the dipped candles flat and smooth, heat a metal
spatula over a gas flame or electric burner. Rub the candle bottoms against
hot metal surface, melting away until the bottoms are flat. Costing and Pricing
A. Direct Cost of Materials – 75.00
; paraffin wax, crystal wax, polyethylene wax, dyes, nylon wick, scent B. Indirect Cost (based on 5000 pcs dipped candles average daily produce of 2 skilled workers):
; Labor cost (350.oo/day) x 2 /5000 pcs – .014
; Transportation (65.00/5000 pcs) – 0 .01
; Water & electricity (50.00/5000 pcs) – 0.01
; Contingency (10% of direct cost) – 0.07
Total Indirect Cost per piece – P 0.23
C. Product Cost and Pricing:
; Total direct cost – 0.75
; Add: Total indirect cost – 0.23
; Add: 10-20% of the production cost – 0.09
Selling price per piece – P 1.07
Current market price – P 1.50
Dipped candles 5,000 pcs x 1.07 – P 5,350.00
Less: All expenses – P 4,565.00
; Raw materials P 3,750 (0.75 5,000)
; Overhead P 115.00 (65.00 + 50.00)
; Labor P 700.00 (350×2)
Income per day – P 785.00
II. Molded Candles (molders can be purchased, made or found)
1. Prepare mold to release candle by applying the inside of the molder with a
thin layer of separator.
2. Prepare the wick. The size of the wick depends on the size of the candle. The
wick is usually place in the mold before the wax is poured. However, certain
candles require that the wick be inserted after the candle is made. This is
done by piercing a wick hole in the candle with a hot ice pick.
3. Hold mold in a slanting position. Pour hot wax from pot to the metal cup with
spout, then, from cup slowly into the mold.
4. Cool mold by placing it in a pail with cold water. Hold down with a heavy
5. After cooling, notice that portion about the wick recedes. Puncture and pour
wax into the cavity until filled.
6. Cool the mold again. After the wax has set, remove mold from water. Pull
wick gently to release the candle. Trim excess wick.
Costing and Pricing
A. Direct Cost of Materials:
; Paraffin wax 10 kg – 620.00
; stoves (gas/electric stove)
; wick for candle (cotton wick)
; double boiler container
; technical dye (oil soluble color)
; storage racks
; essential oil (synthetic/organic oil)
; wick holder (bamboo stick)
; laboratory thermometer
; stirrer (wood/bamboo)
; weighing scale (10-kilo capacity)
; blade cutter (big size)
1. Prepare the mold. If you are using metal mold, make sure the mold has a mouth wider than the base so that your candle can slide out easily. Oil the inside of the mold with vegetable oil.
2. Prepare the candlewick. Adjust the size of the wick to the diameter of the candle and the fusibility of the candle material.
The following is a rough guide to the selection of wick size:
Size of Wick Candle Diameter
6 – 9 ply Â?” diameter
12 – 15 ply 1″ diameter
17 – 25 ply 2″ diameter
27 – 35 ply 3″ diameter
3. Melt the wax. Weigh 90 parts of paraffin wax and 10 parts polyethylene wax and place in the double boiler container. Wax is inflammable and should not be melted over direct heat. A well-ventilated workshop should be maintained. 4. Heat gently until all contents have melted and blended together. Allow the mixture to cool to about 70Â?C (160Â?F) and add scent and color. Stir to mix thoroughly. 5. Pour the wax slowly into the mold. Leave a little space at the top edge. 6. Insert the wick into the center of the mold. Wrap the other end of the wick around the bamboo stick. This holds the wick in the center of the wax while it cools. 7. Remove the candle from the mold. If candle doesn’t slide out from metal mold. Immerse the mold in a very hot water for a few seconds. This will slightly melt the outside of the candle and it should slide out.
SCENTED CONTAINER CANDLE
Materials and Supplies
; paraffin wax
; glass container/ceramic
; wick (nylon wick)
; stoves (gas/electric stove)
; technical dye (oil soluble)
; double boiler container
; essential oil (organic/synthetic)
; wick holder (bamboo stick)
; laboratory thermometer
; stirrer (bamboo/wood)
; weighing scale