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    ITS 2000-n-17


    Alexander A. Kozlov and Victor M. Abashev

    Moscow State Aviation Institute, 125871, Moscow, Russia

    Mickhail Bek

    Economic of the Firm Department, State University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

    Rachet N. Charafutdinov

    Fuel Cycle Safety Department of Scientific and Engineering Center for

    Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Gosatomnadzor, Moscow, Russia


     Liquid R-active waste after processing

    and concentrating atevaporated devices are Abstract

     directed in temporary depository of the liquid

     Both the concept and technical solution R-active waste of NPP. Filling degree to the A-plant waste transportation into deep depositorics of at liquid and solid waste at NPP space are developed. The cement-cesium of Russia forms average 70% [2, 3]. concentrate keeping 99% from waste R-activity, In temporary depositories NPP of Russia 3thechnology and production rate is suggested. there are 146600m of liquid R-active waste and 3Transportation means to insert the R-active 79500m of solid R-active waste total activity waste containers into LEO and that into 42000Ku and 2000Ku accordingly. Annual heliocentric orbit are determined. The concept accumulation of Russian RAW forms 4680t is based on absolute safety at any stage of the sults of LRAW and 9300t burning solid waste waste removal, economical expediency, and with total activity about 5500Ku per year. technically relizable up-to-date engineering, For protection of the humanity and production and transportation solution. enviroument from harmful influence of the

     radiation different countries choose own

     strategy of the work with R-active waste,

    Introduction. including its burial, supporting at accepted

     international principls of safety guarantee.

     In 32 countries of the world there are in

    inclustrial exploatation 437 energetic blocs of

    Nuclar Power Plant (NPP) with total electrical 1.Preparation RAW for the evacuation in power netto 351.795BW. about 35 blocs total deep space by means of space-rocket power 25.878BW in additional are at stage of technique.

    structure [1]. The part of Nuclear Energetist in

    total electrical power production in the World Because there are definite successes in constitutes (5070)%. At present in Russia 29 the area of RAW processing technologies and in energy-blocs at 9 NPP total fixed Power area of space rocket technique is possible the 21242MW are used. forming a new conception of safety humanity

     During the exploitation of NPP the and environment guarantee from harmful liquid and solid R-active waste are formed. The influence of the radiation which source are solid R-active waste of NPP in Russia are at RAW NPP. For this is necessary: temporary keeping in the special stores at the a) To process the waste with help of isolation territory of NPP. more long time radio-isotopes from RAW

    NPP, localizing 99% its in small volume of cesium concentrate 0.05m3; ampule mass

    concentrated conditional product. brutto 250kg, ampule mass netto 125kg, heat-b) To transport this conditioned and emanation in the capsule not more 25w.

    concentrated product by means space-rocket In result of projects realization from 3technique at big distance from Earth, 146600m (29320t of seals) accumulated at all

    excluding for evermore the possibility of the NPP liquid radio-active waste may obtain 28.4t

    meeting. cement-cesium concentrate with activity

     Radio-activity of the liquid radio-active 41500Ku. From yearly formed 4800t radio-waste NPP is caused in general by presence active waste seals of NPP may obtain 4.65t with 134137activity 4700Ku. Others practically non-radio-Cs and Cs (7090)%. The concentration 90906058active waste may be buring without the others radio-nuclides (Sr, Y, Co, Co, 54515911012424essential radiological risk. Mn, Cr, Fe, Ag, Sb) less at (1010)

     High-active waste, forming from NSF, times. The tritium composition in the waste

    didn’t showed at given phase of the work, forms several per cents from total activity, and 90because at present the risk of the radiation Sr not more 0.1%.

    consequences at origin of emergency situations The nuclear served fuel (NSF) in

    during the project finishing did not study Russian Federation don’t attributed to radio-

    completely. However, take into account this active waste, because it main quantity is liable

    high-active waste, the goods traffic RAW in to the processing. At present in Russian

    space in future may increase in several times [5]. Federation about 7278 ton NSF with total 9 The realization of the shown technology activity 3.5;10Ku [4] is situated at temporary

    of RAW conditioning decreases the cost of keeping.

    processing in comparison with traditional After the NSF processing are formed

    technologies thanks to significant simplification low-active, average-active and high-active

    of the work, with residual veak-active liquid waste. The high-activity liquid radio-

    component of the waste. The cost of the waste are greatest donger. Its contain not only 90137241239traditional methods of the RAW buriul is radio nuclides Sr, Cr but and Am, Pu, 2409399129237estimated in (12)% from the cost of NPP Pu, Zr, Tc, I, Np, keeping own radio

    electric power. activity during trausand-handreds thausand

     years. This waste are processed in similar-glass

     form (are verificoted). Conducted investigations

    2.The concept of NPP RAW removal. according to fructionating high-active waste

     may let infuture, after isolation from them 90131 Given concept op RAW processing is radio-nuclides Sr and Cs, decrease the

    bazed at idea of the removal its into deep space quantity high-active waste, liabled to the

    with fulfilling of the next abligatory conditions: vertification, approximately in ten times.

     Absolute safety of the removal of any If cesium accounts for main activity of

    phases of the project realization; the liquid waste, the inclucling in technological scheme of liquid radio-waste processing the Economic expediency at total expenditures; union of the seledive sorbtion let cjncentrate its Technical possifility of the reasization all

    technologicalant transpor operations at today. in 100 times, and sealed remainder transter in

    the category non-radio-active waste [3]. All cycle of the RAW removal

    expediently to separute at fife phases: The small dimension durable capsules

    from stainless steel with next chacacteristies are 1. The fabrication of the transport containers

    (the means of emergency rescue of the bloc used for the packing high-active cesium

    concentrate: the diameter 270mm, height of containers were belong here

    conditionally); 1200mm; thickness of the wall 10mm, total 3volume 0.06m, the volume of the cement-

    2. The preparation and prepacking of the Maximum distance from the Earth till

    cement-cesium concentrate; blocs with RAW containers will be 5-10 3. Containers transporttation to the start-place millions km during all life time of ASS.

    of the rocket techniqine; As energy sources of the engine devices 4. The transporttation of the accelerated block for transiton phase of the blocs with containers

    at Earth orbit LEO; at final orbit were examined:

    5. The transportation of conteiners with LEO - chemical sources of energy (LRE,

    at removal orbit. Solid Propellant Rocket Engine

     The cost all phases of this project is SPE; LRE+SPE);

    discussed in the paper [6]. Control and saferty - nuclear sources of energy (Nuclear subsistems as in emergency so and in regular Rocket Engine scheme “A”; Nuclear sutuations were included conditionally in the Energy Plant with Electro-Rocket phase transport containers fabrication. It is Engines);

    possible to belive that specific cost of the - solar energy (Solar Heat Rocket engines and elements of the acceleratied blocs, Engine).

    separation engines, soft landing bloc’s of Take into account main components of confainers and parachute system forms from 1 the given conception (safety acceptable cost, till 10 thousand $/kg and has the tendecy to the possibility realization of the project) at decrease because of use perspective combination of the priorities the accelerated technologies and economical materials. Speafic bloc at hydogen-oxigenpropellant was choosed cost recognition system of emergecy situation, =4750 m/s, m2.8 kg/kN, (P=40 kN, Jsrsr

    autonomic telemetric system and V=4000 m/s) and Solid Propellant Rocket charI

    communication service is higher at 10 times. Engine (P=60 kN, J=3100 m/s, =0.12, sreng

     The technologies of obtainung and V=500 m/s). charIprepacking of the cement0cesium concentiate Using energy-ballistic calculations and are assimilater and have tendeccy to the constructive design work main drawing of decrease. The transport expenditure will be hot accelerated bloc, head part for container blocs significant. with Raw and means of emergency rescue were

     The analysis of wide spectr transport developed.

    systems at LEO shows, that spesific cost of

    transportation has the tendency also to the 3. Economic aspects of the project R-active decrease at years and by increase of the vehicle waste removal by rocket-space means. capacity and number of launch. For this purpose

    may be used disposable carrier rockets “Proton”, Use of rocket-space means may be “Zenit” and at use international cooperation – voted economical for the solution problem most multiple-vehicles tipe Space Shuttle. danger long life-time waste, if it is possible to Perspective level of the launch cost may achieve most low (with comparison of possible corresponds 1000 $/kg. alternatives) expenses at acceptable safety level.

     During the development phase of The possibility success fuel realization of transportion RAW with LEO at final orbit the alternative solutions is not evident for the different traectories and energetic sources of present.

    rocket engine devices were shown. Two But solution problem most danger waste impulse transition at orbit of inner orbit of is necessary for continue of A-Plant artificial satellite of the Sun (ASS) with total exploitation in perspective. For preliminary velocity V=V+V=4500 m/s was choosed economic estimation of the project R-Active 2III

    as more favourable in results of analyses energy waste removal by rocket-space means is ballistic characteristics. expediently in simplified arrangement to

    compare the project expenditures (they may be

obtained with the use early fulfilled enlarged Plant explatation and without significant

    economic estimations [ ]) with possibilities of decrease their competitiveness. its financing at the expense of profit from A-Initial data accepted for comparison are

    showed in the Table 1.

     Table 1.

    Index Nomenclature Accepted value for

    Calculations in

    bases variant Quantity most danger and long life-time waste for removal m 0.2 t/BW-year with use space-rocket means in tonns 1BW at established power A-Plant at year

    The containerization coefficient (ratio total mass of k 3

    container with R-Active waste to mass waste) 3Overage total expenditures at removal container with R-C 30;10 $/kg sp

    Active waste at unit of container mass (with take into account at expenditures at removal preparation, amortization of investiment expenditures, loss from

    possible risks)

    Selling price of electro-power A-Plands P 0.1 $/Kw-h A year’s time-works found f A-Plants T 6000 h

     Expenditures at programm realization bring to Nuclear Power Engineering C in calculation at 1 BW-year of A-Plant incommensurately greater economic damage. prog

    work constitute Acceptable with position electro-power

    producer level of the ratio (3) may consider as C = m;k;C, mln. $ (1) progsp

    boundary of area, above this boundary the

    solution is substantiated economicaly (see Total income D from realization electro-power

    Fig.1). Acceptable for electro-power producer A-Plants at 1 BW-year will constitute

    volue “f” will increase with more hard

    ecological requirements and with increase D = T;P, mln. $ (2)

    prices at oil and expendifure at removal will

    decrease in result of development more Ratio “f” expenditures to income,

    effective transportation systems. This let to

    depend on expansion in future the area, where f = C/D, (3) prog

    the use of space-means will be acceptable

    economically. characterized part of income A-Plants, which

     Total expendifures at realization of the may to guarantee the programm financy of the

    project removal R-Active waste may represent waste removal.

    in form of summ investiment and operating In the base variant of the data D=600

    expenditures: mln. $, and C=18 mln. $, therefore f=0.03 prog

     and necessary expenditures C constitutes less prog

     C = C + C, (4) invoper0.3 cent at Kw-h or 3% from income value.

     Present value “f” for base variant of initial data

    Where C expenditures at investiwent stage invis no exessive for solution of sharp ecological

    of the project (includind the financing necessary problem. Aggravation of this probleme may

    Area boundaries, where use space means removal of RAW is substantiated economically (above curve)

    at Csp=10000 $/kg (perspective)10,00at Csp=30000 $/kg9,008,00at Csp=60000 $/kg7,006,005,004,003,002,001,000,00Permissible increase selling price of the 0,060,080,10,120,140,160,180,20,220,24electro-power for financing of project Sellign price of electro-power A-Plants, $/kW-hremoval RAW, persentFig 1

    science-technical developments and expenditures at preparations RAW to Cprep

    development of frastructure; removal (including fabrication of containers and C expenditues at operating: tage of the ERS; oper

    project; C - expenditures at transportation RAW to transp


     C= C+ C + C+ C - expenditures at additional acceleration oper init ear.trprep remov

     + C +C (5) RAW to the final orbit. transpremov

     The investimed expenditures may

    C expenditures at initial transformation of decrease take into accont rational international init

    waste; cooperation at the development and exloitation C expenditures at earth transportion and of technical means [ ]. This possibility is

    stacking of R-Active naste; illustrated by example in the table 2

     Table 2.

    Investimed expenditures at variants of project, with may be

    fulfilled by separated countries, mln

Content of works Russia USA Europe Japan

    Development of technology and equipment for 370 350 340 320

    preparation RAW to removal

    Development container for RAW removal with 100 140 160 170

    help of space means

    Choose launch-verticle system and it finishing 340 370 300 440

    for RAW-removal

    Development of accelerated bloc for RAW 90 190 190 250


    Development of special launch system and 430 340 380 390

    necessary elements of earth infrastructure

    Development of special means for decrease risk 200 300 250 160

    in energency situations

    Total expenditures at invertined stage by 1530 1650 1620 1730

    duplication of the works

     Total expenditures of international Energency situation at two last sparing community at investimed without international of a flight traectory is meededfor the life-saving cooperation 6530. of container’s bloc a special return vechicle

     Total expenditures by effective with corresponing thermal protection. international cooperation 1310. In the case of the engine failure of

     accelerated bloc’s it is possible use special

     If is possible to sel, that cooperation let reserve carrier-rocket wich supples at LEO the in this case decrease the investimed thermal protection bloc and fulfills earth-orbital expenditures fife times approximately. docking of this bloc with reentry vehicle. Futher

     Wthout united effors market of space-the regular Solid Rocket Propellant Engine is services will separated at segments, the size of used for the braking impulse and ERS. this segments will not let to compencate The third part of the flight traectory is investment any member of own project. presented as the most vulneable with point of

     view safety because for the return of containers

     bloc in the case of emergency situation the

    thermoprotection for the head is needed. The 4.Safety of a waste A-Plant removal.

     use thermoprotection in the composition of

     Detailed analysis of the safety removal container bloc decreases the efficiency of bloc containers with RAW let separate four transportation at LEO significantly. distinctive temporal spacing, wich are defined Constructive development of ERS let peculiarities of the transportation: calculate its mass-report for definition 1. From moment start-up emergency recovery efficiency of the removal means.

    system (ERS) till a moment of stages The probability of catastrophe during R-

    separation. Acrive waste removal must not exceed quantity -82. From moment a stagers separation till the 10. It is guaranteed with help of ERS and

    moment reaching of maximum pressure multy-reserving the most important elements of

    head. ERS and abailability of the reserve carrier-3. From moment of the reaching maximum rocket.

    pressure head till cut off last stage engine


    4. Engine failure of the accelerated bloc at

    LEO. References.

     ESR of the containers bloc includes:

    [1]. The bulletin of International Agency of the The detection system of the emergency

    Nuclear Energetics, volume 40, Num. 1, 1998, situation;

    Vienna, Austria, p.41. Rocket engine: for separation the reentry

    [2]. E.I. Vorobiov, L.A. Ulin, A.S. Belitiki and vehicle and corrier-rocket;

    others. Radiation security guarantee olt the Parachute system;

    work with R-activite waste of NPP. Nuclear Solid rocket propellant engine of the soff

    Energy, 1985, vol.58, No.2, p.113-116. landing.

    [3]. L.I. Martinovchenco, A.A. Resnik, L.P. In the case of a lanch abort situation or

    Xamianov at other. The work with R-active emergency situation at a small height of the

    waste of NPP Russian Federation. The report carrier-rocket flight (H<1000m). Solid Rocket

    introduced at International sience-practical propellant engine is used for the removal of a

    conference “Radio-ecological safety of the return vehicle at the safe height, where the

    modern civilization”. Moscow, 6-8 July 1995, parachute system operates and then soft

    Atom-press, 1996, No.5, p. 21-24. landing system.

    [4]. A.S. Polickov, G.B. Borisov. “The work with radio-active waste at radio-chemicle organizations Nuclear Energy Ministry of Russian Federation. The report, introduced at International science-practical conference “Radio-ecological safety of the modern

    civilization”. Moscow, 6-8 July, 1995. Afom-

    press, 1996, ?5, p 26-30.

    [5]. M.I. Muhamedjanov, S.V. Chekalin. Perspectives of the space isolation especially-dangerous waste of the Nuclear Energetic. Moscow. Knowledge. Series space technology and exploration, Astronomy. 1991, ?7, p 42-55.

    [6]. M.A. Bek, V.S. Ignatyev, A.A. Kozlov and others. A-Power Plant Waste Disposal in Deep Space. Aerospace MAI Journal, 1994, vol. 1, ?1, p 76-82.

    [7]. IAA-98-IAA 1.1.05. Bek M.A., Oumnikov V.V. Methods and practice of cost evaluation concerning development and manufacture of rocket objects. 49-th International Astronautical Congress, 1998, Melbourn, Australia. [8]. IAA-97-IAA 1.4.04. Bek M.A.

    International Cooperation for Realization of Promising Space Programs. Economic Aspect. 48-th International Astronautical Congress, 1997, Turin, Italy.

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