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Tribe Vagrantini - Afrotropical Butterflies and Skippers

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Tribe Vagrantini - Afrotropical Butterflies and Skippers

    BUTTERFLIES AND SKIPPERS OF THE AFROTROPICAL REGION

(PAPILIONOIDEA AND HESPERIOIDEA)

    AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA

    ? Seventh edition (2008)

    (Copyright Reserved)

    FILE E HELICONIINAE (NYMPHALIDAE)

    Acraea aglaonice, female. Photo courtesy Jeremy Dobson

    Compiled by Mark C. Williams

    183 van der Merwe Street, Rietondale

    PRETORIA 0001

    E-mail: mark.williams@up.ac.za

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    FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE

    Swainson, 1827

The most complete and robust phylogeny of the family Nymphalidae has been provided by

    Wahlberg and colleagues from Stockholm University (Wahlberg et al. 2003, Wahlberg et al., 2005). Details, including a checklist of the world nymphalid fauna, is available on his website www.zoologi.su.se/research/wahlberg The phylogeny of the Nymphalidae, down to tribal level, is

    given below. Taxa highlighted in yellow are those that are known to occur in the Afrotropical

    Region.

The libytheine clade

    Subfamily Libytheinae Boisduval, 1833 The danaine clade

    Subfamily Danainae Boisduval, 1833

    Tribe Tellervini Fruhstorfer, 1910

    Tribe Danaini Boisduval, 1833

    Tribe Ithomiini Godman & Salvin 1879 The satyrine clade

    Subfamily Satyrinae Boisduval, 1833

    Tribe Haeterini Herrich-Schaeffer, 1864

    Tribe Melanitini Reuter, 1896

    Tribe Elymniini Herrich-Schaeffer, 1864

    Tribe Eritini Miller, 1968

    Tribe Ragadiini Herrich-Schaeffer, 1864

    Tribe Satyrini Boisduval, 1833

    Subfamily Morphinae Newman, 1834

    Tribe Morphini Newman, 1834

    Tribe Amathusiini Moore, 1894

    Tribe Brassolini Boisduval, 1836

    Subfamily Charaxinae Guenée, 1865

    Tribe Charaxini Guenée, 1865

    Tribe Euxanthini Rydon, 1971

    Tribe Pallini Rydon, 1971

    Tribe Prothoini Roepke, 1938

    Tribe Preponini Rydon, 1971

    Tribe Anaeini Reuter, 1896

    Subfamily Calinaginae Moore, 1895 The heliconiine clade

    Subfamily Heliconiinae Swainson, 1822

    Tribe Acraeini Boisduval, 1833

    Tribe Heliconiini Swainson, 1822

    Tribe Argynnini Swainson, 1833

    Tribe Vagrantini Pinratana & Eliot, 1996

    Subfamily Limenitidinae Behr, 1864

    Tribe Limenitini Behr, 1864

    Tribe Parthenini Reuter, 1896

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    Tribe Adoliadini Doubleday, 1845

    The nymphaline clade

    Subfamily Cyrestinae Guenée, 1865

    Tribe Cyrestini Guenée, 1865

    Tribe Pseudergoli Jordan, 1898 Subfamily Biblidinae Boisduval, 1833

    Tribe Biblidini Boisduval, 1833

    Tribe Epicaliini Guenée, 1865

    Tribe Ageroniini Doubleday, 1847

    Tribe Epiphilini Jenkins, 1987

    Tribe Eubagini Burmeister, 1878

    Tribe Callicorini Orfila, 1952 Subfamily Apaturinae Boisduval, 1840 Subfamily Nymphalinae Rafinesque, 1815

    Incertae sedis

    Tribe Nymphalini Rafinesque, 1815

    Tribe Coeini Scudder, 1893

    Tribe Victorinini Scudder, 1893

    Tribe Kallimini Doherty, 1886

    Tribe Melitaeini Newman, 1870

    Tribe Junoniini Reuter, 1896

    SUBFAMILY HELICONIINAE

    Swainson, 1822

    Subfamily Heliconiinae Swainson, 1822

    Tribe Acraeini Boisduval, 1833

    Genera: Pardopsis, Acraea, Miyana, Abananote, Altinote, Cethosia

    Tribe Heliconiini Swainson, 1822

    Tribe Argynnini Swainson, 1833

    Genera: Euptoieta, Yramea, Boloria, Prokuekenthaliella, Issoria, Argynnis

    Tribe Vagrantini Pinratana & Eliot, 1996

    Genera: Lachnoptera, Phalanta, Smerina

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    TRIBE VAGRANTINI

    Pinratana & Eliot, 1996

    Phalanta phalantha. Photo courtesy Jeremy Dobson

A cladistic analysis of the Vagrantini was published by Peggie in 2003.

    Genus Smerina Hewitson, 1874

Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 14: 359 (359-360).

    Type-species: Smerina vindonissa Hewitson, by monotypy.

An Afrotropical genus containing a single Madagascan species.

    Smerina manoro (Ward, 1871)

    Atella manoro Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 121 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122). Type locality: Madagascar.

    Distribution: Madagascar.

     Apparently this species has oriental affinities (Corbet, 1948).

    Habitat: Forest on the eastern seaboard (Lees, et al., 2003).

    Habits: Frequents the forest canopy (Lees, et al., 2003).

    Early stages: Nothing published.

    Larval food: Nothing published.

    vindonissa Hewitson, 1874 (as sp. of Smerina). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 14: 359 (359-

    360). Madagascar.

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    Genus Lachnoptera Doubleday, 1847

In: Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 22 (1:

    1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

    Type-species: Papilio iole Fabricius, by monotypy.

An Afrotropical genus containing two species.

    Lachnoptera anticlia (Hübner, 1819)

Issoria anticlia Hübner, 1819, in Hübner, [1816-[1826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 31 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg.

Lachnoptera anticlia. Male. Left upperside; right underside. Wingspan: 58mm. Abidjan. Feb 1965. (Henning

    collection - H193).

Type locality: No locality given.

    Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west), Zambia (north-west). Specific localities:

    Senegal Basse Casamance (Larsen 2005a; single record).

    Cameroon Korup (Larsen 2005a).

    Kenya Kakamega (Larsen 2005a; intermittently sympatric with L. ayresii Trimen).

    Tanzania Mpanda and Kigoma Districts (Kielland, 1990).

    Zambia Ikelenge (Heath et al., 2002).

    Common name: Western blotched leopard.

    Habitat: Forest and forest margins, with some tolerance for habitat degradation (Larsen 2005a). In Tanzania at altitudes of 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

    Habits: Flies in the forest understorey as well as on top of the canopy. Both sexes are fond of flowers and males mudpuddle and come to urine patches (Larsen 2005a). Larsen (2005a) notes that they will occasionally imbibe sweat on humans but that they are not much attracted to fruit-baited traps. Migration has been noted in the DRC by Fontaine (Larsen 2005a).

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Early stages: Nothing published.

    Larval food:

    Rawsonia lucida Harv. & Sond. (Flacourtiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

    Scotellia chevalieri (Flacourtiaceae) [Vuattoux & Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

    laodice Cramer, 1777 (as sp. of Papilio). Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld-deelen

    Asia, Africa en America 2: 95 (151 pp.). Amsteldam & Utrecht. Guinea. [Invalid; junior primary homonym

    of Papilio laodice Pallas, 1771 [Nymphalidae].]

    iole Fabricius, 1781 (as sp. of Papilio). Species Insectorum 2: 78 (499 pp.). Hamburgi & Kilonii. Guinea.

    [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Papilio iole [Denis and Schiffermüller], 1775 [Nymphalidae].]

    hecatea Hewitson, 1877 (as sp. of Harma). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 13: 277 (277-278). Ghana:

    “Ashanti”.

    afzelii Aurivillius, 1887 (as var. of Lachnoptera iole). Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens

    Förhandlingar. Stockholm 5: 309 (305-314). Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leona”.

    androchroma Bryk, 1913 (as female f. of Lachnoptera iole). Societas Entomologia 28: 51 (51). Cameroon:

    “Kamerun”.

    pallens Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Lachnoptera ayresi [sic]). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale

    Entomologique de Belgique 81: 98 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mangmedjipa”.

    Lachnoptera ayresii Trimen, 1879

Lachnoptera ayresii Trimen, 1879. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1879: 326 (323-346).

    Lachnoptera ayresii. Male. Left upperside; right underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Laurenceville, Vumba, S.R. 27.3.1965. D.M. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3694).

Type locality: South Africa: “Natal (Pinetown and Little Umhlanga)”.

    Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia (Copperbelt and north-east), Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east),

    South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke

    et al., 1999).

    Specific localities:

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Kenya Kakamega (Larsen 2005a).

    Tanzania Tukuyu in the south-west to eastern and northern parts; Ngezi Forest on Pemba Island (Kielland,

    1990).

    Zambia Mufulira; Ndola; Mpongwe; Mbala (Heath et al., 2002).

    Limpopo Province Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush

    (Swanepoel, 1953); Entabeni Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953). Mpumalanga Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953).

    KwaZulu-Natal Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Karkloof district

    (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953).

    Eastern Cape Province Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953).

    Common name: Eastern blotched leopard.

    Habitat: Forest. In Tanzania it is found from sea-level to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

    Habits: The flight is brisk and restless as it flies along the edge of the forest (Pringle, et al., 1994).

    Flight period: All year (Pringle, et al., 1994).

    Early stages:

Clark? and Van Someren, cited by Van Son, 1979: 10.

     Vide Clark?: “Eggs not described. The larva is elongate, narrowed anteriorly, with dorso-lateral, lateral and

    subspiracular rows of thin and long dark setose processes except on first and last segments, the longest being those of the thoracic segments, where they are darker than on the abdominal segments. The colour of the larva appears to be light flesh-coloured with a reddish-brown back, striped with longitudinal lines of the groundcolour. The pupa is about 20 mm long, light in colour, with two pairs of 6 mm long, hook-like diverging dorsal processes on the thorax, covered with very short bristles, with rosy-red bases, light fuscous stems and dark brown tips; seven rows (one middorsal and three lateral ones on each side) of acute and straight processes, of which the central row is reduced to short rosy-red tubercles, while the lateral processes are from 2,5-3 mm long, the longest being the most dorsally placed; all have rosy-red bases, light fuscous stems and some dark brown suffusions before the light tip.

     Vide Van Someren: “The female lays freely on Rawsonia lucida Harv. It selects the young shoots on which

    to lay. The larvae move on to more mature leaves and when ready to pupate, they select an old leathery leaf in the shade and pupate on its underside. The larva is heavily spined (like that of Acraea); head black. Pupa also spined,

    general colour greenish or pinkish.”

Larval food:

    Rawsonia lucida Harv. and Sond. (Flacourtiaceae) [Platt, 1921: 100].

    Rawsonia usambarensis Engl. and Gilg. (Flacourtiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

    Vismia orientalis (Clusiaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 142].

    abbotti Holland, 1896 (as var. of Lachnoptera ayresii). Proceedings of the United States National Museum

    18: 234 (229-258). “Eastern Africa”.

    Genus Phalanta Horsfield, 1829

In: Horsfield, [1828-9]. A descriptive catalogue of the lepidopterous insects contianed in the

    museum of the Honourable East India Company pl. 7 (1: 1-80; 2: 81-144). London.

    Type-species: Papilio phalantha Drury, by monotypy.

= Atella Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal

    Lepidoptera, London: pl. 22 [1847]; 165 [1848]. (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London. Type-species:

    Atella eurytis Doubleday, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1875. Proceedings of the

    American Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 123 (91-293).).

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= Albericia Dufrane, 1945. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81:

    98 (90-143). Type-species: Albericia gomensis Dufrane, by original designation.

    An Old World genus comprising six species, four of which are Afrotropical. One of these extends extralimitally.

    Phalanta eurytis (Doubleday, 1847)

Atella eurytis Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 22 [1847];

    167 [1848] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Phalanta eurytis eurytis. Male. Left upperside; right underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Hluhluwe, Zululand.

    15.12.39. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3698).

Type locality: “W. Africa”.

    Diagnosis: Similar to P. phalantha but the marginal line of the forewing is unbroken, the colour of the male is deeper orange and the female is a dull pale orange (Pringle et al., 1994).

    Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke et

    al., 1999), Comoro Islands.

     According to Lees et al. (2003) P. eurytis has been misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by

    various authors, including Carcasson (1981: 57) and Ackery et al. (1995). Also misattributed by Larsen

    (2005a).

    Common name: Forest leopard; forest leopard fritillary.

    Habitat: Forest of all types, degraded forest habitat, as well as riverine vegetation in Guinea savanna (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania the nominate subspecies flies from sea-level to 2 100 m (Kielland, 1990). Habits: The flight is slower than that of P. phalantha but is still fast, and the insect is very restless, seldom

    resting for long in a single spot. Specimens are often seen fluttering among the branches of trees. Males defend teritories from perches high up in trees. Both sexes readily come to flowers and males mud-puddle (Pringle et al., 1994). Specimens are attracted to fermenting fruit and sap oozing from tree wounds (Kielland, 1990). Males are “addicted” to urine patches; these patches sometimes attract hundreds of males

    (Larsen, 2005a). Larsen (2005a) noted hundreds attracted to parts of a rotting wooden bridge and states that they may also visit excrement and carrion.

    Flight period: All year, but more frequently seen from January to June (Pringle et al., 1994).

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Early stages:

Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 194 [as (probably) Atella Columbina (Cramer); (ssp. eurytis)].

     Larva. Greenish-black, varied yellowish-green and light-green subdorsally; a yellowish-white line above legs, slightly angulated upward on each segment. Top of head and of second segment yellowish-green; face with black markings on each side. Spines long, shining, set with alternating hairs; the second, third, and last segments having 4 (2 subdorsal and 2 lateral), and the remaining segments 6 (the additional 2 being infra-spiracular) spines each. Length about 11 lin. Pupa. Bright-green, with crimson streaks and spines and burnished golden spots. Inner- and hind-margin of wing-covers edged with raised golden streak, outwardly bounded by a crimson one. Five pairs of curved, thin, divergent, crimson spines on the back, springing from golden spots, viz., one pair on the head, one (shorter) on thorax, and three on abdomen. Also two pairs of dorsal small pointed crimson tubercles, one at hinder part of thorax, the other at base of abdomen. Pupal stage lasted eight days in the month of November.

    I give the above description of the larva and pupa with some little doubt, as Mr. Gooch refers the pencil outline and notes from which (with two pupa skins) they are drawn up to A. Phalantha. He, however, was not at the

    time aware of the existence of two species of Atella [Phalantha] in Natal, and would naturally include Columbina

    under Phalantha. I subsequently saw both species together in his collection. The differences presented by this caterpillar and chrysalis from those of Phalantha are considerable, especially as respects the pupa; and it may almost

    be assumed that they are the early stages of Columbina.”

Clark, in Van Son, 1979: 8 (ssp. eurytis).

     “Eggs are laid singly, generally partly concealed in young shoots, but may be laid on a stalk or leaf. Watery white with a touch of yellow when laid, the egg changes to yellow; 0,65 mm in diameter by 0,75 mm high; there are 25-28 longitudinal ribs braced by 14-15 circular indentations. The egg stage lasts four days. The young larva eats its way out near the top of the egg and generally devours the shell. It is 1,5 mm disregarding the spines and grows to 3 mm before moulting on about the third day. At first the larva is semitransparent watery yellow with some faint brown on segment 10, later turning to pale green, and pale brown markings gradually appear round what are to be the protuberances of the next instar. In the second instar the larva is pale chocolate with rows of spiny protuberances placed in the same position as in Acraea species. The instar lasts three days and the larva grows to 5 mm. It is a little darker in the third instar, with a touch of green and grows to 8 mm in three days. The colour is generally greener in the fourth instar, but there is a brown variety; the illustrations show an intermediate form. The instar lasts four days and the larva grows to 13 mm. In the final instar the colour ranges from chocolate with white markings and black protuberances, to green with whitish markings and white protuberances. Like the three previous instars, it feeds on the edge of the leaf and rests more or less concealed under it. The instar lasts five days and the larva grows to 24 mm. When huddled up at rest, the larva looks like a spider at the entrance to its silken nest. The pupa is suspended from a leaf or twig by cremastral hooks entangled in a silken mat. At first it is light green with yellow protuberances which soon turn red above a burnished gold base, and have a black point. There are red-edged gold markings on the edge of the wing cases and head. The pupa is 16-18 mm long. The imago emerges after about ten days.”

Larval food:

    Theobroma cacao (? family) [Smith, 1965].

    Scolopia species (Flacourtiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321; (ssp. eurytis)].

    Dovyalis rhamnoides (Burch. ex DC.) Harv. (Flacourtiaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978: 80; (ssp. eurytis)].

    Populus species (Salicaceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978: 80; (ssp. eurytis)].

    Oncoba spinosa (Flacoutiaceae) [Vuattoux & Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

    Dissomeria crenata (Samydaceae) [Vuattoux & Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

    Homalium sarcopetalum (Flacoutiaceae) [Lees, 1989 (Korup, Cameroon)].

    Maytenus ovatus (Celastraceae) [Kielland, 1990: 142].

    Trimeria species (Flacoutiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

    Canthium species (Rubiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

    Ixora species (Rubiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

    Phalanta eurytis eurytis (Doubleday, 1847)

Atella eurytis Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 22 [1847];

    167 [1848] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

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    Phalanta eurytis eurytis. Male. Left upperside; right underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Hluhluwe, Zululand. 15.12.39. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3698).

Type locality: “W. Africa”.

    Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon,

    Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo,

    Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province,

    Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal), Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999), Comoro Islands.

    Specific localities:

    Guinea Parc National du Haut Niger (Larsen, 2005a).

    Tanzania Widespread in forested areas (Kielland, 1990).

    Zambia Ikelenge; Mutundu; Lumangwe Falls; Lufubu River (Heath et al., 2002).

    Limpopo Province Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

    KwaZulu-Natal Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

    gomensis Dufrane, 1945 (as sp. of Albericia). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de

    Belgique 81: 98 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Goma”.

    Phalanta eurytis microps (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Atella columbina microps Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novitates Zoologicae 10: 507 (491-542).

    Type locality: Ethiopia: “Walenso, Gillet Mts”.

    Distribution: Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya.

    Phalanta madagascariensis (Mabille, 1887)

Atella madagascariensis Mabille, 1887 in Grandidier, [1885-7]. Histoire, Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar 120

    [1887]; pl.13 [1885] (18 [1887]: 364 pp.; 19 [1885]: 55pls.).

    Type locality: Madagascar: “nord de l’ile [Madagascar]”.

    Distribution: Madagascar.

    Habitat: Forest (Lees, et al., 2003)

    Early stages: Nothing published.

    Larval food: Nothing published.

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