Science Clu Activities [doc] - STEM Networking

By Willie Watson,2014-09-30 04:42
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Science Clu Activities [doc] - STEM Networking

    Eichenbaum: ―The basis of our position was The Linguistic turn in literary criticism and

    and is that the object of literary science, as such, philosophy

    must be the study of those specifics which

    distinguish it fromany other material‖ I. Philosophy and language

    Nietzsche: genealogical method; hermeneutics of Jakobson: ―The object of the science of suspicion literature is not literature, but literariness that

    ―What, then, is truth? A mobile army of is, that which makes a given work a work of metaphors, metonymies, and anthropomorphisms literature‖

     in short, a sum of human relations which have The immanence of literature The liberation of

    the word been poetically and rhetorically enhanced,

    transposed, and embellished, and which after long zaum - ―meaning beyond reason‖ (suprarational use seem fixed, canonical and binding to a people; meaning)

    truths are illusions which we have forgotten are 2. Content and form

    illusions; metaphors which are worn out and Shklovsky: ―‗Artistic‘ perception is that without sensuous power, coins which have lost perception in which we experience form

    their picture and now matter only as metal, no perhaps not form alone, but certainly form.‖

    longer as coin.‖ Lotman: form and content life and living

    Logical positicism (Rudolf Carnap: ―For logic, tissue

    actual language is never sufficiently perfect‖); 3. Device or technique (priyom)

    Wittgenstein: philosophy is a critique of language Defamiliarisation (ostranenie)

    Novalis: ―What we speak about is not present, is Shklovsky: ―art exists that one may recover the not in our possession‖. sensation of life; it exists to make one feel things, The prisonhouse of language (J. Hillis Miller: to make the stone stony. The purpose of art is to ―Language is an airy and spacious prison, but it impart the sensation of things as they are remains a prison all the same‖ perceived and not as they are known. The ―Language is a universal prostitute‖ (Karl Kraus) technique of art is to make objects ‗unfamiliar,‘ Michel Foucault: the crisis of language the to make them difficult, to increase the difficulty centrality of literature and length of perception because the process of Friedrich Schiller: poetic beauty is ―the free auto-perception is an aesthetic end in itself and must action (öncselekvés) of nature in the hobbles of be prolonged. Art is a way of experiencing the language‖ artfulnessof an object; the object is not


    Jan Mukařovsky: foregrounding (aktualizacije): II. The linguistic turn in literary criticism

    Novalis: ―Language strives to have nothing to do the aesthetically intentional distortion of with anything but itself that is what makes it linguistic components‖

    such a wonderful and inexhaustible mystery‖ Narrative devices: fabula and sjuzet

    Tomashevsky: ―the fabula is the aggregate of Russian Formalism (and Czech and Polish)

    Petersburg: OPOJAZ; Moscow Linguistic Circle motifs in their logical, causal-chronological Viktor Shklovsky (Tristram Shandy and the order; the sjuzet is the aggregate of those same Theory of the Novel; How Don Quijote Was motifs but having the relevance and the order Made), Osip Brik, Boris Eichenbaum (Az which they had in the original work ... [T]he irodalmi elemzés), Yury Tinyanov (Az irodalmi aesthetic function of the sjuzet is precisely this tény), Boris Tomashevsky, Viktor Zhirmunsky bringing of an arrangement of motifs to the (Irodalom, poétika; Roman Jakobson (Hang attention of the reader. Real incidents, not jel vers, 1972; A költészet grammatikája, fictionalised by an author, may make a fabula. A 1982); Vladimir Propp (A népmese morfológiája, sjuzet is wholly an artistic creation.‖

    1995) 4. System, function

    Symbolism: Potebnya; Futurism: Khlebnikov, Tinyanov: ―The work of art is not a closed Mayakovsky symmetrical whole, but the unfolding of a

    dynamic unity; what we have between its 1. The Subject of Literary Scholarship

    elements is not the static sign of equality and

correlation, but the dynamic sign of interrelation Brooks: “The Heresy of Paraphrase”

    and integration.‖ structure: ―The structure meant is a structure of ―Each work of art is an unbalanced system, meanings, evaluations, and interpretations; and where the stucturing principle is not dissolved in the principle of unity which informs it seems to the material; the two do not exactly ‗agree with‘ be one of balancing and harmonizing each other, their relationship is excentric: the connotations, attitudes, and meanings.‖

    structuring principle becomes visible through the Brooks: Irony is ―the most general term that we material.‖ have for the kind of qualification which the

    various elements in a context receive from the motivation

    context.‖ The result is ―a unification of attitudes 5. Interpretation

    Boris Eichenbaum ―How Gogol‘s The Overcoat into a hierarchy subordinated to a total and Was Made‖ governing attitude.‖

    Jan Mukarovsky The structure does not unite the conflicting

     elements ―by the simple process of allowing one

    connotation to cancel out another, nor does it American New Criticism

    John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, Robert Penn reduce the contradictory attitudes to harmony by Warren (Agrarians); Cleanth Brooks, W. K. a process of subtraction. The unity is not a unity Wimsatt; René Wellek, Murray Krieger (Related of the sort to be achieved by the reduction and names: Yvor Winters, Kenneth Burke) simplification appropriate to an algebraic formula. Journals: Southern Review (Brooks and Warren, It is a positive unity, not a negative; it represents 1935-42); Kenyon Review (Ransom, 1939- ) not a residue but an achieved harmony.‖ (Brooks)

    Textbooks: Brooks and Warren: Understanding Tate: poetry ―is a way of knowing something: if Poetry (1938), Understanding Fiction (1941) the poem is a real creation, it is a kind of Key Books: Ransom: The New Criticism (1941); knowledge that we did not possess before. It is Brooks: The Well-Wrought Urn (1949); Wimsatt: not knowledge ‗about‘ something else; the poem The Verbal Icon (1958); Tate: Essays of Four is the fullness of that knowledge.‖

    Decades (1968); Krieger: The New Apologists for

    Poetry (1956); Wimsatt and Brooks: Literary Structuralism and semiotics

    Criticism: A Short History (1957); Wellek and 1. Structuralist linguistics. Ferdinand de

    Austin Warren: Theory of Literature (1949) Saussure:

    W.K.Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley: “The langue parole

    Langue: ―It is a fund accumulated by the Intentional Fallacy”

    Judging a poem is like judging a pudding or a members of the community through the practice machine. One demands that it work. It is only of speech, a grammatical system existing because an artifact works that we infer the potentially in every brain, or more exactly in the intention of the artificer. ‗A poem should not brains of a group of individuals; for the language mean but be.‘ A poem can only be through its is never complete in any single individual, but

    exists perfectly only in the collectivity‖ meaning ; since its medium is words ; yet it is,

    (Saussure) simply is, in the sense that we have no excuse for

    Noam Chomsky: (transformational) generative inquiring what part is intended or meant... Poetry

    linguistics succeeds because all or most of what is said or

    deep structure surface structure implied is relevant; what is irrelevant has been

    two axes of language: syntagmatic excluded, like lumps from puddings and 'bugs'

    paradigmatic from machinery. In this respect poetry differs

    The double nature of language: from practical messages, which are succesful if

    a, Language as a system of differences. and only if we correctly infer the intention.‖

    Phonological model A poem is not the author‘s: ―it is detached from

    ―In the language itself, there are only differences. the author at birth and goes about the world

    Even more important than that is the fact that, beyond his power to intend about it or control it.‖

    although in general a difference presupposes Wimsatt and Beardsley: “The Affective

    positive terms between which the difference Fallacy”

    holds, in a language there are only differences, as it were, capable of being generated by works; and no positive terms. Whether we take the it will not interpret symbols but describe their signifier or the signified, the language includes polyvalency. In short, its objects will not be the neither ideas nor sounds existing prior to the full meanings of the work but on the contrary the linguistic system, but only conceptual and empty meaning which supports them all‖ phonetic differences arising out of that system. (Critique et vérité)

    In a sign, what matters more than any idea or c, narratology, narrative grammar; Vladimir

    sound associated with it is what other signs Propp: The Morphology of Folktales (1928)

    surround it.‖ (Saussure) 7 roles and 31 functions

    phoneme broken down into ―distinctive Structuralist reading:

    features‖ (Jakobson) - surface depth

    b, semiotic nature (the ability of lang. To refer to - eliminating referentiality (Barthes: ―Narrative

    the world) does not portray or imitate anything; … In a Sign: signifier signified (+ referent) narrative, nothing happens from a referential 2. Structural anthropology point of view. What happens (ce qui arrive) is

    Claude Lévi-Strauss: The Elementary language itself, the adventure of language‖

    Structures of Kinship; The Savage Mind; - eliminating the subject as source of meaning Structural Anthropology (Lévi-Strauss: We are not, therefore, claiming ―‗Kinship systems‘, like ‗phonetic systems‘, are to show how men think in the myths, but rather built by the mind on the level of unconscious how the myths think themselves out in men and thought.‖ without men‘s knowledge‖)

    3. Semiotics as the study of culture (Roland - freezing narrative, eliminating temporality, Barthes‘s Fashion as a System and Mythologies) historicity and context (parole)

    ―as soon as there is society, every usage is Manfred Frank: ―Following structuralism,

    converted into a sign of that usage‖ understanding a text would amount to the history (Michel Foucault); psychoanalysis uncovering of the principles of its construction‖

    (Jacques Lacan); psychology (Jean Piaget);

    film theory (Christian Metz) Literature as privileged, enlightened 4. Structuralist poetics and criticism language

    Czech and Polish structuralism: Jan Rilke: ―The poet‘s task is increased by the Mukařovsky, Roman Ingarden (The Literary strange obligation to set apart his word from the Work of Art, 1937) words of everyday life thoroughly and Tzvetan Todorov (The Grammar of Decameron fundamentally. No word in the poem is identical [1969], The Poetics of Prose [1971]), Algirdas with the same-sounding word in common use Greimas (Structural Semantics [1966]), Julia and conversation‖.

    Kristeva (her early work) Gérard Genette (Mary-Louise Pratt: ―the poetic language (Figures 1-3 [1966-72]), Michael Riffaterre fallacy‖

    (The Semiotics of Poetry, 1978), Umberto Eco, Barthes: Writing Degree Zero density of the

    Seymour Chatman (Story and Discourse poetic word

    [1978]), Jonathan Culler (his early work, esp. ―Each word is an unexpected object, a Pandora‘s Structuralist Poetics, 1975) box from which fly out all the potentialities of ―the structuralist moment‖ (Paul de Man): to language‖

    conceentrate on the code for its own sake Susan Sontag; Mallarmé: the task of poetry is to a, linguistic criticism (Roman Jakobson) purify, by means of words, our world that is definition of ―literariness‖; poetic function of shackled by words; art must launch a total language; selection axis combination axis assault on language

    b, Yuri Lotman: literature as a second-order Todorov: ―Literature … exists precisely as an semiotic system; literary competence effort to say what ordinary discourse cannot and entropy does not say. … It is only by virtue of this Barthes: What interests structuralist poetics difference from everyday discourse that ―will be the variations of meaning generated and, literature aan come into being and exist‖

    Julia Kristeva: Revolution in poetic language J. Hillis Miller: the linguistic moment Paul de Man: unlike everyday and scientific language, literature begins on the far side of the knowledge (of the non-coincidence of sign and referent); the only form of language free from the fallacy of unmediated expression (Blindness and Insight)

    A literary text is any text that signifies its own rhetorical mode and prefigures its own


    that the work is fiction, but these are not the Fictionality

     things that make it so‖

    Two ways of looking at literariness: Jakobson: poetic function ? fictionality

    1. Formal, linguistic criteria (rhyme, tropes)

    2. Fictionality (modality) Textual markers of fictionality?

    Aristotle: poiesis (the poet: maker of stories) „Once upon a time‖; „Hol volt, hol nem volt‖

    two functions of language: rhetorics and poetics citation, intertextuality, parody (Don Quijote) mimesis can be translated as „fiction‖ salient structures

    Genette: intransitivity (pseudoreference) „Under the branch hung eighteen great Fiction fingere (dheigh ~ dough) homemaker nuts. Hollowed out they were, and

     cemented into place with cement distilled from

    the acetoyle plant. ... From the thick foliage Truth and fictionality

    „Sachez-le: ce drame n‘est ni une fiction, ni un nearby came a tumbler, flying to the girl‘s roman. All is true.‖ (Balzac: Père Goriot) shoulder. The tumbler rotated, a fleecy umbrella, „imaginary gardens with real toads in them‖ whose separate spokes controlled its (Marianne Moore) direction. … Under the leaf, a trappersnapper

    „It was Napoleon who had such a passion for had moved into position, sensing the presence of chicken that he kept his chefs working around prey through the single layer of foliage.‖ (Brian the clock.‖ (Winterson: The Passion) Aldiss: Hothouse)

    Historical imaginary supernatural entities „This new world weighs a yatto-gram. But

    „All happy families are more or less disimilar; everything is trial-size; tread-on-me tiny or all unhappy ones are more or less similar‖. blurred-out-of-focus huge. There are leaves that (Nabokov: Ada) have grown as big as cities, and there are birds

     that nest in cockleshells. On the white sand there

    are long-toed clawprints deep as nightmares, and Reference and fictionality

    Searle: fiction is pretended reference there are rock pools in hand-hollows finned by Strawson: fiction is neither true nor false invisible fish.‖ (Winterson: The Stone Gods)

    Nelson Goodman: description-of-Pickwick

    Thomas Pavel: the truth of literary texts „is not Realism, verisimilitude and fictional truth recursively definable from the truth of the „One evening of late summer, before the individual sentences that constitute them‖. nineteenth century had reached one-third of its segregationalists integrationalists span, a young man and woman, the latter Meinong: object = list of propositions (Borges: carrying a child, were approaching the large „Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius‖) village of Weyon-Priors, in Upper Wessex, on

     foot.‖ (Hardy: The Mayor of Casterbridge)

    „Strether‘s first question, when he reached the Pragmatic views of fictionality

    (Saul Kripke, Hilary Putnam, John Dewey, hotel, was about his friend; yet on his learning Richard Rorty, Nelson Goodman) that Waymarsh was apparently not to arrive til „narrative truth‖ is that which works (Arthur evening he was not wholly disconcerted.‖ Danto, psychoanalysis) (Henry James: The Ambassadors)

    „Ten more glorious days without horses! So

    thought Second-Lieutenant Andrew Chase-Anthropological views

    Wolfgang Iser: real fictive (fictionalising act) White, recently commissioned in the imaginary distinguished regiment of King Edward‘s Horse,

     as he pottered contentedly in a garden on the

    outskirts of Dublin on a sunny Sunday afternoon Fictitionality and literary criticism

    John Searle: there is „a priori no textual property, in April nineteen sixteen.‖ (Iris Murdoch: The

    syntactical or semantic, that will identify a text Red and the Green)

    as a work of fiction‖ „I am alone here now, under cover. Outside it is Gregory Currie: „facts about style, narrative raining, outside you walk through the rain with form, and plot structure may count as evidence your head down, shielding your eyes with one

    hand while you stare ahead nevertheless, a few yards ahead, at a few yards of wet asphalt; … Outside the sun is shining, there is no tree, no bush to cast a shadow, and you walk under the sun shielding your eyes with one hand while you stare ahead, only a few yards in front of you, at a few yards of dusty asphalt.‖ (Alain Robbe-


    Michel Riffaterre: verisimilitude is an effect

    the epic preterite (Barthes)

    free indirect discourse


    Roland Barthes: the „reality effect”

    „an old piano supported, under a barometer, a pyramidal heap of boxes and cartons‖ (Flaubert: Un coeur simple)

    Georges Balandier: „The supreme ruse of Transgression in culture, language and

    power is to allow itself to be contested ritually in literature

     order to consolidate itself more effectively‖

     1. The anthropological perspective; the 2. The poetics of transgression; language, dynamics and politics of transgression literature, transgression

    ―Remember, and fear to transgress‖ (Milton, „Language is a fascist‖ (Roland Barthes)

    Paradise Lost, VI.1) „A sentence is but a cheveril glove to a good wit;

    „The law brings wrath, but where there is no law how quickly the wrong side may be turned there is no transgression‖ (Rom 4.14) outward words are very rascals‖ (Feste in

     Twelfth Night, III.1)

    law vs. desire, sacred vs. profane, transgression Harold Whitehall: „Literature is nothing but vs. transcendence organised violence on language‖

    the dynamics of transgression: waste, excess, Deviation/deviancy

    non-productive expenditure (potlatch) „descriptive writing is very rarely entirely

    „any act of expressive behaviour which inverts, accurate and during the reign of Olaf Quimby II contradicts, abrogates, or in some fashion some legislation was passed in an attempt to put presents an alternative to commonly held a stop to poetic exaggerations and introduce cultural codes, values and norms, be they some honesty into reporting. Thus, if a legend linguistic, literary or artistic, religious, social said of a notable hero that ‘all men spoke of his and political‖; „not just the infraction of binary prowess‘ any bard who valued his life would structures, but movement into an absolutely add hastily ‘except for a couple of people in his negative space beyond the structure of home villagew who thought he was a liar, and significance itself‖ (Barbara Babcock; Peter quite a lot of other people who never really Stallybrass and Allon White: The Politics and heard of him.‘ Poetic simile was strictly limited Poetics of Transgression) to statements such as ‘ his mighty steed was as

    taboo and transgression; pleasure and anguish fast as the wind on a fairly calm day, say about (nullum crimen sine legen) Force Three‘, and any loose talk about a beloved Georges Bataille: „a profound complicity of having a face that launched a thousand ships law and the violation of laws‖; „a taboo is there would have to be backed by evidence that the in order to be violated‖; transgression „suspends object of desire did indeed look like a bottle of the law without subverting it‖ champagne.‖ (Terry Pratchett, The Light

    Michel Foucault: „Profanation in a world which Fantastic)

    no longer recognizes any positive meaning in the

    sacred ; is this not more or less what we may decorum

    call transgression? In that zone which our „First follow NATURE, and your Judgment culture affords for our gestures and speech, frame

    transgression prescribes … a way of By her just Standard, which is still the same; recomposing the empty form of the sacred, its Unerring NATURE, still divinely bright, absence, through which it becomes all the more One clear, unchang‘d, and Universal Light,

    scintillating‖ („Preface to Transgression‖) Life, Force, and Beauty, must to all impart, textual and political transgression At once the Source, and End, and Test of Art. the subversion/containment controversy Art from that fund each just supply provides, Marcelin Pleynet: „In our time, no more Works without show, and without pomp transgression, no more subversion‖, only „a presides

    parody of transgression, a parody of subversion, ...

    a simulacrum.‖ Some, to whom Heav‘n in wit has been profuse,

    Jonathan Dollimore: „Resistance from the Want as much more to turn it to its use; margins seems to be doomed to replicate For Wit and Judgment often are at Strife, internally the strategies, structures, and even the Tho‘ meant each other‘s Aid, like Man and Wife.

    values of the dominant.‖ ‘Tis more to guide than spur the Muse‘s Steed,

    Restrain his Fury than provoke his Speed;

    The wing‘d Courser, like a gen‘rous Horse, ―What are we doing here, that is the question‖ Shows most true Mettle when you check his (Vladimir in Waiting for Godot)

    Course. „The waiting gull, a greater intellect, was too Those RULES of old, discover‘d not devised, nervous of the bodies in the dunes to help itself, Are Nature still, but Nature methodiz‘d: just yet, to any of their titbits on display, the wet Nature, like liberty, is but restrain‘d and ragged centres of their wounds, the soft By the same laws which first herself ordain‘d. flesh of their inner legs, their eyes, the pink parts Hear how learn‘d Greece her useful rules indites, of their mouths.‖

    When to repress and when to indulge our flights: „No one had plugged their leaking rectums with ... a wad of lint, or taped their eyelids shut, or Just precepts thus from great examples giv‘n, tugged against their lower jaws to close their She drew from them what they derived from mouths. No one had cleaned their teeth or Heav‘n. combed their hair.‖ (Jim Crace: Being Dead)

    (Alexander Pope: An Essay on Criticism)


     Augusto Roa Bastos: Yo el supremo

    solecism, anacoluthon, aposiopesis, pleonasm parody

Strategies: thematic (e.g. obscenity) excess

    vs. Formal/linguistic deviation Antonin Artaud: „This is now the only use adiectio, detractio, transmutatio which language can have: an instrument of

     madness, of uprooting of thought, of revolt, a inversion, hybridity, imitation, excess labyrinth of unreason, not a dictionary into

     which the pedants who dwell on the banks of the

     „He caressed and parted with his fleshy folds … Seine direct their mental contractions.‖

    her lank loose, nearly lumbus-length (when she abstract vs. material language, dictionary vs. threw back her head as now) black silks as he scream; language and the body

    tried to get at her bed-warm splenius.‖ (V.

    Nabokov: Ada) „ ‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves / Did gyre

     and gimble in the wabe: / All mimsy were the „The sweat wis lashing oafay Sick Boy; he wis borogoves, / And the mome raths outgrabe.‖ trembling. Ah wis jist sitting thair, focusing oan (Lewis Carroll: „Jabberwocky‖)

    the telly, tryng not tae notice the cunt. He wis

    bringing me doon.‖ (Irvine Welsh: Trainspotting) „riverrun, past Eve and Adam‘s, from swerve of

     shore to bend of bay, brings us by a

     ―Fog was so dense, bird that had been disturbed commodious vicus of recirculation back to went flat into a balustrade and slowly fell, dead, Howth Castle and Environs.‖ (Joyce: Finnegans

    at her feet. There it lay and Miss Fellowes Wake)

    looked up to where that pall of fog was twenty

    foot above and out of which it had fallen, Julia Kristeva: chora (Revolution in Poetic

    turning over once. She bent down and took a Language)

    wing then entered a tunnel in front of her, and Jean-Jacques Lecercle:

    this had DEPARTURES lit up over it, carrying Language of délire

    her dead pigeon.‖ (Henry Green: Party Going)


    ―to break the pentameter, that was the first

    heave‖ (Ezra Pound, Canto 81)

    ―the oily smoothness of the usual five-foot

    iambic meter‖ (B. Brecht)

    Bishop Thomas Sprat (1667): praising the Rhetoric and tropes members of the Royal Society for rejecting ―all

    the amplifications, digressions, and swellings of

    style: to return back to primitive purity, and ―the poet is a penguin‖ (e. e. cummings)

    shortness, when men delivered so many things, ―metaphors are much more tenacious than facts‖

    almost in an equal number of words. They have (Paul de Man)

    exacted from their members a close, naked,

    natural way of speaking: positive expressions; RHETORIC AND THE ANTI-RHETORICAL

    clear senses; a native easiness: bringing all STANCE

    things as near the Mathematical plainness, as art of eloquence ; classification of tropes they can.‖ invention, disposition, memory, elocution, delivery RHETORIC AS THE STUDY OF TROPES Petrus Ramus (1546): dialectic ; rhetoric Figure (e.g. ellipsis, parallelism, congeries) vs. (matter/content ; form) trope ―up rose Theories of metaphor (meta-pherein, Belial, in act more graceful and humane; tra(n)slatio) A fairer person lost not Heav‘n, he seem‘d Aristotle: ―metaphor consists in giving (or For dignity compos‘d and high exploit: transferring: epiphora) the thing a name that But all was false and hollow; though his Tongue belongs to something else; the transference Dropt Manna, and could make the worse appear being from genus to species a, or from species The better reason, to perplex and dash to genus b, or from species to species c, or on Maturest counsels: for his thoughts were low;

    grounds of analogy d‖ (Poetics) …yet he pleas‘d the ear

    a ―the ship lying still in the harbour‖ And with persuasive accent thus began.‖ (Milton:

    b ―10.000 noble deeds perpetrated by Paradise Lost, II, 108ff)


    Francis Bacon: ―men began to hunt more after c ―I could not digest the information‖

    words than matter‖ d ― ‗Tis the yeares midnight, / and it is the The Sophists ; Socrates (in Plato‘s Gorgias): dayes‖ (John Donne)

    ―There is no need for rhetoric to know the facts substitution ; deviation ; interaction

    at all, for it has hit upon a means of persuasion ―we find poetic truth struck out by the collision

    that enables it to appear in the eyes of the rather than the collusion of images‖ (Cecil Day ignorant to know more than those who really Lewis)

    know.‖ I. A. Richards: tenor, vehicle, ground Plato (in Phaedo): ―the man who plans to be an „the fringed curtains of thine eyes‖ (The

    orator ‗need not‘ learn what is really just or true, Tempest, I, ii)

    but only what seems so to the crowd‖. classical view (decoration) Romantic view

    Cato: rem tene, verba sequentur (‗seize the (vehicle of truth, essence of language)

    thing, the words will follow‘) Cognitive theory (love is…; death is…; life Quintilian (and Cicero): ―No man can speak is…;)

    well who is not good himself‖ (eloquence ―What thou art we know not;

    follows from good character and grasp of truth) What is most like thee?‖

    Aristotle: rhetoric is predicated on ―the defects (Shelley, ―To a Skylark‖)

    of the hearers‖ (Rhetoric) Aristotle: ―strange words simply puzzle us; Puritan ideal of the ―plain style‖ ordinary words convey only what we know ―painted sermons‖ are ―like the Painted Glass in already; it is from metaphor that we can get hold the windows that keep out the Light‖ (Richard of something fresh‖ …―a good metaphor implies Baxter) an intuitive perception of the similarity in ―Eloquence, like the fair sex‖ (John Locke) dissimilars‖

    Paul Ricoeur: metaphor is the process by which idea of immensity, of distance‖ (Paul Scott: The discourse unleashes the power that fictions have Jewel in the Crown)

    to redescribe reality

    metaphor ~ fiction; poetic reference, discovery

    Metaphor and other tropes metaphor ~ model ; Suzanne Langer: ―every

    new idea assumes the form of a metaphor‖ ―Here lay Duncan,

     ―Every man is an island‖ His silver skin laced with his golden blood, „If music be the food of love, play on And his gashed stabs looked like a breach in Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting, nature

    The appetite may sicken, and so die.‖ For ruin‘s wasteful entrance‖ (Macbeth II, iii)

    (Twelfth Night, I.i) „The heart, poor fellow,

    „My head is a city, and various pains have now pounding on his little tin drum taken up residence in various parts of my face. A with a faint death beat

    gum-and-bone ache has launched a cooperative The heart, that eyeless beetle, on my upper west side. Across the park, enormous that Kafka beetle

    neuralgia has rented a duplex in my fashinable running panicked through his maze, east seventies. Downtown, my chin throbs with never stopping one foot after the other lofts of jaw-loss. As for my brain, my hundreds, one hour after the other

    it‘s Harlem up there, expanding in the summer until he gags on an apple

    fires. It boils and swells. One day soon it is and it‘s all over.‖ (Anne Sexton)

    going to burst.‖ (Martin Amis: Money) simile (less effective?)

    I have „these perverse thoughts, these crashers, ; LLRH‘s red cape: „it was red, red as the Swiss dossing in my head. With their milk cartons on flag,

    the windowsill and their damp double-mattresses yes it was red, red as chicken blood‖ (Anne

    on the floor, they grow in confidence every day. Sexton)

    They were nervous at first, it‘s true, but no one ; the wolf „was as heavy as a cemetery‖ has tried very hard to evict them and they‘re ;„Richard turned forty. Turned is right. Like a used to the uncertainty, they are used to living half-cooked steak, like a wired cop, like an old rough.‖ leaf, like milk, Richard turned.‖ (Martin Amis:

    The Information) Literal and figurative language ; „the earth is blue like an orange‖ (Paul Éluard)

    Fr. Nietzsche: „What, then, is truth? A mobile prosopopoeia, allegory, symbol, synaesthesia, army of metaphors, metonymies, and oxymoron, paradox, zeugma, euphemism anthropomorphisms ; in short, a sum of human ; ―War is peace‖ (Orwell: Nineteen Eighty-Four)

    relations which have been poetically and „He was fast asleep,

    rhetorically enhanced, transposed, and dreaming in his cap and gown, embellished, and which after long use seem wolfless‖ (Anne Sexton)

    fixed, canonical and binding to a people: truths

    are illusions which we have forgotten are metonymy

    illusions; metaphors which are worn out and ; ships sail the sea keels plough the deep without sensuous power, coins which have lost ; „an aged man is but a paltry thing, their picture and now matter only as metal, no A tattered coat upon a stick‖ longer as coin.‖ („On Truth and Lies in an (W. B. Yeats: „Byzantium‖) Extramoral Sense‖) ; „Grandmother looked strange, Man: the „metaphorical animal‖ a dark and hairy disease it seemed‖ (Anne Concepts: the residue of figures Sexton: „LRRH‖) Is all language figurative? ; ―we have been created of dust and into dust ―Imagine, then, a flat landscape, dark for the shall we return‖ moment, but even so conveying to a girl running - candle in a churchyard in the still deeper shadow cast by the wall … an synecdoche

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