By Norman Crawford,2014-12-10 23:59
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1. Introduction

     Coat of arms of Canada

     The National Anthem of Canada

     O Canada

     National tree: Maple

     National animal: beaver

     1. Introduction

     Area - Total 9,984,670 sqkm (2nd)

     Population - estimate 34,098,000 (2010)

     Capital: Ottawa

     Largest city: Toronto

     Official language(s): English and French

    st National Day: July 1

     Religion: Catholicism and Christianity

     The name Canada comes from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian (易洛魁族)

    word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement"

     2. Geographical Features

     Canada is the world's second-largest country by total

    area(9,984,670 sqkm), almost as big as the whole Europe. It has the longest coastline: 202,080 km

     Canada is the World's largest country that borders only one country. Its common border with the United States is the world's longest

    land border.

     It is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean;

     on the northeast by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, which separate it

    from Greenland;

     on the east by the Atlantic Ocean;

     on the south by the United States;

     on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska.

     Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three


     1. The north region of Canada ;北部3区;

     The north is a scarcely populated

     area of ice and oceanswhich is

     sometimes called ―the Land of

     the Midnight Sun‖;午夜太阳之地;

     This region is currently divided into three administrative

    territories the Yukon ;育空地区; , the Northwest Territories;西部

    地区; and Nunavut;努勒维特地区 created on April 1, 1999.

     2. the west ;西部1省;

     the western-most province is British Columbia ( 布列颠哥伦比亚省)

    with 3

     major mountain ranges running through it, among which the largest is the Rockies.

     Lake Louise(路易斯湖), located in the Rockies, is the most famous

    image of the Canadian landscape.

     Its main economic mainstay(支柱) is its forests. It has the most

    valuable forestry industry.

     3. The Prairies (草原3)

     The prairie provincesAlberta(阿尔伯塔省), Saskatchewan(萨斯喀彻温

    )and Manitoba(马尼托巴省;

     The prairies are flat and featureless and have a harsh continental

    climate, which are suited to farming.

     4. Central Canada (2)

     Central Canada, Ontario (安大略省)

     and Quebec;魁北克省;, are the

     parts of the country that were first settled.

     the industrial heartland of the country

     they are also the most densely populated provinces, more than half

    of the country’s population live in these two provinces .

     They have the largest cities like Toronto in Ontario, and the

    country’s 2nd largest city Montreal(蒙特利尔) in Quebec.

     The capital of the country Ottawa is also in Ontario.

5. The Atlantic Regions

     The Atlantic provinces include New Brunswick(新不伦瑞克省), Nova

    Scotia;新斯科省;, Prince Edward Island;爱德华太子岛省; and


     They are small in population and largely rely on the fishing industry

    for their economic wealth.

     They are rich in farming and forestry products and are quite popular

    tourist attractions.

     Mountains and Lakes

     Mount Logan (洛根峰): the highest peak (5, 959 meters) in Yukon,



     The St. Lawrence: Canada’s most important river, providing a

    seaway for ships from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean.

     The Mackenzie: the longest Canadian river.


     The Great Lakes: Ontario ---- borders 4 Great Lakes

     Great Bear Lake: the largest lake in the Northwest Territories

     Great Slave Lake: the deepest lake

     3. Climate

     Canada’s weather is different from area to area and it ranges from the

    extreme cold of the Arctic regions to the moderate temperatures of the south.


    3. Climate

     A country with comparatively cold winter: cold winters, hot

    summers and sparse rainfall.

     The Maritime Provinces (Atlantic region): damp, cold and cloudy;

     Prairie Provinces: long, warm summer days, ideal for growing grain

     British Columbia (Pacific region): the wet milder coastal region and

    the drier inland region

     Northern regions: severe cold winter


     Estimated 33,476,688 people in 2011.

     It is a sparsely populated country with only 3.4 people per square


     Almost 2/3 of the people were concentrated in Quebec and Ontario.

     The three territories has only 0.3% of the total population.

     Canada is a nation of immigrants, with as many as 100 nationalities.

     The origins of most Canadians are British (44.6%) and French


     The native people are the Eskimos, Inuits (因纽特人) and Indians,

    comprising only 1.5%

     Official Language: English and French, Chinese is the third most

    common tongue in Canada.

     Quebec is the only predominately French-speaking territory.

     main cities






     the capital of Canada, in Ontario

     a bridge of English culture and French culture

     Half people are French-speaking and half are English-speaking It is also called the tulip city

Toronto ;多伦多;

     Canada's largest city, the capital of Ontario province .

     Canada's financial, commercial, technological and industrial center,

    is Canada's richest city.

     Montreal ;蒙特利尔;

     Canada’s second largest city.

     As Quebec's largest city, Montreal's French residents are in the

    majority reflecting the unique

     cultural heritage of France,

     is considered North

     America's romantic capital.


     Canada’s third largest city

     The pleasant climate and its unique natural beauty, make it a most

    suitable for the enjoyment of life and repeatedly evaluated by the

    United Nations as the most suitable habitation city for human being

     1. Pre-Columbian era

    primitive stage

     The first inhabitants are believed to have come to Canada from Asia about

    12000years ago.

     The aboriginal people are Indians and Inuits.


    2. European Discovery

     The Norse were the first to arrive around the year 1000.

     British exploration

     The European explorer John Cabot first landed in Canada in 1497. French exploration

     In 1535 Jacques Cartier, a French navigator sailed up the St. lawrence

    River as far as what is today Montreal.

     2. European Discovery

     Conclusion: Although both Cabot and Cartier failed to find the route they

    were seeking, they discovered a treasured place of valuable resource in the

    vast expanses of North America.

     2. European Discovery

    ; Influence : the news ,their Newfoundland was abundant in fish and other

    natural resources, brought back home was like throwing a tomb in the

    Europe and as a result attracted a massive visit to the eastern shores of


     promoted the prosperity of early trade in between the Europeans and the

    native (India and Inuit)

     2. European Discovery

    ; Europe Settlement

     In the early 1600s , both Britain and France founded permanent settlement in


     In 1608, Samuel de Champlain, the French explorer established his habitation

    in what is now Quebec city to lay the roots of French Canada. It refers to the French empire in North America from 1608 to 1763

     one of the oldest European settlements in North America

     Marked the beginning of New France, and thus the true

    beginning of Canada.

     Conflicts in New France

     New France English colonies

     An uneven contest, in which the French in Canada were greatly outnumbered. A result of numerous wars between the parent countries, English and France. Reason for conflicts

     Resulted deeply from competition for the wealth of the fur trade in the


     The 17th century, Britain and France launch a struggle for Canada.

     Bit by bit, this conflicts between two powers came into a war---- Seven

    Years’ War (1756-1763)

     The results of the

    Seven Years’ War

     Under the Treaty of Paris, which ended the war in 1763, France officially

    ceded New France to Britain.

     In 1774, the British passed a law ---- the Quebec Act that guaranteed the

    French protection of their language and religion.

     British Canada

     Québec Act (《魁北克法案》)

     First important milestone in a longtime of efforts to cope with the differences

    between the French and British people and unit them into one country ―New member‖——American refugees, so-called Loyalist who remained loyal

    to the British

     Laid the base of English-speaking Canada

     British Canada

     The division Canada : most English speaking citizens lived in Upper

    Canada (Ontario) and most French speaking citizens lived in Lower

    Canada (Quebec).

     1840 , Britain put the two provinces together called Canada Province . The

    Canada Province was allowed to have its own government to handle the

    political affairs except the foreign affairs .

     The dependence of Canada

     July 1st, 1867, with the passing of the British North American Act (英属北美

    条约), Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined in a

    Confederation and was made the Dominion of Canada

     The day is known as the Canadian Day.

     Ottawa was chosen as the national capital.

     Macdonald was appointed as the first Prime Minister of the Dominion

     British North America Act

     Major provisions

     1 federalism is to be implemented in Canada;

     2the British King is also the king of Canada with Governor General as his representative;

     3Canadian Parliament has two houses: the senate whose members are nominated by the British King, the House of Representatives whose members are elected according to the population of each province.

     Effects of British

    North America Act

    1. Although Canada carried out federalism, the practice of federalism in Canada

    is different from that in the United State.

    2. In the United States, more emphasis is put in the powers of states, while in

     even Canada the federal government is granted powers in a wider area,

    including the power not clearly specified in the British North America Act. 3. However, the confederation did not confer full national independence, for

    British retained control of foreign affairs and could theoretically veto Canadian legislation.

    4. Nevertheless, Canada’s status as a dominion became the model for the

     future evolution of the British commonwealth of nations.

     John Alexander Macdonald

     the first and third Prime Minister of Canada and the dominant figure of

    Canadian Confederation. The head portrait of Macdonald was printed in

    Canadian ten Dollar.

     Wilfrid Laurier’s govern

First French-speaking Canadian Prime Minister.

     The head portrait of Wilfrid Laurier was printed in Canadian five Dollar. In 1931, the Statue of Westminster (威斯敏斯特法令) recognized Canada as

    an member of the British Commonwealth.

     In 1945, it became a member of the UN.

     In 1982, the Constitution Act(加拿大宪法案) ended the last legal connection

    between Canada and Great Britain.

     After confederation, Canada experienced rapid growth in the following

    decades. After World War I, Canada’s economy and business advanced

    significantly, so it became an important member in the world. The Canadian Forces and civilian participation in the First World War helped

    to foster a sense of British-Canadian nationhood.

     As a result of the war, the Government of Canada became more assertive

    and less deferential to British authority.

     In 1931, Canada became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, getting

    complete legislative independence from the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Second World War(1939-1945)

     Canada's involvement in the Second World War began when Canada declared

    war on Nazi Germany on September 10, 1939

     By the end of the war, Canada had become a significant military power. changed Canada’s focus and orientation in foreign affairs and Canada became

    closer to the United States in the fields of politics, economy, defense and


     The Post-war Era 19451960

     Prosperity returned to Canada during the Second World War and continued in

    the proceeding years .

     national policies increasingly turned to social welfare .

     The foreign policy of Canada during the Cold War was closely tied to that of

    the United States, which was demonstrated by membership in NATO The historical height of Canada

     The federal government’s power increased since the 1950s to its historical


     With taxing and spending powers gained from the provinces ,the Liberal

    government laid the foundations of the Canadian welfare state. The change between 1946 and 1961

     During these years, its population increased due to the postwar baby boom

    and immigration.

     By 1961,the country had become one of the world’s most urbanized nations.

     The role it plays in the world

     One of the Big Seven (US, UK. Germany, France, Japan, Italy and Canada) in


     With its economic strength, it began to take an active role in international

    relations. Since the 1950s, Canada has involved itself in foreign aid programs

    for developing nations and peacekeeping missions to settle disputes in

    foreign countries.

     The Canadian Economy

     Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, with a high per-capita


     A member of the Group of 7 (US, UK, Italy, Canada, Germany, France, Japan)

    now G8 and G20.

     It is one of the world's top ten trading nations.

     Canada relies greatly on foreign trade and is deeply influenced by the U.S.


     Main trade object is the United States, China, Japan, and the European Union


     Canada’s economy is greatly influenced by three factors

     -- Its physical geography: rich natural resources,

     large size and small population.

     -- Close relation with US which has a much

     more powerful economy and larger close market.

     -- The government intervention in developing the

     country’s resources and infrastructure.

     Industry in Canada can be divided into 3 main groups:

     -- Natural resources (primary) 3%

     -- Manufacturing industry 31%

     -- Service/tertiary 66% ;2006



     Approximately 2% of the labour force

Accounts for 2.3% of the Canadian GDP

    or 19.6 billion $US

     Accounts for about 3% of total exports

     Gives a positive trade balance of $3 billion

     World Grain Trade: Canada is ranked third after the United States and the

    European Union


    Canada’s most important industries are:

     Food Processing

     Paper Industry


     Like other First World nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the

    service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. For the last decades, Canada has been shifting from a natural resource-based

    economy towards a ―white-collar‖ or service economy, accounting for about

    60% of the country’s domestic output. About 70% of working Canadians

    have jobs in the service sector.

     Canada is also one of the world’s biggest countries in terms of trade.

     About one quarter of the GNP comes from the sale of goods and services

    abroad, and about one quarter of the country’s manufactured production is



    Political Institutions


    As in Britain, there is no written Constitution in Canada. It is mainly made up of

    British North American Act (1867) and Constitution Act of Canada (1982)

     Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional


     The official head of state is the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II

    represented by Governor General.

     Canada is a federation (联邦制)--- ten provinces and three territories, each

    with their own government, which have joined to form one country. The

    government of the whole country is referred to as the ―federal government‖


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