United States History to 1865

By Audrey Weaver,2014-04-21 22:15
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United States History to 1865

History and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools January 2008

United States History to 1865

    Students will use skills for historical and geographical analysis to explore the early history of the United States and understand ideas and events that strengthened the union. The standards for this course relate to the history of the United States from pre-Columbian times until 1865. Students will continue to learn fundamental concepts in civics, economics, and geography as they study United States history in chronological sequence and learn about change and continuity in our history. They also will study documents and speeches that laid the foundation for American ideals and institutions and will examine the everyday life of people at different times in the country’s history through the use of primary and secondary sources.

    The study of history must emphasize the intellectual skills required for responsible citizenship. Students will practice these skills as they extend their understanding of the essential knowledge defined by all of the standards for history and social science.


    USI.1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis and responsible

    citizenship, including the ability to

    a) identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding

    of events and life in United States history to 1865;

    b) make connections between the past and the present;

    c) sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1865;

    d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;

    e) evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing;

    f) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features,

    climatic characteristics, and historical events;

    g) distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude;

    h) interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents;

    i) identify the costs and benefits of specific choices made, including the consequences, both

    intended and unintended, of the decisions and how people and nations responded to

    positive and negative incentives.


    USI.2 The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables to

    a) locate the seven continents and five oceans;

    b) locate and describe the location of the geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain,

    Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky

    Mountains, Basin and Range, and Coastal Range;

    c) locate and identify the water features important to the early history of the United States:

    Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado

    River, Rio Grande, St. Lawrence River, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico;

    d) recognize key geographic features on maps, diagrams, and/or photographs.

History and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools January 2008

Exploration to Revolution: Pre-Columbian Times to the 1770s

    USI.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by

    a) describing how archaeologists have recovered material evidence of ancient settlements,

    including Cactus Hill in Virginia.

    b) locating where the American Indians lived, with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest

    (Kwakiutl), Plains (Lakota), Southwest (Pueblo), and Eastern Woodlands (Iroquois);

    c) describing how the American Indians used the resources in their environment. USI.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of European exploration in North America and West

    Africa by

    a) describing the motivations for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French,

    Portuguese, and English explorations;

    b) describing cultural and economic interactions between Europeans and American Indians

    that led to cooperation and conflict, with emphasis on the American Indian concept of land;

    c) identifying the location and describing the characteristics of West African societies (Ghana,

    Mali, and Songhai) and their interactions with traders.

    USI.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by

    a) describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the colonization of


    b) describing life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, with emphasis on

    how people interacted with their environment to produce goods and services, including

    examples of specialization and interdependence;

    c) describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers,

    artisans, women, free African Americans, indentured servants, and enslaved African


    d) identifying the political and economic relationships between the colonies and Great Britain. Revolution and the New Nation: 1770s to the Early 1800s

    USI.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes and results of the American Revolution


    a) identifying the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution;

    b) identifying how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to

    the Declaration of Independence;

    c) describing key events and the roles of key individuals in the American Revolution, with

    emphasis on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry;

    d) explaining reasons why the colonies were able to defeat Great Britain. USI.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the challenges faced by the new nation by

    a) identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation;

    b) describing the historical development of the Constitution of the United States;

    c) describing the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.

History and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools January 2008

Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861

    USI.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of westward expansion and reform in America from

    1801 to 1861 by

    a) describing territorial expansion and how it affected the political map of the United States,

    with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the

    acquisitions of Florida, Texas, Oregon, and California;

    b) identifying the geographic and economic factors that influenced the westward movement of


    c) describing the impact of inventions, including the cotton gin, the reaper, the steamboat, and

    the steam locomotive, on life in America;

    d) identifying the main ideas of the abolitionist and women’s suffrage movements.

    Civil War: 1861 to 1865

    USI.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil

    War by

    a) describing the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation;

    b) explaining how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased sectional tensions;

    c) identifying on a map the states that seceded from the Union and those that remained in the


    d) describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee,

    Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the


    e) using maps to explain critical developments in the war, including major battles;

    f) describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers

    (including African American soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans.

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