？ 1. Introduction
？ Coat of arms of Canada
？ The National Anthem of Canada
？ National tree: Maple
？ National animal: beaver
？ 1. Introduction
？ Area - Total 9,984,670 sqkm (2nd)
？ Population - estimate 34,098,000 (2010)
？ Capital: Ottawa
Largest city: Toronto
？ Official language(s): English and French
st？ National Day: July 1
？ Religion: Catholicism and Christianity
？ The name Canada comes from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian (易洛魁族)
word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement"
？ 2. Geographical Features
？ Canada is the world's second-largest country by total
area(9,984,670 sqkm), almost as big as the whole Europe. ？ It has the longest coastline: 202,080 km
？ Canada is the World's largest country that borders only one country. ？ Its common border with the United States is the world's longest
？ It is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean;
？ on the northeast by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, which separate it
？ on the east by the Atlantic Ocean;
？ on the south by the United States;
？ on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska.
？ Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three
？ 1. The north region of Canada ;北部3区；
？ The north is a scarcely populated
area of ice and oceans？which is
sometimes called ―the Land of
the Midnight Sun‖;午夜太阳之地；
？ This region is currently divided into three administrative
territories— the Yukon ;育空地区； , the Northwest Territories;西部
地区； and Nunavut;努勒维特地区 created on April 1, 1999；.
？ 2. the west ;西部1省；
？ the western-most province is British Columbia ( 布列颠哥伦比亚省)
major mountain ranges running through it, among which the largest is the Rockies.
？ Lake Louise(路易斯湖), located in the Rockies, is the most famous
image of the Canadian landscape.
？ Its main economic mainstay(支柱) is its forests. It has the most
valuable forestry industry.
？ 3. The Prairies (草原3省)
？ The prairie provinces？Alberta(阿尔伯塔省), Saskatchewan(萨斯喀彻温
？ The prairies are flat and featureless and have a harsh continental
climate, which are suited to farming.
？ 4. Central Canada (2省)
？ Central Canada, Ontario (安大略省)
and Quebec;魁北克省；, are the
parts of the country that were first settled.
？ the industrial heartland of the country
？ they are also the most densely populated provinces, more than half
of the country’s population live in these two provinces .
？ They have the largest cities like Toronto in Ontario, and the
country’s 2nd largest city Montreal(蒙特利尔) in Quebec.
？ The capital of the country Ottawa is also in Ontario.
？ 5. The Atlantic Regions
？ The Atlantic provinces include New Brunswick(新不伦瑞克省), Nova
Scotia;新斯科省；, Prince Edward Island;爱德华太子岛省； and
？ They are small in population and largely rely on the fishing industry
for their economic wealth.
？ They are rich in farming and forestry products and are quite popular
？ Mountains and Lakes
？ Mount Logan (洛根峰): the highest peak (5, 959 meters) in Yukon,
？ The St. Lawrence: Canada’s most important river, providing a
seaway for ships from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.
？ The Mackenzie: the longest Canadian river.
？ The Great Lakes: Ontario ---- borders 4 Great Lakes
？ Great Bear Lake: the largest lake in the Northwest Territories
？ Great Slave Lake: the deepest lake
？ 3. Climate
？ Canada’s weather is different from area to area and it ranges from the
extreme cold of the Arctic regions to the moderate temperatures of the south.
？ A country with comparatively cold winter: cold winters, hot
summers and sparse rainfall.
？ The Maritime Provinces (Atlantic region): damp, cold and cloudy;
？ Prairie Provinces: long, warm summer days, ideal for growing grain
？ British Columbia (Pacific region): the wet milder coastal region and
the drier inland region
？ Northern regions: severe cold winter
？ Estimated 33,476,688 people in 2011.
？ It is a sparsely populated country with only 3.4 people per square
？ Almost 2/3 of the people were concentrated in Quebec and Ontario.
？ The three territories has only 0.3% of the total population.
？ Canada is a nation of immigrants, with as many as 100 nationalities.
？ The origins of most Canadians are British (44.6%) and French
？ The native people are the Eskimos, Inuits (因纽特人) and Indians,
comprising only 1.5%
？ Official Language: English and French, Chinese is the third most
common tongue in Canada.
？ Quebec is the only predominately French-speaking territory.
？ main cities
？ the capital of Canada, in Ontario
？ a bridge of English culture and French culture
？ Half people are French-speaking and half are English-speaking ？ It is also called the tulip city
？ Toronto ;多伦多；
？ Canada's largest city, the capital of Ontario province .
？ Canada's financial, commercial, technological and industrial center,
is Canada's richest city.
？ Montreal ;蒙特利尔；
？ Canada’s second largest city.
？ As Quebec's largest city, Montreal's French residents are in the
majority reflecting the unique
cultural heritage of France,
is considered North
America's romantic capital.
？ Canada’s third largest city
？ The pleasant climate and its unique natural beauty, make it a most
suitable for the enjoyment of life and repeatedly evaluated by the
United Nations as the most suitable habitation city for human being
• 1. Pre-Columbian era –
• The first inhabitants are believed to have come to Canada from Asia about
• The aboriginal people are Indians and Inuits.
2. European Discovery
• The Norse were the first to arrive around the year 1000.
• British exploration
• The European explorer John Cabot first landed in Canada in 1497. • French exploration
• In 1535 Jacques Cartier, a French navigator sailed up the St. lawrence
River as far as what is today Montreal.
• 2. European Discovery
• Conclusion: Although both Cabot and Cartier failed to find the route they
were seeking, they discovered a treasured place of valuable resource in the
vast expanses of North America.
• 2. European Discovery
; Influence : the news ,their Newfoundland was abundant in fish and other
natural resources, brought back home was like throwing a tomb in the
Europe and as a result attracted a massive visit to the eastern shores of
promoted the prosperity of early trade in between the Europeans and the
native (India and Inuit)
• 2. European Discovery
; Europe Settlement
• In the early 1600s , both Britain and France founded permanent settlement in
• In 1608, Samuel de Champlain, the French explorer established his habitation
in what is now Quebec city to lay the roots of French Canada. • It refers to the French empire in North America from 1608 to 1763
one of the oldest European settlements in North America •
• Marked the beginning of New France, and thus the true
beginning of Canada.
• Conflicts in New France
• New France English colonies
• An uneven contest, in which the French in Canada were greatly outnumbered. • A result of numerous wars between the parent countries, English and France. • Reason for conflicts
• Resulted deeply from competition for the wealth of the fur trade in the
• The 17th century, Britain and France launch a struggle for Canada.
• Bit by bit, this conflicts between two powers came into a war---- Seven
Years’ War (1756-1763)
• The results of the
Seven Years’ War
• Under the Treaty of Paris, which ended the war in 1763, France officially
ceded New France to Britain.
• In 1774, the British passed a law ---- the Quebec Act that guaranteed the
French protection of their language and religion.
• British Canada
• Québec Act (《魁北克法案》)
• First important milestone in a longtime of efforts to cope with the differences
between the French and British people and unit them into one country • ―New member‖——American refugees, so-called Loyalist who remained loyal
to the British
• Laid the base of English-speaking Canada
• British Canada
• The division Canada : most English speaking citizens lived in Upper
Canada (Ontario) and most French speaking citizens lived in Lower
• 1840 , Britain put the two provinces together called Canada Province . The
Canada Province was allowed to have its own government to handle the
political affairs except the foreign affairs .
• The dependence of Canada
• July 1st, 1867, with the passing of the British North American Act (英属北美
条约), Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined in a
Confederation and was made the Dominion of Canada
• The day is known as the Canadian Day.
• Ottawa was chosen as the national capital.
• Macdonald was appointed as the first Prime Minister of the Dominion
• British North America Act
• Major provisions？
1、 federalism is to be implemented in Canada;
2、the British King is also the king of Canada with Governor General as his representative;
3、Canadian Parliament has two houses: the senate whose members are nominated by the British King, the House of Representatives whose members are elected according to the population of each province.
• Effects of British
North America Act
1. Although Canada carried out federalism, the practice of federalism in Canada
is different from that in the United State.
2. In the United States, more emphasis is put in the powers of states, while in
even Canada the federal government is granted powers in a wider area,
including the power not clearly specified in the British North America Act. 3. However, the confederation did not confer full national independence, for
British retained control of foreign affairs and could theoretically veto Canadian legislation.
4. Nevertheless, Canada’s status as a dominion became the model for the
future evolution of the British commonwealth of nations.
• John Alexander Macdonald
• the first and third Prime Minister of Canada and the dominant figure of
Canadian Confederation. The head portrait of Macdonald was printed in
Canadian ten Dollar.
• Wilfrid Laurier’s govern
• First French-speaking Canadian Prime Minister.
The head portrait of Wilfrid Laurier was printed in Canadian five Dollar. • In 1931, the Statue of Westminster (威斯敏斯特法令) recognized Canada as
an member of the British Commonwealth.
• In 1945, it became a member of the UN.
• In 1982, the Constitution Act(加拿大宪法案) ended the last legal connection
between Canada and Great Britain.
• After confederation, Canada experienced rapid growth in the following
decades. After World War I, Canada’s economy and business advanced
significantly, so it became an important member in the world. • The Canadian Forces and civilian participation in the First World War helped
to foster a sense of British-Canadian nationhood.
• As a result of the war, the Government of Canada became more assertive
and less deferential to British authority.
• In 1931, Canada became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, getting
complete legislative independence from the Parliament of the United Kingdom. • Second World War(1939-1945)
• Canada's involvement in the Second World War began when Canada declared
war on Nazi Germany on September 10, 1939
• By the end of the war, Canada had become a significant military power. • changed Canada’s focus and orientation in foreign affairs and Canada became
closer to the United States in the fields of politics, economy, defense and
• The Post-war Era 1945–1960
• Prosperity returned to Canada during the Second World War and continued in
the proceeding years .
• national policies increasingly turned to social welfare .
• The foreign policy of Canada during the Cold War was closely tied to that of
the United States, which was demonstrated by membership in NATO • The historical height of Canada
• The federal government’s power increased since the 1950s to its historical
• With taxing and spending powers gained from the provinces ,the Liberal
government laid the foundations of the Canadian welfare state. • The change between 1946 and 1961
• During these years, its population increased due to the postwar baby boom
• By 1961,the country had become one of the world’s most urbanized nations.
The role it plays in the world •
• One of the Big Seven (US, UK. Germany, France, Japan, Italy and Canada) in
• With its economic strength, it began to take an active role in international
relations. Since the 1950s, Canada has involved itself in foreign aid programs
for developing nations and peacekeeping missions to settle disputes in
； The Canadian Economy
； Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, with a high per-capita
； A member of the Group of 7 (US, UK, Italy, Canada, Germany, France, Japan)
now G8 and G20.
； It is one of the world's top ten trading nations.
； Canada relies greatly on foreign trade and is deeply influenced by the U.S.
； Main trade object is the United States, China, Japan, and the European Union
； Canada’s economy is greatly influenced by three factors
-- Its physical geography: rich natural resources,
large size and small population.
-- Close relation with US which has a much
more powerful economy and larger close market.
-- The government intervention in developing the
country’s resources and infrastructure.
； Industry in Canada can be divided into 3 main groups:
-- Natural resources (primary) 3%
-- Manufacturing industry 31%
-- Service/tertiary 66% ;2006；
； Approximately 2% of the labour force
； Accounts for 2.3% of the Canadian GDP
or 19.6 billion $US
； Accounts for about 3% of total exports
； Gives a positive trade balance of $3 billion
； World Grain Trade: Canada is ranked third after the United States and the
Canada’s most important industries are:
； Food Processing
； Paper Industry
； Like other First World nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the
service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. ； For the last decades, Canada has been shifting from a natural resource-based
economy towards a ―white-collar‖ or service economy, accounting for about
60% of the country’s domestic output. About 70% of working Canadians
have jobs in the service sector.
； Canada is also one of the world’s biggest countries in terms of trade.
； About one quarter of the GNP comes from the sale of goods and services
abroad, and about one quarter of the country’s manufactured production is
As in Britain, there is no written Constitution in Canada. It is mainly made up of
British North American Act (1867) and Constitution Act of Canada (1982)
； Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional
； The official head of state is the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II
represented by Governor General.
； Canada is a federation (联邦制)--- ten provinces and three territories, each
with their own government, which have joined to form one country. The
government of the whole country is referred to as the ―federal government‖