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US Cusine - Student - Georgia CTAE

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US Cusine - Student - Georgia CTAE

    CULINARY ARTS AND FAMILY &

    CONSUMER SCIENCES

    To accompany the Culinary Arts and Family & Consumer Sciences Curriculum

    CTAE Resource Network, Instructional Resources Office, 2010

     GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:

     FCS-FNW-3: a. Discuss socio-cultural impacts such as race/ethnicity, region, religion, and social and personal

    environment and analyze the influences of demographic factors: age, gender, education level, family composition, income, and exposure to new foods.

     CA-ICA-1: f. Define cuisine and compare/contrast the differences between American Regional, French, Italian, and

    Asian cuisine. Identify elements and characteristics of each type of cuisine. CA-CAII-1: a. Discuss and trace the differences and similarities of various types of international and regional cuisines.

    CA-CAII-3: a. Identify and prepare regional, ethnic, and international cuisines.

    Student Information Guide

    DIRECTIONS:

    Use the information in this student information sheet to complete the accompanying student study sheet. Complete all items on the study sheet and turn in to the teacher.

     CUISINE OF THE UNITED STATES

The cuisine of the United States has a history dating back before the colonial

    period when the Native Americans had a rich and diverse cooking style for an

    equally diverse amount of ingredients. With European colonization, the styles of

    cookery changed vastly, with numerous ingredients introduced from Europe, as well

    as cooking styles and modern cookbooks. The styles of cookery continued to

    expand into the 19th and 20th centuries with the influx of immigrants from various

    nations across the world. This influx has created a rich diversity and a unique

    regional character throughout the country. Hamburger is a very common food

    in the United States

     20TH AND 21ST CENTURY

    One characteristic of American cooking is the fusion of multiple ethnic or regional approaches into completely new cooking styles. Similarly, while some dishes considered typically American may have their origins in other countries, American cooks and chefs have substantially altered them over the years, to the degree that the dishes are now considered to be American. For example, hot dogs and hamburgers are both based on traditional German dishes, brought over to America by German immigrants to the United States, but in their modern popular form they can be reasonably considered American dishes. Similarly, though pizza is originally an Italian dish, the American and Italian forms differ to the extent that one can consider them to be separate dishes, "American pizza" and "Italian pizza", just as there is a difference between "New York-style pizza" and "Chicago-style pizza."

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    Many companies in the American food industry develop new products requiring minimal preparation, such as frozen entrees. Some corporate kitchens (e.g. General Mills, Campbell's, Kraft Foods) develop consumer recipes featuring their company's products. Many of these recipes have become very popular. For example, the General Mills Betty Crocker's

    Cookbook, first published in 1950 and currently in its 10th edition, is commonly found in American homes.

     REGIONAL CUISINE

    Given the United States' large size it has numerous regional variations. The United States' regional cuisine is characterized by its extreme diversity and style with each region having its own distinctive cuisine.

    NEW ENGLAND / NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    New England is the most northeastern region of the United States,

    including the six states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New

    Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The region consists of a heritage

    linking it to Britain. The American Indians cuisine became part of the

    cookery style that the early colonists brought with them. The style of New

    England cookery originated from its colonial roots, that is to say practical,

    frugal and willing to eat anything other than what they were used to from

    their British roots. Much of the cuisine started with one-pot cookery,

    which resulted in such dishes as succotash, chowder, baked beans, and

    others. The American Lobster, a favorite ingredient in

    New England cuisine Lobster is an integral ingredient to the cuisine, indigenous to the shores of

    the region. Other shellfish of the coastal regions include little neck clams, sea scallops, blue mussels, oysters, soft shell clams and razor shell clams. Much of this shellfish contributes to New England tradition, the clambake. The clambake as known today is a colonial interpretation of an American Indian tradition. New England's cuisine is characterized by extensive use of seafood and dairy products, which results from its historical reliance on its seaports and fishing industry, as well as extensive dairy farming in inland regions. Many of New England's earliest Puritan settlers were from eastern England, where baking foods such as pies, beans, and turkey were more common than frying as was the tradition elsewhere.

    Baked beans, apple pies, baked turkey, and pease porridge became common Yankee dishes, and some are now common nationally during Thanksgiving dinners. In the past two centuries, New England cooking was strongly influenced and

    transformed by Irish Americans, the Portuguese fishermen of coastal New England, and Italian Americans. MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    As with many American regional cuisines, Midwestern cooking has been heavily influenced by immigrant groups. Throughout the northern Midwest, northern European immigrant groups predominated, so Swedish pancakes and Polish pierogi are common. Wisconsin, Missouri, Kansas, Ohio and Illinois were destinations for many ethnic German immigrants, so pork sausages and potatoes are prevalent. In the Rust Belt, many Greeks became restaurateurs, imparting a Mediterranean influence. Native American influences show up in the uses of corn and wild rice.

    Sometimes called "the breadbasket of America," the Midwest serves as a center for grain production, particularly wheat, corn and soybeans. Midwestern states also produce most of the country's wild rice.

    Beef and pork processing always have been important Midwestern industries, with a strong role in regional diets. Chicago and Kansas City were historically stockyard and processing centers of the beef trade, while Iowa remains the center of pork production in the U.S.

    Far from the oceans, Midwesterners traditionally ate little seafood, relying on local freshwater fish, such as perch and trout, supplemented by canned tuna and canned or cured salmon and herring, although modern air shipping of ocean seafood has been increasing Midwesterners' taste for ocean fish.

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    Dairy products, especially cheese, form an important group of regional ingredients, with Wisconsin known as "America's Dairyland," although other Midwest states make cheese as well.

    The upper Midwest, a prime fruit-growing region, sees the extensive use of apples, blueberries, cranberries, cherries, peaches and other cold-climate fruit in its cuisine.

    Traditionally, Midwestern cooks used a light hand with seasonings, preferring sage, dill, caraway, mustard and parsley to hot, bold and spicy flavors. However, with new waves of immigrants from Latin America and Asia moving into the region, these tastes are changing.

    This section of the country is also headquarters for several seminal hamburger chains, including McDonald's in Oak Brook, Illinois (founded in California, but turned into the iconic franchise by Ray Kroc beginning with a still-standing store in Des Plaines, Illinois). The Midwest is also home to Culver's in Sauk City, Wisconsin; Steak n Shake, founded in Normal, Illinois, and now based in Indianapolis; Wendy's in Dublin, Ohio; and White Castle in Columbus, Ohio. Diner chain Big Boy, known for burgers, is headquartered in Warren, Michigan.

    SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    A niche market for Southern food along with American comfort food has proven profitable for chains, which have extended their market across the country, instead of staying solely in the South. Other Southern chains specialize in this type of cuisine, but have decided mainly to stay in the South. Pit barbecue is popular all over the American South; many rural places even sport several locally run locations, although this is rare in most other parts of the country. There are many individual family style restaurants based on the cuisine of the American South. Despite the down-home image of many Southern-influenced restaurants, some are more upscale. There are several chains that serve a mass produced version of Southern cuisine, such as Cracker Barrel, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Bojangles, and Popeye's. TRADITIONAL SOUTHERN DISHES

    A traditional Southern meal is deep fried chicken, field peas, greens, mashed

    potatoes, cornbread, sweet tea and a dessert that could be a pie (sweet potato, chess,

    pecan and peach are traditional southern pies), or a cobbler (peach, blackberry or mixed

    berry are traditional cobblers).

    Some other foods commonly associated with the South are mint juleps, pecan pie, country

    ham, fried chicken, chicken fried steak, grits, buttermilk biscuits, especially with gravy or

    sorghum, pimento cheese, sweet tea, pit barbecue, catfish, fried green tomatoes, fried dill

    pickles, bread pudding, okra (usually fried but sometimes stewed), butter beans, pinto

    beans, turnip, collard, or mustard greens, and black eyed peas. A couple of common snack

    foods include boiled peanuts and pork rinds.

    Fried chicken is among the region's best-known exports, though pork is also an integral a

    part of the cuisine, with Virginia ham being one renowned form. Barbecue is understood to

     be pork in the eastern South and beef in the western South,unless specified as some other Biscuits with honey. meat, and there are many regional "cookoff" competitions. A traditional holiday get-

    together featuring whole hog barbecue is known in Virginia and the Carolinas as a "pig pickin'." Green beans are often flavored with bacon and salt pork, biscuits served with ham often accompany breakfast, and ham with red-eye gravy or country gravy is a common dinner dish. A bit of fatback is added to many vegetable dishes, especially greens, for flavoring.

    It is not uncommon for a traditional southern meal to consist of only vegetables with no meat dish at all, although meat or meat products are often used in the cooking process. "Beans and Greens," which consists of either white or brown beans alongside a "mess" of greens has always been popular in most parts of the South. Turnip greens are generally prepared mixed with diced turnips and a piece of fatback. It is often said that Southerners tend to cook down their vegetables a little longer and/or use more seasoning than other Americans, but it often depends on the cook.

    Southern desserts include many dishes such as strawberry shortcake, banana pudding, baked apple slices, sweet potato pie, apple pie, pumpkin pie, and many other pies utilizing fruits that are grown around the area. CTAE Resource Network US Cuisine - Student Information Guide - Written by Kayla Calhoun, Ben Edwards & Dr. Frank Flanders

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REOLE AND CAJUN CUISINE C

    Southern Louisiana developed significant culinary traditions: Louisiana

    Creole cuisine in southeastern Louisiana centered on New

    Orleans, Louisiana and Cajun cuisine in central to Acadiana in southwestern

    Louisiana and East Texas. Both share influences of the traditional cuisine of

    France, though with greater use of rice, local Louisiana resources and African

    imports such as okra. Creole cuisinières also had access to many native

    coastal animals such as crawfish (commonly called crayfish outside the

    region), crab, oysters, shrimp, and fish. These seafoods were incorporated

    into their diets and are still seen today in the various dishes of the region.

    Fruits such as figs, plums and grapes are also grown in the region.

    Additionally, pecans and peanuts are native to the region, providing an

    alternative protein source. Dishes typical of Creole cuisine

    CAJUN CUISINE

    Cajun cuisine includes influence from the Acadia region in Canada. Rice, which could be used to stretch meals out to feed large families, became a major staple food. Today we still see that resourceful influence in many Cajun dishes which are served over a bed of rice. And again, stretchable corn was a major staple. In addition to the above listed foods, Acadian families were introduced to vegetables such as okra, which is a key ingredient in gumbos and étouffe as well as many other Cajun and Creole dishes. Many Southerners also enjoy deep-fried or pickled okra.

    LOUISIANA CREOLE CUISINE

    Southeastern Louisiana was more heavily influenced by France, Spain and Latin America than Acadiana. The region maintained more trade with France, and incorporated more recent French culinary traditions well into the 19th century. The major city of New Orleans, long known for its fine restaurants, allowed development of more gourmet variations of local dishes. In 1979, Cajun chef Paul Prudhomme opened a popular restaurant in New Orleans which started significant influence of Cajun food on to Creole traditions.

    LOWCOUNTRY CUISINE

    The Lowcountry region of the coastal Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia shares many of the same food resources as the Upper Gulf Coastfish, shrimp, oysters, rice, and okra. Not surprisingly, it also displays some similarities to Creole and Cajun cuisines.

    APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN CUISINE

    Today, a breakfast of buttermilk biscuits and sausage gravy is very common throughout the region, as well as places Appalachian people have migrated. Pork drippings from frying sausage, bacon, and other types of pan-fried pork are typically collected and used for making gravy and in greasing cast-iron cookware. Chicken and dumplings and fried chicken remain much-loved dishes. Cornbread, corn pone, hominy grits, mush, cornbread pudding and hominy stew are very common foods, as corn is the primary grain grown in the Appalachian hills and mountains. Fruits that tend to be more popular in this area are apple, pears, and berries. Sweetened fried apples remain a common side-dish. Maple syrup and maple sugar is occasionally made in the higher elevations where sugar maple grows. Wild morel mushrooms and ramps (similar to green onions and leeks) are often collected. In Appalachia one may find festivals dedicated to the ramp plant . Home canning is a strong tradition here as well. Dried pinto beans are a major staple food during the winter months, used to make the ubiquitous ham-flavored bean soup usually called soup beans. Canning included green beans (half-runners, snaps) as well as shelly beans (green beans that were more mature and had ripe beans along with the green husks). Kieffer pears and apple varieties are used to make pear butter and apple butter. Also popular are bread and butter pickles, fried mustard greens with vinegar, pickled beets, chow-chow (commonly called "chow") and a relish called corn ketchup. Tomatoes are canned in large numbers, and fried green tomatoes are common. Along with sausage gravy, tomato gravy, a roux thinned with tomatoes, is very popular. A variety wild fruits like pawpaws, wild blackberries, and persimmons are also commonly available in Appalachia.

    SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Cuisine of the Southwestern United States is food styled after the rustic cooking of the Southwestern States. It comprises a fusion of recipes for things that might have been eaten by Spanish colonial settlers, cowboys, Native Americans, and CTAE Resource Network US Cuisine - Student Information Guide - Written by Kayla Calhoun, Ben Edwards & Dr. Frank Flanders

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    Mexicans throughout the post-Columbian era; there is, however, a great diversity in this kind of cuisine throughout the Southwestern states.

    Southwestern cuisine is similar to Mexican cuisine but often involves larger cuts of meat, and less use of tripe, brain, and other parts not considered as desirable in the United States. Like Mexican cuisine, it is also known for its use of spices (particularly the chile, or Chili pepper) and accompaniment with beans (frijoles), cooked in a variety of manners. Chili con carne, fajitas, certain kinds of chiles rellenos (stuffed chilis), and various steak-chili combinations are particularly well-known Southwestern foods. Note that "chili" generally refers to a thick stew or soup prepared with beans and meat, while "chile" refers to the peppers that grow in this region and have been eaten for thousands of years by the native people. Recently, several chains of casual dining restaurants specializing in Southwestern cuisine have become popular in the United States.

    New Mexican cuisine is known for its dedication to the chile (the official "state

    question" is "Red or green?", which refers to the preferred color of chiles), most

    notably the Hatch chile, named for the city in New Mexico where they are grown.

    "Tex-Mex" is a term used to describe a regional American cuisine that blends food

    products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-

    Americans influenced by the cuisines of Mexico. The cuisine has spread from border

    states such as Texas and those in the Southwestern United States to the rest of the

    country. In some places, particularly outside of Texas, "Tex-Mex" is used to describe

    a localized version of Mexican cuisine. It is common for all of these foods to be

    referred to as "Mexican food" in Texas, parts of the United States, and some other

    countries. In other ways it is Southern cooking using the commodities from Mexican

    culture. In many parts of the U.S. outside Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, the term is synonymous with Southwestern cuisine.Chili con carne, a typical Texan dish

    WESTERN UNITED STATES

    The Western United States has its own cuisine, distinct in various ways from that of the rest of the country. Those states west of Texas, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska would be considered part of this area, as would, in some cases, western parts of adjoining states. The locavore movement is increasingly influential, as is the concept of sustainability. The influence of the Native American cultures of each area, but especially in the Northwest and in Navajo country, is important in the cuisine picture of the Western United States.

    In the Northwest, Oregon, and Washington, various specialties involving salmon, perhaps grilled over a wood fire, and such naturally occurring foodstuffs as blackberries or mushrooms may often be served in forms close to those in which they naturally occur as regional cuisine. The bounty of the land and those things the hunter-gatherers and fisherpeople found in abundance are major influences.

    In the Plains/Mountain States, such as Utah, Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, cowboy/ranch culture is a factor, and variations on the beef theme, outdoor cooking, and such events as chuckwagon dinners abound on dude ranches and at other tourist locations. Hunting is still important in the West, and wild game is part of the cuisine. Rocky Mountain oysters (beef and bison testicles) are certainly a part of Western regional food served up for the delight of squeamish tourists.

    A growing wine industry is of great importance along the West Coast and increasingly important inland and to the north, not only in California. Along the coast, seafood is important. The evolution of California Cuisine and the influence of Alice Waters are major factors in what could be called regional cuisine of the West. The slow food and local food movements are parts of this phenomenon. The influence of the Pacific Rim is huge along the coast, and fusion cuisine, along with interesting Asian-influenced and Mexican-influenced drinks, has become extremely popular.

    Near Mexico, the influence of that country is important in food, with the culture of Mexico spreading as workers move further from the border. The food of other South American countries can also be found and is increasingly an influence, with the food described as Nuevo Latino more and more often seen.

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    Throughout the West in areas where sheep ranching/sheep herding is important (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, eastern Washington, eastern California, other nearby states) restaurants featuring Basque cuisine can be found. They are usually family-style, featuring large tables where diners sit with other parties and share serving dishes which are passed around the table.

    Pacific Northwest cuisine is a North American cuisine of the states of Oregon,

    Washington and Alaska, and the provinces of British Columbia and the southern

    Yukon. The cuisine reflects the ethnic makeup of the region, with noticeable

    influence from Asian and Native American traditions. Seattle's Pike Place Market

    is considered the "hub" of this culinary style, although Port land and Vancouver

    are also influential cities. Common ingredients in the cuisine include salmon,

    shellfish, and other fresh seafood, game meats such as moose, elk, or caribou,

    mushrooms, berries, small fruits, potatoes, and wild plants such as fiddleheads

    or even young pushki. Smoking fish or grilling seafood on cedar planks are

    techniques often used in this cuisine. There is generally an emphasis on fresh

    ingredients, simply prepared, but unlike other cuisine styles, there are various

    recipes for each dish, with none of them considered more or less correct than

    the others. This has led some food writers to question whether it truly is a

    "cuisine" in the traditional sense of the word. Smoked Pacific Salmon

    California’s cuisine may make greater use of ingredients less common outside of

    California. Some locally grown produce products that are less common in other parts of the country include:

    ; Avocados

    ; Artichokes

    ; Garlic

    ; Fresh figs

    ; Fresh dates

    ; Persimmons

    ; Sprouts

    A Mediterranean climate and popular health-conscious diets and lifestyles in California promote the production, use and consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and organic foods. Use of fresh, local ingredients which are often acquired daily at farmers markets is very common in California. Battered and fried foods are not as common in California as they may be in other states, however exceptions include fish tacos, tempura, and French fries.

    California's Central Valley region agricultural success and diversity provides fresh produce throughout the state and on less than 1 percent of the total farmland in the United States, the Central Valley produces 8 percent of the nation's agricultural output by value.

    Fusion cuisine is quite popular in California. The emphasis of California Cuisine is on the use of fresh, local ingredients which are often acquired daily at farmers markets. Menus are changed to accommodate the availability of ingredients in season. Some restaurants create a new menu daily.

    HAWAII

    Modern cuisine of Hawaii is a fusion of many cuisines brought by multiethnic immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, particularly of American, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Polynesian and Portuguese origins, including plant and animal food sources imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. Many local restaurants serve the ubiquitous plate lunch featuring the Asian staple, two scoops of steamed white rice, a version of American mayonnaise-based macaroni salad or Japanese mayonnaise-based potato salad (or a combination of both) Korean kimchee or other Korean vegetable or Japanese pickled seaweed, and one to three choices of main entrees ranging from the hamburger steak and gravy, Chinese charsiu chicken, Chinese cold ginger chicken, Japanese styletonkatsu or torikatsu, Filipino pork, chicken or fish adobo, Filipino lumpia, Korean chapchae, Filipino pansit, Korean beef short ribs, Korean and Japanese-style BBQ beef and chicken, grilled Ahi, Koreanmeat jun, or traditional Hawaiian lu'au favorites, kalua pig, lomi salmon, laulau, and poi.

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     FOOD MOVEMENTS

FAST FOOD

    Fast Food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. The term "fast food" was recognized in a dictionary by MerriamWebster in 1951.

    Precooked foods such as French fries or pizza typically must be used within a

    few hours, or they become dried out and unpalatable. The restaurant must

    balance availability with the expected numbers of customers, to avoid

    discarding unused expired product. Similarly, the food itself is often intended

    to be consumed quickly, using strong contrasts such as dry corn chips with

    greasy or wet toppings that will combine into a gooey mess if stored for later

    consumption.

    Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter or seating, or

    fast food restaurants (also known as quick service restaurants). Franchise

    operations which are part of restaurant chains have standardized foodstuffs A typical fast food meal from McDonalds shipped to each restaurant from central locations.

    Fast food outlets are take-away or take-out providers, often with a "drive-through" service which allows customers to order and pick up food from their cars; but most also have a seating area in which customers can eat the food on the premises.

    Nearly from its inception, fast food has been designed to be eaten "on the go", often does not require traditional cutlery, and is eaten as a finger food. Common menu items at fast food outlets include fish and chips, sandwiches, pitas, hamburgers, fried chicken, French fries, chicken nuggets, tacos, pizza, hot dogs, and ice cream, although many fast food restaurants offer "slower" foods like chili, mashed potatoes, and salads.

    LOCAVORE

    The local food movement is a movement in the United States and elsewhere that spawned as interest in sustainability and eco-consciousness become more prevalent. People who are interested in eating food that is locally produced, not moved long distances to market, are called "locavores." The food may be grown in home gardens or grown by local commercial groups interested in keeping the environment as clean as possible and selling food close to where it is grown. Some people consider food grown within a 100-mile radius of their home to be local, while others have other definitions. In general the local food is thought by those in the movement to taste better than food that is shipped long distances since it is fresher, riper, and does not depend as heavily on chemicals or irradiation to increase shelf life. On the other hand, local food is less regulated, so freshness, chemical use, and quality are variable and depend largely on the producer. Local food networks play a role in efforts to eat what is local. These include community gardens, food cooperatives, community-supported agriculture (where individuals support a local farm, thus sharing the risk with the producers, in exchange for a weekly delivery of produce), farmers’ markets, and seed saver groups. Preserving food for those seasons

    when it is not available fresh from a local source is one approach some locavores include in their strategies. Critics of the local food movement point out that transport is only one component of the total environmental impact of food production and consumption (only 4% of the greenhouse gases emitted by the food industry come from transportation). In fact, any environmental assessment of food that consumers buy needs to take into account how the food has been produced and what energy is used in its production. For example, it is likely to be more environmentally friendly for tomatoes to be grown in Spain and transported to the UK than for the same tomatoes to be grown in greenhouses in the UK requiring electricity to light and heat them. The solutions to this though would be either using low impact energy sources on the greenhouses, such a solar, geothermal or wind, or to switch to eating seasonally. However, CTAE Resource Network US Cuisine - Student Information Guide - Written by Kayla Calhoun, Ben Edwards & Dr. Frank Flanders

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    living in a mild climate can make eating locally grown products very different from living where the winter is severe or where no rain falls during certain parts of the year.

    Those in the movement generally seek to keep use of fossil fuels to a minimum, thereby releasing less carbon dioxide into the air and preventing greater global warming. Other reasons for locavorism may include a want for fresher, less processed, or higher variety foods, or support of local economies and small and family farms as opposed to highly managed corporate farms. Many approaches can be developed, and they vary by locale. Such foods as spices, chocolate, or coffee pose a challenge for some, so there are a variety of ways of adhering to the locavore ethic. Many advocates of

    the local food movement encourage only a partial dependence on local food, and suggest taking into account food miles, production methods, and availability in your decision.

    A related movement is the 'underground supper club' phenomenon, in which organizers use sustainable ingredients and use a Website to inform a waiting list of those who donate a given sum to pay for the food used. VEGETARIANISM

    In the United States, vegetarianism is usually synonymous with one who eats vegetables, eggs and dairy, but no animal flesh or by-products of any kind. About 2.8% of adult Americans are vegetarian, with another 6 to 10% stating that they were "almost vegetarian". U.S. vegetarian food sales doubled from 1998 to 2003 and continue to rise. The vegetarian and vegan population is expected to continue its increase steadily. In addition, vegetarianism in the United States generally reflects regional cultural differences. It is generally easier to find vegetarian options in urban restaurants than in rural ones. A similar comparison exists between West Coast and Midwestern city restaurants. Vegetarian and vegan foods have become increasingly available in most grocery stores. By US law all ingredients must be listed on the label, assisting vegetarians in selecting food products.

    Vegetarianism may be adopted for ethical, health, environmental, religious, political, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or other reasons. There are also a number of different types of vegetarianism, which exclude or include various foods. ; Lacto-ovo vegetarianism includes animal products such as eggs, milk, and honey.

    ; Lacto vegetarianism includes milk but not eggs.

    ; Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not milk.

    ; Veganism excludes all animal flesh and animal products, including milk, honey, eggs, as well as non-food products

    such as leather, furs, feathers, wool, or silk.

    ; Raw veganism includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

    ; Fruitarianism permits only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the

    plant.

    ; Su vegetarianism (such as in Buddhism), excludes all animal products as well as vegetables in the allium family

    (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, or shallots. ; Macrobiotic diets consist mostly of whole grains and beans.

    Strict vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not

    included in their labels or which use animal products in their

    manufacturing e.g. cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal

    stomach lining), gelatin (from animal skin, bones, and connective tissue),

    some sugars that are whitened with bone char (e.g. cane sugar, but not

    beet sugar) and alcohol clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and

    sturgeon.

    Individuals may describe themselves as "vegetarian" while practicing a

    semi-vegetarian diet. In other cases, they may simply describe themselves

    as "flexitarians". These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal

    flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a vegetarian diet or for health,

    environmental, or other reasons. Simple example of possible vegan lunch

    or dinner option: pumpkin seed-crusted Semi-vegetarian diets include pescetarianism, which includes fish and lentil patties with roasted garlic mashed sometimes other seafood; pollotarianism, which includes poultry; and potatoes and salad. macrobiotic diets consisting mostly of whole grains and beans, but at times

    may include fish.

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     GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

    FCS-FNW-3: a. Discuss socio-cultural impacts such as race/ethnicity, region, religion, and social and personal environment and analyze the influences of demographic factors: age, gender, education level, family composition, income, and exposure to new foods. CA-ICA-1: f. Define cuisine and compare/contrast the differences between American Regional, French, Italian, and Asian cuisine. Identify elements and characteristics of each type of cuisine.

    CA-CAII-1: a. Discuss and trace the differences and similarities of various types of international and regional cuisines. CA-CAII-3: a. Identify and prepare regional, ethnic, and international cuisines.

     LICENSE & VERIFICATION

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