Unit One Reading
; Rugby n. [U] (also Rugby football) form of football played with oval
ball which may be kicked or carried ^ [attrib] e.g. A Rugby ball, club,
; hockey n. [U] (US usu. Field hockey) game played on a field by two
teams of eleven players each, with curved sticks and a small hard ball
^ hockey stick
; badminton n. [U] game for two or four people played with rackets
and shuttlecocks on a court with a high net
; table tennis n. [U] = Ping-pong
; title n. / name of a book, poem, picture, etc.
; signature n. (a) [C] person’s name written by himself e.g. His
signature is clear. (b) [U] action of signing something e.g. a contract
for signature ^ sign v. write one’s name e.g. Sign (your name)
; greet v. / greet somebody (with something) e.g. He greeted me in
the street with a friendly wave of the hand. greeting her guests at
the door ^ greeting n. e.g. “Hello” and “Dear Sir” are greetings.
exchange, send greetings
; whole adj. / entire; complete e.g. three whole days We drank a
whole bottle each. Tell me the whole affair/ matter/ thing. ^
wholly adv. e.g. not a wholly successful book ^ whole-hearted
adj. / without doubts or hesitation e.g. give whole-hearted support
^ whole-heartedly adv. ^ whole-sale n. [U usu. attrib] selling of
goods (esp. in large quantities) for shopkeepers for resale to the public
e.g. the whole-sale trade ^ whole-sale adj. / v.
; postal adj. / of the post postal code = postcode ^ postage n.
[U] e.g. How much is he postage for an airmail letter to Canada? ^
postage stamp n. ^ post v. (also esp. US mail) e.g. Could you
post this letter for me? They will post me the tickets/ post the
tickets to me as soon as possible.
; deliver v. / take (letters, parcels, goods, etc.) to the places or people
they are addressed to * deliver something to somebody/ something
e.g. We deliver (your order) to your door. Did you deliver my
message to my father. ^ delivery n. Your order is ready for
delivery. ^ delivery note n. ^ delivery van = delivery truck n. ; foot n. [C] (pl.) feet / measure of length: 12 inches e.g. “How tall
are you?” “Five foot nine”, i.e. Five feet and nine inches. A 6-foot
; own v. / have (something) as one’s property e.g. She owned a car
but rarely drives it. ^ owner n. ^ own adj. (used after
possessives to emphasize the idea of personal possession or the
individual character of something) e.g. This is my own house. = The
house belongs to me. = I have a house of my own. * of one’s own ^
ownerless adj. e.g. ownerless dogs ^ ownership n. e.g. the
ownership of the land
; architect n. / person who designs buildings and supervises their
constructions e.g. the architect’s plans for the new theatre ^
architecture n. ^ architectural adj.
; keen adj. (-er, -est) * keen on something/ somebody (a)
interested in something (b) fond of somebody/ something ; physics n. / (scientific study of the) properties of matter and
energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, magnetism, gravity) and the relationship
between them ^ physicist n. ^ physical adj.
; ambition n. * ambition (to be/ do something)/ strong desire to
achieve something e.g. filled with ambition to become famous, rich,
powerful, etc. ^ ambitious adj. * ambitious (to be/ do something);
ambition (for something) e.g. ambitious to succeed in life
ambitious for one’s children ^ ambitiously adv.
; enclose v. *enclose something (with something) / put something in an
envelop, letter, parcel, etc. e.g. I will enclose your letter with mine. ; meaning n. [C/ U] what is conveyed or signified; sense e.g. What’s
the meaning of the word? ^ mean v. (pt, pp meant) e.g. A
dictionary tells you what words mean. What does this sentence
; italic adj. / (of printed letters) sloping forwards e.g. This
sentence is in italic type. ^ italicize, -ise v. ^ italics n. ; all in adj. = physically tired; exhausted e.g. At the end of the race
he felt all in.
; trainer n. (usu. pl) = training shoe
; hurt v. (pt, pp hurt) e.g. Did you hurt yourself? Are you badly
hurt? ^ hurt n. * hurt to something e.g. The experience left
me with a feeling of deep hurt.
; terribly adv. / very e.g. I’m terribly sorry. ^ terrible adj.
e.g. What a terrible meal!
; idle adj. (-r, -st) = lazy e.g. an idle student ^ idle v. e.g.
Stop idling and help me clean up. ^ idler n.
; tidy v. (pt, pp tidied) e.g. You’d better tidy this room (up) before
the guests come. ^ tidy adj. (-ier, -iest) e.g. a tidy room ^
; inaudible adj. / not loud enough to be heard e.g. speak in an almost
inaudible voice ^ inaudibly adv.
; boring adj. = uninteresting; dull; tedious e.g. a boring conversation,
book, job, party ^ bore v. e.g. I’m bored; Let’s go to the cinema.
^ bore n. e.g. Don’t be such a bore.
; toy n. ^ toy adj. e.g. a toy car
; machine n. e.g. a sewing-machine a washing machine ^
machine v. e.g. I have to machine the clothes. ^ machinist n. ; less than e.g. I read much less now than I did at school. ; actually adv. / really; in fact e.g. What did he actually say?
Actually, I’m busy at the moment, can I phone you back? ^ actual
adj. What were his actual words?
; mention n. 1 [U] reference to somebody/ something (in speech or
writing) e.g. He made no mention of your request. 2 [C] act of
mentioning; brief reference e.g. Did the concert get a mention in the
paper? ^ mention v. e.g. mention something/ somebody ( as
something); mention something/ somebody (to somebody) e.g. Did
she mention it (to the police)? Did she mention when she would come?
* Don’t mention it. = That’s all right. = It’s my pleasure.
; geography n. [U] scientific study of the earth’s surface, physical
features, divisions, climate, products, population, etc. ^ geographical
adj. e.g. geographical research ^ geographically adv. ; probably adv. / almost certainly e.g. He will probably become a
famous actor. ^ probable adj. ^ probability n. e.g. There
is little probability of his succeeding/ that he will succeed.
Unit Two Listening
; describe v. / say what somebody or something is like e.g. Words
cannot describe the beauty of the scene. ^ description n. e.g.
He is not good at description. ^ descriptive adj. e.g. a
descriptive passage in a novel ^ descriptively adv.
; length n. [U] e.g. a river 300 miles in length ^ lengthen v.
e.g. The days start to lengthen in March. ^ lengthy adj. = very long
(-ier, iest) e.g. lengthy speeches
; birth n. e.g. The baby weighed seven pounds at birth. ^
; conversation n. * conversation (with somebody) (about something)
e.g. have a quiet conversation with a friend ^ conversational adj.
e.g. her limited conversational powers ^ conversationalist n.
Unit Three Language
; question v. e.g. I was questioned by the police for six hours. ^
question n. ^ questioner n. * out of the question = impossible ; column n. e.g. Each passage of this dictionary has two columns of
text. ^ columnist n. / journalist who regularly writes an article
commenting on politics, current events, etc for a newspaper or
; necessary adj. e.g. We haven’t got the necessary tools. ^
necessaries n. / things needed for living ^ necessity n. *
necessity for something/ to do something e.g. He felt a great
necessity to talk about his problems.
; Shorten v. e.g. The days are beginning to shorten, e.g. in autumn.
^ shortly adv. = in a short time; not long; soon e.g. coming shortly
^ short adj. ^ shortage n. e.g. a shortage of rice ; form n. 1 [C/U] outward physical appearance of somebody/
something; shape e.g. her slender graceful form 2 [C] specific
type of arrangement or structure of something; manner in which
something exists or appears; kind or variety e.g. the form of
marriage service 3 [U] general structure or arrangement of
something created such as a musical composition or piece of writing, in
contrast to its content e.g. literature form (other meaning refers
to the dictionary)
; begin v. (-nn-; pt began, pp begun) e.g. begin work, a meeting ^
beginning n. e.g. I miss the beginning of the film. ^ beginner
; consonant n. / a, speech sound produced by completely or partially
obstructing the air being breathed out through the mouth b, letter
of the alphabet or phonetic symbol for such a sound: b, c, d, f, etc. ; vowel n. / a, speech-sound made without audible stopping of the
breath by the tongue, lips, etc. b, letter or letters used to
represent such a sound, e.g. a e, I, o, u, ee, oa.
; actress n. ^act n. / v. e.g. act well ^ action n. e.g. You
must judge a person by his action, not by what he says.
; recently adv. / not long ago or before; lately e.g. a recently
painted house ^ recent adj. e.g. In recent years there have
been many changes.
; Recently has the widest use, in positive and negative statements and
questions, with the past tense and the present tense. e.g. Did she
have a party recently? They’ve recently bought a new car. ^ Not
long ago is only used in positive statements with the verb in the past
tense. e.g. They arrived in Britain not long ago/ recently. ^ Lately
is used in questions and negative statements. In positive statements it
is used generally with “only, much, a lot” e.g. Have you seen him
lately/ recently? She only lately/ recently began her work here.
I’ve seen her a lot of her lately/ recently.
; move v. / change residence * move (from …) ( to …) e.g. The
neighbors moved in yesterday. ^ movement n. e.g. Lie still
without (making) any movement ^ moveable adj. ^ moving adj.
e.g. a moving staircase
Unit Four Speaking
; arrow n. ^ arrowhead n.
; such as = for example
; practice v. / do something repeatedly e.g. She needs to practice
her English. ^ practiced adj. = experienced ^ practice n.
e.g. an hour’s practice every day
; express v. / show or make known (a feeling, an opinion, etc.) by words,
looks, actions, etc. * express something (to somebody) e.g. The
guests expressed their thanks before leaving. * express oneself
e.g. He is still unable to express himself in English. ^ expression n.
[U] e.g. The scenery is beautiful beyond expression. [C] / look on
face that shows a person’s a mood or feelings e.g. happy expression
^ expressionless adj. / not showing feelings, thoughts, etc. e.g. an
expressionless face, voice, tone, etc. ^ expressive adj. e.g. an
; similar adj. / alike * similar (to somebody/ something) e.g. The
brothers look very similar. ^ similarly adv. e.g. The boys dress
similarly. ^ similarity n. [U] points of similarity between the two
men [C] similarities in age and background
; introduce v. * introduce somebody to somebody e.g. Allow me to
introduce my sister. ^ introduction n. [C/ U] e.g. a person who
needs no introduction
; obtain v. = get e.g. Where can I obtain the copy of her latest book?
^ obtainable adj. e.g. no longer obtainable
Unit Five Using language
; reference n. 1 act of referring [U] * reference to somebody/
something e.g. Avoid (making) any reference to his illness. 2
statement, etc speaking of or mentioning somebody/ something [C] e.g.
The book is full of references to places I know. * reference book
^ refer v. (-rr-) * refer to somebody/ something e.g. Don’t refer
to this matter again.
; encyclopedia n. / book or set of books giving information about every
branch of knowledge, or about one particular subject, with articles in
alphabetical order ^ encyclopedic adj.
; directory n. / (book with a) list of telephone subscribers, business
firms, etc of an area, or members of a profession, etc, usu. arranged
; alphabetical adj. / in the order of alphabet ^ alphabet n. ^
; arrange v. e.g. arrange the books on the shelves * arrange for
somebody/ something (to do something) e.g. I’ve arranged for a car
(to meet you at the airport). ^ arrangement n. e.g. Can I leave
the arrangement of the tables to you? A plan of seating
arrangements * arrangement (about/ for something) e.g. He’s
responsible for all the travel arrangements.
; social adj. e.g. social problem ^ socially adv. e.g. I know
him through, but not socially. ^ sociable adj. = friendly ^
socialism n. ^ socialist n. ^ society n.