Use your textbook and/or the power point to complete the statements.
13.1 The Nature of Gases
1. The energy an object has because of its motion is called ___________________. 2. According to the kinetic theory, all matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant
motion. The fundamental assumptions about gases are (key concepts p. 385):
3. Gas pressure is ____________________________________________________;
atmospheric pressure results from _____________________________________. 4. The SI unit of pressure is the _____________. At STP, standard pressure is __________,
______________, or ___________.
5. At absolute zero (0 K or –273 ;C), particles ______________________________
_____________________________________________________________________. 13.2 The Nature of Liquids
6. Based on the kinetic theory, a key difference between gases and liquids is:
7. The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor is ____________________; when it occurs at
the surface of a liquid it is called ______________________. 8. Copy key concept on p. 391: During evaporation,
9. Copy key concept on p. 392: In a system at constant vapor pressure,
10. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external
pressure on the liquid is the _______________________.
11. Normal boiling point is ______________________________________________. 12. Copy the information from figure 13.8 on p. 394
13.3 The Nature of Solids
13. Write the information in the first paragraph under ―A Model for Solids‖ on p. 396.
13. 4 Changes of State
14. A phase diagram gives ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________. 15. The triple point ____________________________________________________. 16. Draw the phase diagram of water on p. 403 and explain.
17. from power point: copy the kinetic theory information (Hein-Arena version)
18. from power point: draw the chart for physical phases
The kinetic theory describes the ___1____ of particles in matter and the 1. forces of attraction between them. The theory assumes that the volume 2. occupied by a gas is mostly ____2__ that the particles of gas are relatively 3. ____3____ , move ___4____ of each other, and are in constant ___5___ 4. motion. The __6____ between particles are perfectly elastic so that the total 5. ___7___ remains constant. Gas pressure results from the simultaneous 6. collisions of billions of particles with an object. Barometers are used to 7. measure __8___ pressure. Standard conditions are defined as a temperature of 8. __9___ and a pressure of ___10__. 9.
10. Liquids are much __1___ than gases. Liquids and solids are known as __2__ 1. states of matter. The conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor is called __3__. 2. When a liquid that is not ___4___ changes to a gas, the process is called 3. evaporation. A liquid evaporates faster when heated; however, evaporation 4. itself is a __5___ process. When a partially filled container of liquid is sealed, 5. some of the particles at the ___6___ of the liquid vaporize. These particles 6. collide with the walls of the container, producing a force called __7__. The 7. vapor pressure of a liquid can be determined by a device called a ____8___. 8. A liquid boils when its __9__ equals the external pressure. The normal 9. boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure is 10. equal to __10__.
Solids tend to be dense and difficult to __1__. They do not flow or take the 1. shape of their container, like liquids do, because the particles in solids vibrate 2. around __2__ points. When a solid is heated until its particles vibrate so 3. rapidly that they are no longer held in fixed positions, the solid ___3___. The
4. __4___ is the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. The melting and temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. The melting and __5__ 5. of a substance are at the same temperature. In general, ionic solids tend to 6. have relatively __6__ melting points, while molecular solids tend to have 7. relatively low melting points. Most solids are __7__. The particles are
8. arranged in a pattern known as a crystal __8__. The smallest subunit of a
crystal lattice is the __9___. Some solids lack an ordered internal structure 9. and are called __10__ solids. 10. The change that occurs when a solid goes directly to the gas or vapor state 1. without first becoming a liquid is __1__. This change can occur because 2. solids, like liquids have a __2__. Substances that sublime include iodine and 3. solid __3__ (dry ice). 4. A graph that shows the relationship between the states of a substance is called 5. a __4__ diagram. On this diagram, a line between two phases shows the
6. conditions at which the phases are in __5__. The __6__ is the only set of conditions at which solids, liquids, and gas phases coexist. The triple point for 7. water is a temperature of __7__ and a pressure of __8__. 8.
Chemistry—Ch. 13 textbook problems
p. 406 (26-30, 38-39, 49, 54-56, 65, 70)
26. What is meant by an elastic collision?
27. Which of these statements are characteristic of matter in the gaseous state?
a) gases fill their containers completely
b) gases exert pressure
c) gases have mass
d) the pressure of a gas is independent of its temperature
e) gases are compressible
f) the distances between particles in a gas are relatively large
28. List the various units used to measure pressure and identify the SI unit (show equivalence).
29. Change 1656 kPa to atm.
30. Convert 190 mm Hg to the following.
b. atmospheres of pressure
38. Describe what is happening at the molecular level when a dynamic equilibrium occurs.
39. Explain why increasing the temperature of a liquid increases its rate of evaporation.
49. Explain why a liquid stays at a constant temperature while it is boiling?
54. The table gives the vapor pressure of isopropyl alcohol at various temperatures. Graph the data. Use a
smooth curve to connect the data points. oTemperature (C) Vapor pressure (kPa)
150vapor pressure (kPa)100
temperature (degrees C)
a. What is the estimated normal boiling point of isopropyl alcohol?—show on graph
b. What is the boiling point of isopropyl alcohol when the external pressure is increased to twice
standard pressure?—show on graph
55. In a series of liquids, as the intermolecular forces of attraction strengthen, would you expect the
vapor pressure to increase or decrease? Explain.
56. Predict the physical state of each of these substances at the indicated temperature. Use the melting
point and boiling point data from the table below. oa. phenol at 99 C ob. ammonia at –25 C
c. methanol in an ice-water bath
d. methanol in a boiling-water bath oe. ammonia at –100 C of. phenol at 25 C
ooSubstance Melting Point (C) Boiling Point (C)
ammonia -77.7 -33.4
methanol -97.7 64.7
water 0 100
phenol 40.9 181.9
65. How does perspiration help cool your body on a hot day?
70. Why are pressure cookers recommended for cooking at high-altitude?
Reading Phase Diagrams
1. What variables are plotted on a phase diagram?
2. How many phases of water are represented in its phase diagram? What are they?
3. Use the phase diagram for water to complete the following table.
Pressure (atm) Phase Temperature (;C)
4. What phases of water coexist at each point along the curve AC?
5. What two-phase changes occur at each point along curve AB in the phase diagram for
6. Look at the phase diagram for carbon dioxide. Above which pressure and temperature is
carbon dioxide unable to exist as a liquid?
7. At which pressure and temperature do the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of carbon