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Tourism and hotel industry as a pathway for RES utilisation

By Florence Butler,2014-04-20 19:44
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Tourism and hotel industry as a pathway for RES utilisation

    BILJANA KULIŠIĆ, M.Sc.

    MARGARETA ZIDAR, B.Arch.

    BRANKA JELAVIĆ, Ph.D.

    JULIJE DOMAC, Ph.D.

    VELIMIR ŠEGON, M.Sc.

    Energy institute Hrvoje Požar, Department for Renewable Energy Sources and Energy

    Efficiency, Zagreb, Croatia

    TOURISM AS A PATHWAY FOR RES UTILISATION

     Tourism, due its property of being an “invisible export” sector, has a strong multiplier effect over the economy. Tourists boost demand for numerous goods and services, one of them being energy. Unfortunately, energy sources are scarce for most of the countries in the region. Thus, one could think of another solution to the excess demand for energy than import. Namely, for more than a decade, renewable energy sources are in the central focus of the EU energy policy with an aim to ensure security, price stability, availably and affordability of energy to its citizens together with reduction of GHG emissions and making the EU economy more competitive. Combining tourism with renewable energy sources utilisation helps reducing the spill over effect from energy import. In this paper, the cross-section analysis based on environmental determination of tourism and renewable energy sources potentials is performed in order to indicate a pathway for implementation of renewable energy sources utilisation in the tourism and hotel industry. Key words: tourism, renewable energy sources, energy demand

    INTRODUCTION

    Harmonisation to the aquis communautaire has brought many changes in Croatian legislation where intersectoral effects are difficult to grasp. Energy sector has 1been under the process of liberalisation, local governments are becoming responsible for its energy planning and supply, renewable energy sources and cogeneration became 2of a strategic interest to the Republic of Croatia, to number only the few. In 2007, Kyoto protocol has been ratified which brings additional obligations in respect of

    environmental protection. In avis of European Commission, waste management in

     1 Energy Community Treaty, OJ 06/06 2 Energy Law, OJ 68/01, 177/04

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Croatia has been reported as a largest single problem of environmental protection in 3Croatia.

    Tourism, due its property of being an “invisible export” sector, has a strong multiplier effect over the economy. Tourists boost demand for numerous goods and services, one of them being energy. Unfortunately, energy sources are scarce for most of the countries in the region. Thus, one could think of another solution to the excess demand for energy than import. Namely, for more than a decade, renewable energy sources are in the central focus of the EU energy policy with an aim to ensure security, price stability, availably and affordability of energy to its citizens together with reduction of GHG emissions and making the EU economy more competitive. Combining tourism with renewable energy sources utilisation helps reducing the spill over effect from energy import. If combined with municipal waste utilisation, it could also contribute to obligations signed with Kyoto Protocol. Given the high concentration of hotel industry along the Adriatic coast, this paper will investigate a possibility of hotel industry to help local community in energy planning by producing bioenergy from organic kitchen waste.

    This paper tries to assess the technical potential of organic waste utilisation coming from tourism and hotel industry.

    1. TOURISM IN RELATION TO ENERGY AND WASTE

    Most of the energy consumption related to tourism industry, about 90%, falls 4on energy needed for travel to and from destination while the rest of the energy

    consumption occurs in the destination itself. If looking closely to the energy consumption of destination, the largest share of energy demand is related to accommodations hotel industry. Hotels are dominantly using electricity as energy form (heating/cooling, lighting, refrigerators and coolers, lifts, escalators etc.) followed by significantly smaller share of energy forms needed for cooking and water heating 5such as liquid fuels and natural gas or coal. Croatian hotel industry follows that pattern

    where service sector is second largest consumer of electric energy in total electric 67energy demand. Occupancy rate varies from 25 to 29 percent indicating the

    seasonality of maritime tourism and its dominance as tourist profile. In that period, tourist-resident ratio is 8.4 meaning that, in average; one coastal inhabitant and 8 tourists are staying in the same destination at the same time. Given the international forecasts, Croatia has been described as a very large, most intensive and fast growing travel and tourism economy with estimated growth of 7.9 percent total tourism demand in next 10 years and current tourism industry and economy contribution of 8.5 percent 8and 19 percent, respectively. This growth should be facilitated with planning the

     3 Waste Management Strategy for the Republic of Croatia, OJ 130/05 4 EEA, Europe's environment; the fourth assessment, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007. 5 Deng, S., “Energy and water uses and their performance explanatory indicators in hotels in Hong Kong”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 35, 2000, 775-784 6 Vuk, B. et al., Energy in Croatia 2006, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship of Republic of Croatia, 2007. 7 EUROSTAT, Tourism Statistics 2007 edition, European Communities, 2007. 8 WTTC, TSA Country Reports: Croatia the 2007 Travel and Tourism Economic Research, World Travel and Tourism Council, 2007. available at: http://www.wttc.travel/bin/pdf/original_pdf_file/1croatia.pdf

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    carrying capacity of a destination not only in number of beds but also in other issues such as water, energy supply and waste management, too. The table below shows the number of overnights stay in Croatia for year 2000 and period 2003 to 2005.

    Table 1. Characteristics of tourism demand in Croatia (domestic and inbound)

    Nights spend in collective accommodation Occupancy

    rate of bed Total By residents By non-residents places Year

    as % of as % of annual in 1000 in 1000 in 1000 total total average

    2000 30 858 4 224 13,7 26 634 86,3 25%

    2003 35 246 4 263 12,1 30 983 87,9 28%

    2004 35 991 4 240 11,8 31 751 88,2 28%

    2005 37 292 4 172 11,2 33 120 88,8 29%

    2015* 40 238 4 507 11,2 35 731 88,8 29% 9*estimated growth of 7.9% and same rate of occupancy as well as distribution of residents and non-residents Source: EUROSTAT, Tourism Statistics 2007 edition, European Communities, 2007.

    The data from Table 1, especially years 2005 and 2015 will be used as basis for the further calculations.

    If assuming that residential tourist will consume the same amount of electricity as in their home, additional electric energy demand generated by foreign tourist could be estimated at 828 and 893 GWh for the years 2005 and 2015, respectively (Table 2) which is 19 and 20 percent of total electricity consumption by 10service sector in 2005.

Table 2. Electricity consumption related to foreign tourist

    Nights spent in collective Electricity consumed 1112 (25 kWh/day/guest) accommodation

    Year Total tourists By non-residents Total tourists By non-residents

    as % of in 1000 in 1000 GWh total

    2000 30 858 26 634 86 771 666

     9 WTTC, TSA Country Reports: Croatia the 2007 Travel and Tourism Economic Research, World Travel and Tourism Council, 2007. available at: http://www.wttc.travel/bin/pdf/original_pdf_file/1croatia.pdf 10 Vuk, B. et al., Energy in Croatia 2006, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship of Republic of Croatia, 2007. 11 EUROSTAT, Tourism Statistics 2007 edition, European Communities, 2007. 12 ADEME, Final ReportGreen Flag for Greener Hotels, LIFE, ENV/00038/FR Project, 06/02/2001. and ADEME, .Interim Report and Annex Green Flag for Greener Hotels, European Commission DGXI, LIFE Program,1999.

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2003 35 246 30 983 88 881 775

    2004 35 991 31 751 88 900 794

    2005 37 292 33 120 89 932 828

    2015* 40 238 35 731 89 1006 893

    *estimated growth of 7.9% Source: EIHP

    In 2006, about half of Croatian demand for energy was supplied from imports and another half from own energy sources. The structure of the total primary energy supply is shown in the Figure1. Some 63 percent are import dependent (crude oil and natural gas) while hydro power depends on the annual precipitation level. The smallest share represents emerging renewable energy sources (RES).

     Renewables Fuel wood0.11%8.50% Hydro power27.79% Crude oil18.58%

     Natural gas45.02%

     Figure 1. Shares of energy forms in total primary energy supply (2006) Source: EIHP

    Having a mix of fossil (non-renewables) and RES in national energy portfolio gives energy price stability since national energy sector is more robust to international 13energy prices changes. RES are, like tourism, site specific and, if properly planned, could bring also additional socio-economic benefits to the local community such as added value and employment.

    Biogas is one of many forms of bioenergy derived from biomass. Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide produced by bacterial degradation of organic matter in anaerobic conditions which can be used as a fuel for production of electricity and heat. Organic matter that can serve as digestate is usually coming from some other activity such agriculture, urban waste, food processing industry or any other activity that generates biodegradable organic matter. Depending on the composition of digestate used, it is possible to use the exhausted substrate after digestion as fertiliser in agriculture. In Europe, anaerobic digestion has become one of the standard

     13 Awerbuch, S., "Portfolio-Based Electricity Generation Planning: Policy Implications for Renewables and Energy Security,” SPRU, U-Sussex, working paper, 2004.

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technologies in the treatment of organic waste, where countries like Germany, 14Denmark and Austria are leading the way.

    2. WASTE MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM

    In July 2007, Croatian government has delivered Waste Management Plan for 1516period 2007 to 2015 based on the Waste Management Strategy with an aim to

    establish a self-sufficient waste management system. This is to be achieved by following the principles of sustainable development through decreasing the amount of waste occurring in general, amount of waste disposed on landfills during primary useful waste separation, share of biodegradable waste in total municipal waste disposal while minimising the negative impact of disposed waste on environment, climate and human health. Waste management should seek for utilisation of waste for energy production purposes and should be organised at national and municipal level.

    It has been estimated that total waste induced from tourism related activities 17amounts to 97 700 tons of municipal waste per year. Since waste collection fee is

    calculated per square meter of a household or spatial area of a hotel or restaurant, it is difficult to provide an exact number for municipal waste generated, let alone the share of its organic component. The figure below provides comparison of two methodologies for calculating the biodegradable component of municipal waste suitable for generating energy.

     30000

    25000

    20000

    16 036

    14 24214 06715000tons 12 493

    10000

    5000

    0touristsnon-residentsmin -1min - 2max - 1max -2average -1average -2

    Figure 2. Estimation of organic waste related to tourist overnight stays in Croatia in 2005

     14 IEA Bioenergy Task 37, http://www.iea-biogas.net/ 15 Waste Management Plan, OJ 85/07 16 Waste Management Strategy OJ 130/05 17 Waste Management Plan, OJ 85/07

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    The values designated with parameters assigned with “1” represent calculation

    of organic component according to numbers provided in the Waste management plan while those parameter designated with “2” are calculated according to the research 18made within the Intelligent Energy Europe project. It can be seen that both

    methodologies lead to similar results although European methodology provides more conservative results.

    The following figure considers the effect of forecasted growth in tourist arrivals of 7.9% until 2015 on organic waste generation by comparing the estimations for 2005.

    20000

    17 3021800016 03615 1781600014 06714000

    12000

    10000

    8000

    tons per tourists6000

    4000

    2000

    0

    2005 - 12005 - 22015 - 12015 -2

     Figure 3. Projected organic waste generation for 2015 according to the forecasted growth Source: EIHP, WTTC

    The bars are representing the average values of organic waste related to preparation and consumption of meals for tourists for years 2005 and 2015. Again, the same annotations as for Figure 2 are made for both years according to the methodology used for calculations. One could conclude that coastal municipalities apart benefiting from tourism could also have a technical potential between 14 000 and 17 000 tons of organic waste to utilise for energy purposes.

    3. RES UTILISATION AND TOURISM

     18 WIP: BiG>East- Biogas for Eastern Europe, Project number: EIE/07/214, duration 2007-2010.

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    Croatian government has set a target of 5.8 percent or 1 139 GWh as the 19minimal share of electricity generated from RES (RES-E) by year 2010. The table

    below estimates energy potential of waste generated by preparing and consuming food 20by tourists, taking the average values for anaerobic digestion of organic waste.

    Table 3. Biogas electricity generation related to organic waste coming from tourists and its corresponding shares

    RES-E generated Share in Share of total electricity from organic waste RES-E demand from tourists (tourists) target Year* % of total % of non-

    GWh tourist residents %

    demand demand

    2005 - 1 11,35 1,47% 1,70% 1,00%

    2005 - 2 12,94 1,47% 1,67% 1,14%

    2015 - 1 12,23 1,36% 1,54% 1,07%

    2015 - 2 13,96 1,50% 1,69% 1,23%

    * according to organic waste calculation methodology

    It can be seen that municipalities situated on the coast of the Adriatic Sea are having a technical potential for electricity generation from biogas of 11.35 to 12.94 GWh which is around 1.5 percent of the electricity demand originated from tourist visitations to the same area and little more over 1 percent contribution to the national target for RES-E. The electricity production is related to the occupancy rate and the period of tourist season on the Croatian coast.

    4. DISCUSSION

    Biogas production could be used for two main reasons either for decreasing

    the volume of organic waste in landfills or for production of energy. Since both energy planning and waste management are shifted to local level, a municipality could be interested in possibility of combining biogas as a way for managing municipal waste and for local energy purposes. It could be helpful to the tourism benefiting municipalities to weight the possibilities of new legislation that describes both energy and waste related issues (Table 4). New legislation on RES-E has delivered a tariff system for production of electricity from RES to encourage development of renewables market. Electricity produced from biogas is awarded with 14.20 ?c to 16.39 ?c per 21kWh of electricity produced (depending on the installed power). On the other hand,

     19 Ordinance on Minimal Subsidised Share of Electric Energy from Renewable Energy Sources and Cogeneration, OJ 33/07 20 Monnet, F., An Introduction to Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Waste - final report; Remade Scotland, 2003 21 Tariff System for Production of Electric Energy from Renewable Energy Sources and Cogeneration, OJ 33/07

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    22waste management plan estimates the costs for thermal processing and disposal of 20

    to 60 ? per ton of municipal waste (tax included) for Croatia.

    Table 4. Comparison of waste management possibilities from tourism

    Organic Annual subsidies from waste Annual cost of disposal biogas produced Year* generated

     ? ? t min max min max

    2005 - 1 14 067 - 281 331 - 843 993 + 1 999 + 2 306

    2005 - 2 16 036 - 320 711 - 962 134 + 2 278 + 2 629

    2015 - 1 15 178 - 303 556 - 910 668 + 2 156 + 2 488

    2015 - 2 17 302 - 346 047 - 1 038 142 + 2 458 + 2 837

    * according to organic waste calculation methodology

    The values provided in the table 4 are referring to the technical potential of

    organic waste coming from food preparation and consumption related to tourism with

    annual cost in case of organic waste disposal and revenues from subsidies on RES-E.

    These figures would be of interest to municipalities placed on the Adriatic coast (blue

    bars) where amounts of total disposed waste per inhabitant are all higher, except in

    Dubrovačko – neretvanska, than the national average.

    1,80

    1,60

    1,40

    1,20

    1,00Croatian average0,800.79 m3/inhabitant0,60m3 per inhabitant0,40

    0,20

    0,00

    Zagrebačka

    Krapinsko--zagorska

    Sisačko-moslavačkaMunicipalityKarlovačka VaraždinskaFigure 4. Amounts of disposed waste according to the counties in 2003 Koprivničko-križevačkaSource: Waste Management Strategy for the Republic of Croatia, OJ 130/05 Bjelovarsko-bilogorska Primorsko-goranska

    Ličko-senjska

     Virovitičko-podravska22Waste Management Strategy for the Republic of Croatia, OJ 130/05 Požeško-slavonska

    Brodsko-posavska

     8 Zadarska

    Osječko-baranjska

    Šibensko-kninska

    Vukovarsko-srijemska

    Splitsko-dalmatinska

    Istarska

    Dubrovačko-neretvanska

    Međimurska

    Grad Zagreb

    Considering that the RES utilisation is replacing the equivalent energy mix for electricity generation of Croatia, the amount of biogas electricity produced out of the 23technical potential calculated in this paper saves 3 to 4 tons of CO emissions per year. 2

    However, the larger significance lays in avoiding the greenhouse gases emissions from land-filling where methane from the organic waste (biogas plant feedstock) was utilised instead of added to the national greenhouse gases emission inventories. Using conservative parameters, biogas utilisation could save some 5 000 to 6 000 tons of COper year, although new methodology introduced by IPCC suggests figures ten 2eq 24times higher. As this paper investigates technical potential only, the intention here is to provide indicative values for GHG emissions.

    CONCLUSIONS

    So far, tourism in Croatia has not been investigated as a source for biogas production and this paper deliver its technical potential for electricity generation in respect to electricity demand induced by non-resident visitors. As such, biogas can contribute with little over 1 percent to the national target of RES-E by 2010 and about 1.5 percent of the total electricity demand generated from foreign tourists and save up to 1 million Euros per year for organic waste disposal.

    The technical potential of electricity production from biogas using organic kitchen waste originated from food preparation and consumption as anaerobic digestate indicates that those municipalities that are having tourism as integrated economic activity in their local economy, could include biogas as a way of waste and energy management policy. In addition, they could also contribute to meeting the international obligations related to environmental protection by decreasing influence of landfills on air, soil and water degradation and GHG emissions. Moreover, in tourist active areas, scenery plays an important role while tourist could reward sustainable development efforts of a destination, if properly marketed.

    However, the technical potential should be further investigated in respect of tourist concentration spots using spatial analyses as well as local possibilities to increase or/and combine the amount of feedstock considering related sources such as food processing industry, agriculture and organic kitchen waste from households. Furthermore, each municipality has different budget available as well as waste management programme and landfill properties. It would be worth investigating what are the economic, environmental and energy possibilities of investing in biogas plant where budget share designated for landfill cost will be transferred to energy investments with waste reduction potential on the local level.

    REFERENCES

     23 Jurić et al., National Inventory Report for the Period from 1990 to 2003 Inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, EKONERG, LIFE project, Zagreb, 2005. 24 Jurić et al., National Inventory Report for the Period from 1990 to 2003 Inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, EKONERG, LIFE project, Zagreb, 2005.

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ADEME, .Interim Report and Annex Green Flag for Greener Hotels, European Commission DGXI, LIFE Program,1999. ADEME, Final ReportGreen Flag for Greener Hotels, LIFE, ENV/00038/FR Project, 06/02/2001. Awerbuch, S., "Portfolio-Based Electricity Generation Planning: Policy Implications for Renewables and Energy Security,” SPRU, U-Sussex, working paper, 2004. WIP: BiG>East- Biogas for Eastern Europe, Project number: EIE/07/214, duration 2007-2010. Deng, S., “Energy and water uses and their performance explanatory indicators in hotels in Hong Kong”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 35, 2000, 775-784 EEA, Europe's environment; the fourth assessment, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007 Energy Community Treaty, OJ 06/06 Energy Law, OJ 68/01, 177/04 EUROSTAT, Tourism Statistics 2007 edition, European Communities, 2007. IEA Bioenergy Task 37, http://www.iea-biogas.net/ Jurić et al., National Inventory Report for the Period from 1990 to 2003 Inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, EKONERG, LIFE project, Zagreb, 2005. Monnet, F., An Introduction to Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Waste - final report; Remade Scotland, 2003. Ordinance on Minimal Subsidised Share of Electric Energy from Renewable Energy Sources and Cogeneration, OJ 33/07 Tariff System for Production of Electric Energy from Renewable Energy Sources and Cogeneration, OJ 33/07 Vuk, B. et al., Energy in Croatia 2006, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship of Republic of Croatia, 2007. Waste Management Plan, OJ 85/07 Waste Management Strategy for the Republic of Croatia, OJ 130/05 WTTC, TSA Country Reports: Croatia the 2007 Travel and Tourism Economic Research, World Travel and Tourism Council, 2007. available at: http://www.wttc.travel/bin/pdf/original_pdf_file/1croatia.pdf

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