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words of oxford 8a

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words of oxford 8a

Chapter One

    Unit One Reading

    ; Rugby n. [U] (also Rugby football) form of football played with oval

    ball which may be kicked or carried ^ [attrib] e.g. A Rugby ball, club,

    match, player

    ; hockey n. [U] (US usu. Field hockey) game played on a field by two

    teams of eleven players each, with curved sticks and a small hard ball

    ^ hockey stick

    ; badminton n. [U] game for two or four people played with rackets

    and shuttlecocks on a court with a high net

    ; table tennis n. [U] = Ping-pong

    ; title n. / name of a book, poem, picture, etc.

    ; signature n. (a) [C] persons name written by himself e.g. His

    signature is clear. (b) [U] action of signing something e.g. a contract

    for signature ^ sign v. write ones name e.g. Sign (your name)

    here, please.

    ; greet v. / greet somebody (with something) e.g. He greeted me in

    the street with a friendly wave of the hand. greeting her guests at

    the door ^ greeting n. e.g. Hello and Dear Sir are greetings.

    exchange, send greetings

    ; whole adj. / entire; complete e.g. three whole days We drank a

    whole bottle each. Tell me the whole affair/ matter/ thing. ^

    wholly adv. e.g. not a wholly successful book ^ whole-hearted

    adj. / without doubts or hesitation e.g. give whole-hearted support

    ^ whole-heartedly adv. ^ whole-sale n. [U usu. attrib] selling of

    goods (esp. in large quantities) for shopkeepers for resale to the public

    e.g. the whole-sale trade ^ whole-sale adj. / v.

    ; postal adj. / of the post postal code = postcode ^ postage n.

    [U] e.g. How much is he postage for an airmail letter to Canada? ^

    postage stamp n. ^ post v. (also esp. US mail) e.g. Could you

    post this letter for me? They will post me the tickets/ post the

    tickets to me as soon as possible.

    ; deliver v. / take (letters, parcels, goods, etc.) to the places or people

    they are addressed to * deliver something to somebody/ something

    e.g. We deliver (your order) to your door. Did you deliver my

    message to my father. ^ delivery n. Your order is ready for

    delivery. ^ delivery note n. ^ delivery van = delivery truck n. ; foot n. [C] (pl.) feet / measure of length: 12 inches e.g. How tall

    are you? Five foot nine, i.e. Five feet and nine inches. A 6-foot

    high wall

    ; own v. / have (something) as ones property e.g. She owned a car

    but rarely drives it. ^ owner n. ^ own adj. (used after

    possessives to emphasize the idea of personal possession or the

    individual character of something) e.g. This is my own house. = The

    house belongs to me. = I have a house of my own. * of ones own ^

    ownerless adj. e.g. ownerless dogs ^ ownership n. e.g. the

    ownership of the land

    ; architect n. / person who designs buildings and supervises their

    constructions e.g. the architects plans for the new theatre ^

    architecture n. ^ architectural adj.

    ; keen adj. (-er, -est) * keen on something/ somebody (a)

    interested in something (b) fond of somebody/ something ; physics n. / (scientific study of the) properties of matter and

    energy (e.g. heat, light, sound, magnetism, gravity) and the relationship

    between them ^ physicist n. ^ physical adj.

    ; ambition n. * ambition (to be/ do something)/ strong desire to

    achieve something e.g. filled with ambition to become famous, rich,

    powerful, etc. ^ ambitious adj. * ambitious (to be/ do something);

    ambition (for something) e.g. ambitious to succeed in life

    ambitious for one’s children ^ ambitiously adv.

    ; enclose v. *enclose something (with something) / put something in an

    envelop, letter, parcel, etc. e.g. I will enclose your letter with mine. ; meaning n. [C/ U] what is conveyed or signified; sense e.g. Whats

    the meaning of the word? ^ mean v. (pt, pp meant) e.g. A

    dictionary tells you what words mean. What does this sentence

    mean?

    ; italic adj. / (of printed letters) sloping forwards e.g. This

    sentence is in italic type. ^ italicize, -ise v. ^ italics n. ; all in adj. = physically tired; exhausted e.g. At the end of the race

    he felt all in.

    ; trainer n. (usu. pl) = training shoe

    ; hurt v. (pt, pp hurt) e.g. Did you hurt yourself? Are you badly

    hurt? ^ hurt n. * hurt to something e.g. The experience left

    me with a feeling of deep hurt.

    ; terribly adv. / very e.g. Im terribly sorry. ^ terrible adj.

    e.g. What a terrible meal!

    ; idle adj. (-r, -st) = lazy e.g. an idle student ^ idle v. e.g.

    Stop idling and help me clean up. ^ idler n.

    ; tidy v. (pt, pp tidied) e.g. Youd better tidy this room (up) before

    the guests come. ^ tidy adj. (-ier, -iest) e.g. a tidy room ^

    tidily adv.

    ; inaudible adj. / not loud enough to be heard e.g. speak in an almost

    inaudible voice ^ inaudibly adv.

    ; boring adj. = uninteresting; dull; tedious e.g. a boring conversation,

    book, job, party ^ bore v. e.g. Im bored; Lets go to the cinema.

    ^ bore n. e.g. Don’t be such a bore.

    ; toy n. ^ toy adj. e.g. a toy car

    ; machine n. e.g. a sewing-machine a washing machine ^

    machine v. e.g. I have to machine the clothes. ^ machinist n. ; less than e.g. I read much less now than I did at school. ; actually adv. / really; in fact e.g. What did he actually say?

    Actually, Im busy at the moment, can I phone you back? ^ actual

    adj. What were his actual words?

    ; mention n. 1 [U] reference to somebody/ something (in speech or

    writing) e.g. He made no mention of your request. 2 [C] act of

    mentioning; brief reference e.g. Did the concert get a mention in the

    paper? ^ mention v. e.g. mention something/ somebody ( as

    something); mention something/ somebody (to somebody) e.g. Did

    she mention it (to the police)? Did she mention when she would come?

    * Dont mention it. = Thats all right. = Its my pleasure.

    ; geography n. [U] scientific study of the earths surface, physical

    features, divisions, climate, products, population, etc. ^ geographical

    adj. e.g. geographical research ^ geographically adv. ; probably adv. / almost certainly e.g. He will probably become a

    famous actor. ^ probable adj. ^ probability n. e.g. There

    is little probability of his succeeding/ that he will succeed.

Unit Two Listening

    ; describe v. / say what somebody or something is like e.g. Words

    cannot describe the beauty of the scene. ^ description n. e.g.

    He is not good at description. ^ descriptive adj. e.g. a

    descriptive passage in a novel ^ descriptively adv.

    ; length n. [U] e.g. a river 300 miles in length ^ lengthen v.

    e.g. The days start to lengthen in March. ^ lengthy adj. = very long

    (-ier, iest) e.g. lengthy speeches

    ; birth n. e.g. The baby weighed seven pounds at birth. ^

    birthplace n.

    ; conversation n. * conversation (with somebody) (about something)

    e.g. have a quiet conversation with a friend ^ conversational adj.

    e.g. her limited conversational powers ^ conversationalist n.

Unit Three Language

    ; question v. e.g. I was questioned by the police for six hours. ^

    question n. ^ questioner n. * out of the question = impossible ; column n. e.g. Each passage of this dictionary has two columns of

    text. ^ columnist n. / journalist who regularly writes an article

    commenting on politics, current events, etc for a newspaper or

    magazine

    ; necessary adj. e.g. We havent got the necessary tools. ^

    necessaries n. / things needed for living ^ necessity n. *

    necessity for something/ to do something e.g. He felt a great

    necessity to talk about his problems.

    ; Shorten v. e.g. The days are beginning to shorten, e.g. in autumn.

    ^ shortly adv. = in a short time; not long; soon e.g. coming shortly

    ^ short adj. ^ shortage n. e.g. a shortage of rice ; form n. 1 [C/U] outward physical appearance of somebody/

    something; shape e.g. her slender graceful form 2 [C] specific

    type of arrangement or structure of something; manner in which

    something exists or appears; kind or variety e.g. the form of

    marriage service 3 [U] general structure or arrangement of

    something created such as a musical composition or piece of writing, in

    contrast to its content e.g. literature form (other meaning refers

    to the dictionary)

    ; begin v. (-nn-; pt began, pp begun) e.g. begin work, a meeting ^

    beginning n. e.g. I miss the beginning of the film. ^ beginner

    n.

    ; consonant n. / a, speech sound produced by completely or partially

    obstructing the air being breathed out through the mouth b, letter

    of the alphabet or phonetic symbol for such a sound: b, c, d, f, etc. ; vowel n. / a, speech-sound made without audible stopping of the

    breath by the tongue, lips, etc. b, letter or letters used to

    represent such a sound, e.g. a e, I, o, u, ee, oa.

    ; actress n. ^act n. / v. e.g. act well ^ action n. e.g. You

    must judge a person by his action, not by what he says.

    ; recently adv. / not long ago or before; lately e.g. a recently

    painted house ^ recent adj. e.g. In recent years there have

    been many changes.

    ; Recently has the widest use, in positive and negative statements and

    questions, with the past tense and the present tense. e.g. Did she

    have a party recently? Theyve recently bought a new car. ^ Not

    long ago is only used in positive statements with the verb in the past

    tense. e.g. They arrived in Britain not long ago/ recently. ^ Lately

    is used in questions and negative statements. In positive statements it

    is used generally with only, much, a lot e.g. Have you seen him

    lately/ recently? She only lately/ recently began her work here.

    Ive seen her a lot of her lately/ recently.

    ; move v. / change residence * move (from ) ( to ) e.g. The

    neighbors moved in yesterday. ^ movement n. e.g. Lie still

    without (making) any movement ^ moveable adj. ^ moving adj.

    e.g. a moving staircase

Unit Four Speaking

    ; arrow n. ^ arrowhead n.

    ; such as = for example

    ; practice v. / do something repeatedly e.g. She needs to practice

    her English. ^ practiced adj. = experienced ^ practice n.

    e.g. an hours practice every day

    ; express v. / show or make known (a feeling, an opinion, etc.) by words,

    looks, actions, etc. * express something (to somebody) e.g. The

    guests expressed their thanks before leaving. * express oneself

    e.g. He is still unable to express himself in English. ^ expression n.

    [U] e.g. The scenery is beautiful beyond expression. [C] / look on

    face that shows a persons a mood or feelings e.g. happy expression

    ^ expressionless adj. / not showing feelings, thoughts, etc. e.g. an

    expressionless face, voice, tone, etc. ^ expressive adj. e.g. an

    expressive face

    ; similar adj. / alike * similar (to somebody/ something) e.g. The

    brothers look very similar. ^ similarly adv. e.g. The boys dress

    similarly. ^ similarity n. [U] points of similarity between the two

    men [C] similarities in age and background

    ; introduce v. * introduce somebody to somebody e.g. Allow me to

    introduce my sister. ^ introduction n. [C/ U] e.g. a person who

    needs no introduction

    ; obtain v. = get e.g. Where can I obtain the copy of her latest book?

    ^ obtainable adj. e.g. no longer obtainable

Unit Five Using language

    ; reference n. 1 act of referring [U] * reference to somebody/

    something e.g. Avoid (making) any reference to his illness. 2

    statement, etc speaking of or mentioning somebody/ something [C] e.g.

    The book is full of references to places I know. * reference book

    ^ refer v. (-rr-) * refer to somebody/ something e.g. Don’t refer

    to this matter again.

    ; encyclopedia n. / book or set of books giving information about every

    branch of knowledge, or about one particular subject, with articles in

    alphabetical order ^ encyclopedic adj.

    ; directory n. / (book with a) list of telephone subscribers, business

    firms, etc of an area, or members of a profession, etc, usu. arranged

    alphabetically

    ; alphabetical adj. / in the order of alphabet ^ alphabet n. ^

    alphabetically adv.

    ; arrange v. e.g. arrange the books on the shelves * arrange for

    somebody/ something (to do something) e.g. Ive arranged for a car

    (to meet you at the airport). ^ arrangement n. e.g. Can I leave

    the arrangement of the tables to you? A plan of seating

    arrangements * arrangement (about/ for something) e.g. Hes

    responsible for all the travel arrangements.

    ; social adj. e.g. social problem ^ socially adv. e.g. I know

    him through, but not socially. ^ sociable adj. = friendly ^

    socialism n. ^ socialist n. ^ society n.

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