AFB Recipes / Brine

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AFB Recipes / BrineAFB

    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine


Ready For Brine Time

    Salt and spices put old-fashioned flavor back into modern meats

    Janet Fletcher, Chronicle Staff Writer

This article is from the March 25, 1998 San Francisco Chronicle.

    Posted By: Ed Pawlowski, Nov 06, 2002

    Have you had it with tasteless, juiceless pork chops and sawdust chicken breasts? Many professional cooks have, too, which is why they're turning to an age-old technique to restore the flavor and moistness that many meats used to have naturally.

    In a growing number of restaurant and home kitchens, brining is putting the juice back into pork chops and at least some taste back into factory-raised chickens. By soaking the meat for hours or days in a seasoned salt-water solution, cooks find that they can transform lean pork and poultry with minimal cost and effort.

    "This brining, it's become an urban legend," says Pam Anderson, Cook's Illustrated executive editor who has written about brining for the magazine and jokingly calls herself "the brine queen." Anderson once roasted more than 30 turkeys to find the best cooking method, settling on an overnight brine as an essential first step. "Every time we do a poultry story now," says Anderson, "we find that salt is the answer."

    With brines, cooks like Anderson are trying to compensate for the shortcomings of modern animal husbandry. Chickens raised to market weight quickly on carefully formulated feed don't have the flavor of those old-time barnyard hunt and peckers. Nor does pork have the taste appeal it used to. Bred for leanness to accommodate contemporary concerns about fat, American pigs are 50 to 70 percent leaner than they were 20 years ago, says East Bay sausage maker Bruce Aidells. Fat, whatever its other failings, contributes moisture and flavor.

    "When they decided to market pork as the new lean white meat, they completely ruined the product," complains Nancy Oakes, chef at Boulevard in San Francisco (and Aidells' wife). "If you cook pork loin at home, you end up with this hard, dry, very lean white meat."

    In response, Oakes began brining pork several years ago at L'Avenue, her former San Francisco restaurant. At Boulevard, a spit-roasted pork loin, brined for four days, is a menu fixture, and brined turkey breast with applesauce is a favorite staff meal.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

    Aidells, too, is a brining convert. His forthcoming book on meat, due this fall from Chapters Publishing, will include a small treatise on the practice. "To be honest with you," says the meat maven, "unless you're really careful, it's damn near impossible to produce a decent pork chop without brine."

    The succulent cider-cured pork chop at San Francisco's 42 Degrees testifies to brining's merits. Chef Jim Moffatt swears by the technique, not only because it infuses the meat with flavor but because it gives the kitchen a larger margin of error. A brined chop will stay moist even if it's cooked a little too long.

    By what mechanism does a little salt water work such magic? "It's our old friend osmosis," says Harold McGee, the Palo Alto specialist in the science of cooking. "If there's more of a diffusable chemical in one place than another, it tries to even itself out."

    Because there's more salt in the brine than in the meat, the muscle absorbs the salt water. There, the salt denatures the meat proteins, causing them to unwind and form a matrix that traps the water. And if the brine includes herbs, garlic, juniper berries or peppercorns, those flavors are trapped in the meat, too. Instead of seasoning on the surface only, as most cooks do, brining carries the seasonings throughout.

    Aidells calls this technique "flavor brining" -- done not for preservation (which would require a saltier solution and longer immersion) but for enhancing texture and taste. Even a couple of hours in a brine will improve bland Cornish game hens, says Anderson, or give chicken parts a flavor boost before deep-frying or grilling.

    Brines vary considerably from chef to chef, as do recommended brining times. But generally speaking, the saltier the brine, the shorter the required stay. And, logically, the brine will penetrate a Cornish game hen or duck breast much faster than it will penetrate a thick muscle like a whole pork loin or turkey breast. Meat left too long in a brine tastes over seasoned and the texture is compromised, producing a soggy or mushy quality.

    Most cooks start their brine with hot water, which dissolves the salt and draws out the flavor in the herbs and spices. But they caution that the brine should be completely cold before adding the meat or it will absorb too much salt.

    By playing around with the liquid base and the seasonings, chefs give their brine personality. Some use apple juice or beer for some or all of the water. The smoked turkey that Jeff Starr of Stags' Leap Winery produced for a food editors' conference in Napa Valley last year was brined in orange juice, rice wine vinegar and apple cider vinegar; some who tasted it swore they would never cook a turkey any other way again.

    Seasonings can run the gamut from thyme, rosemary, bay leaf and garlic to cinnamon stick, star anise or vanilla. Many cooks put some sugar in their brine to sweeten the meat and make it brown better when cooked. Others avoid sugar, arguing that it makes everything taste like ham.

    Whatever their recipe, brining advocates keep looking for other uses for their favorite technique. Anderson says some people brine shrimp for half an hour; she herself has begun soaking chicken parts in salted buttermilk before frying to get the benefits of brine with the tenderizing effect of the buttermilk. If cooks like Anderson and Aidells continue to preach the gospel of brining, diners can kiss sawdust chicken goodbye.


Here are some tips to start you in the brining business:

     A heavy-duty plastic tub, earthenware crock, stainless-steel bowl or even a re-sealable plastic bag can

    work as a brining container as long as the meat is fully submerged. Weight with a plate if necessary to

    keep the meat fully covered by brine.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

     To determine how much brine you'll need, place the meat to be brined in your chosen container. Add

    water to cover. Remove the meat and measure the water.

     Start your brine with hot water to dissolve the salt (and sugar if using) and to draw the flavor out of

    any herbs and spices. Chill brine completely in the refrigerator before adding meat.

     Although some cooks prefer lighter or heavier brines, 1 cup of salt per gallon of water is a happy

    medium. Use kosher salt that has no additives.

     Experiment with seasonings. Salt is essential, but everything else is optional. Consider garlic, ginger,

    fresh herbs, juniper berries, clove, cinnamon stick, vanilla bean, mustard seed, coriander seed, star

    anise, hot pepper flakes or Sichuan peppercorns. To give pork a sweet edge and encourage browning,

    add 1/2-cup sugar to each 2 quarts of water.

     You don't need to rinse meat after you remove it from the brine unless the brine is highly salted (more

    than 1-cup salt per gallon).

Don't salt brined meat before cooking; it is already salted throughout.

Don't reuse brine.


    The thickness of the muscle, the strength of the brine and your own taste determine how long to brine an item. For a moderately strong brine (1 cup salt to 1-gallon water), the following brining times are rough guidelines. If you aren't ready to cook at the end of the brining time, remove the meat from the brine, but keep the meat refrigerated.

Shrimp: 30 minutes

    Whole chicken: (4 pounds): 8 to 12 hours

    Chicken parts: 1-1/2 hours

    Cornish game hens: 2 hours

    Turkey (12 to 14 pounds): 24 hours

    Pork chops (1-1/4 to 1-1/2 inch thick): 1 to 2 days

    Whole pork tenderloin: 12 hours

    Whole pork loin: 2 to 4 days

Bird Brine

    By Russ Parsons, Los Angeles Times Deputy Food Editor

Posted By: Alan Zelt, May 09, 2001

    If someone told you to go soak your bird, you might take offense. But it could be the best cooking advice you've ever gotten.

    Brining - essentially soaking meat or poultry in a solution of salt and cold water - has long been used as a preliminary step in smoking. It flavors the meat and also plumps it, giving it the needed moisture to withstand the long, slow, dry cooking that the smoking process involves.

    But what's good for the smoker is also good for the roaster - and for the grill too. Campanile's Mark Peel figures he brines about 100 turkeys a year before roasting them at his restaurant. Most wind up in sandwiches at lunch.

    "We started brining the turkeys about three years ago and, to tell you the truth, I can't remember why," he says. "My sense, in an unscientific way, is that it gives a tenderness to the meat.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

    "That's especially necessary with turkeys. With the turkeys you buy, even the organic ones, the breast meat is pretty dry. That's because they've been bred for big breasts. The white meat has very little blood circulation and very little fat in it. But if you brine it and roast it properly, it doesn't turn out dry."

    There's a very good reason for that, according to Alan Sams, an associate professor of poultry science at Texas A&M University. Sams, who has published several papers on brining poultry, says it's basically an electric thing.

    "What is happening is that salt [the chloride part more than the sodium] penetrates into the muscle," Sams says. "The charged ions cause the muscle fibers to swell, and that sucks in even more water. It also binds the water to other protein, meaning the meat holds more water during cooking. That's what causes the juiciness effect.

    "The three big benefits I've seen are increased juiciness, better flavor because of the saltiness and improved tenderness," Sams continues. "Brining generally creates a looser protein network. It's the discharge propulsion - the negative ions repelling each other and loosening the muscle fibers."

    All of this was documented in a 1977 paper by five scientists from the University of Florida. They compared roast chickens that had been brined, chickens that had been soaked in plain ice water and chickens that had not been treated.

    They found that the brined chickens scored much higher with testers in terms of flavor and tested better for juiciness and tenderness (the difference in tenderness was much greater for white meat than for dark). Microbial testing also showed slightly lower populations of various bacteria in the brined chicken than in the others.

    I knew none of that the first time I tried brining. Having read something about it somewhere, last summer on a whim I tried soaking some cut-up chicken in a weak brine (a couple of tablespoons of salt to about a quart of water) for an hour or so before grilling. The results were decidedly favorable. The chicken was plumper and juicier, had real seasoned flavor throughout and didn't scorch nearly as quickly.

    As the holidays approached, I thought I'd try brining my turkey. I started small, running through a few roast chickens before stepping up in class. I wound up with a brine of about 2/3 cup of salt to a gallon of water - about a 5% saline solution. If you're going to smoke your bird, it can handle a more forceful brine. Try using a full cup of salt per gallon - that's about 7%.

    I tried concentrations from 10% down to 2%, and the main difference was in the amount of saltiness - the texture was improved even with a fairly weak brine. Incidentally, if you're worried about sodium intake, remember that the meat absorbs only 10% to 15% of the brine - roughly 1 to 1-1/2 tablespoons of salt per turkey.

    When Thanksgiving arrived, I took the plunge - and so did my bird. Finding a bath big enough to brine a 14-pound turkey can be a bit of a bother. (And so can clearing enough space in the refrigerator to store it.) I ended up using the biggest stockpot I had, and a plain 5% salt-and-water brine. I turned the bird occasionally to make sure it was evenly cured.

    After six hours, I removed the turkey from the brine and dried it. Then I returned it to the refrigerator in the empty stockpot to dry further overnight. I wanted it to have a nice crisp skin something that's difficult to

    achieve if there's much moisture present.

    The next day I stuffed the turkey and roasted it in my usual way - 450º F for the first 45 minutes, then 325º F until a thermometer registered 160º F when poked in the fat part of the thigh. (The USDA recommendation of 180º F, by the way, allows considerable margin of error. With a 20-minute rest, a 160º F turkey will reach 170º F - more than enough to kill any bacteria.) When I checked the temperature of the stuffing, it was still a little cool, so - mindful of the danger of salmonella I returned the turkey to the oven

    until the stuffing reached 160º F.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

    The turkey was puffed, bronzed and gleaming. And unlike most roast turkeys, this one did not deflate in the 20 minutes between roasting and carving. It retained its swollen grandeur all the way to the table.

    When I carved the breast meat, I noticed another peculiar thing: The white meat had developed that somewhat thready appearance you get when you overcook the breast meat (the result, no doubt, of waiting for the stuffing to get safe). Usually that means dry meat that crumbles when carved. But in this case, the slices held their shape perfectly and the meat was moist and tender.

    What's more, the meat was nicely seasoned throughout. Cold, the next day, it made terrific sandwiches - even the parts closest to the bone, which normally taste bland and under-seasoned.

    Coincidentally, Judy Rodgers of San Francisco's Zuni Cafe tried her first brined turkey this year. Rodgers is a big fan of salt and uses what she describes as a "dry brine" on most of the meat dishes at her restaurant, including her famous roast chicken. She salts the meat dishes the normal way, only she does it hours (or even a day) before cooking.

    "Most of the salt that goes on food in this restaurant goes on before you wake up in the morning," she says. "It's something I learned from a restaurant I worked at in Paris. The matriarch would always say, 'Put a little salt on it and let it rest.' It makes the meat more succulent. I don't know exactly how it does it, but it changes it - and it changes it in a way that I like."

    This Thanksgiving, however, Rodgers decided a real wet-brine was in order. "That sure was good," she says. "I used my classic brine for pork chops: 2 parts salt to 1 part sugar mixed in water. For my turkey, I cut back a little further on the sugar to more like 4 to 1. Poultry and sugar is not a big hit to me, but a little sweetness is OK.

    "I put the turkey in the brine on the Friday before Thanksgiving, then took it out Tuesday night and rinsed it real well, then dried it and let it sit a day before roasting. I've found that when you brine big meats, the taste is more even if you let it rest a day before cooking. If you pull it straight out of the brine and roast it, it's not as tender, and the surface of the meat will be too aggressively salty. If you let it relax and stabilize, it generalizes the degree of brininess throughout."

    Of course, brining is nothing new. Until recently, smoked meats were very heavily brined (meat processing textbooks give formulas of 12% to 15% salt). And there is an old Welsh dish called salted duck in which a bird is dry-salted for three days before being slowly poached, starting in cold water. Not exactly brining, but the same principles might be in effect.

    Although my brine was a simple salt-water solution, Peel and Rodgers used a combination of spices and herbs for additional flavor. Sugar is a component of many brines.

    Arthur Maurer, a professor of poultry product technology at the University of Wisconsin who has done a lot of work with smoked poultry says sugar does three things for a brine: "First, it's a flavoring; it helps mellow out the saltiness. It also helps with browning, especially if there's some left on the surface. It can also help with the ionic strength of the brine, helping the meat take up more of the moisture."

    And because most dried herbs and spices are water soluble, their flavor will penetrate the meat as well. Using fresh herbs and garlic probably won't have much of an effect, though. Besides, even a turkey wouldn't want to take a bath in garlic.

Roast Brined Turkey

    You can substitute Mark Peel's brine recipe for this or develop one of your own. The important guideline is 2/3 cup salt to 1 gallon water. After that, feel free to play with seasonings to your taste, though be aware that some dried spices, such as cloves and bay leaves, are very powerfully flavored and should be used cautiously.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

    Basic Brine

2/3 cup Salt

    1 gallon Water

    12 to 14 lb. Turkey

    Combine salt and water and stir until salt dissolves. Pour brine over turkey in pot just large enough to hold both. If turkey is completely covered, don't worry about using all of brine. Cover with foil and refrigerate 6 hours or overnight, turning 2 or 3 times to make sure turkey is totally submerged.

    Remove turkey from brine and pat dry with paper towels. Refrigerate, unwrapped, 6 hours or overnight.

    Place turkey on its side on rack in shallow roasting pan. Roast at 450º F 15 minutes. Turn turkey to other side and roast another 15 minutes. Turn breast-side up and roast another 15 minutes.

    Reduce heat to 325º F and roast until meat thermometer inserted in center of thickest part of thigh registers 160º F to 165º F, about 2 hours. Remove from oven and set aside 20 minutes before carving.

Makes 10 to 12 servings.

    Each of 12 servings

BBQ Mailing List

    Posted By: Wiley Mixon, Jul 28, 1999

    I got this from the BBQ mailing list. There is everything you need to know about brining. Thanks to Mike Lulejian for his time in putting this together.

(Editor Notes: Table of Contents added by editor)

Part I General Questions

    Part II More Questions After First Brine

    Part III Time In Brine

    Part IV Fergy and Dan Gill

    Part V Recipes

    Part VI Post by Ed Pawlowski: San Francisco Chronicle Article

    Part VII Article From A Web Page


By: Mikey Lulejian, (Atlanta, GA) June 28, 1999

    This is hopefully the most complete factual info available about brining. We start off with our questions, and the respective responses from experienced people - Top Pitmasters In Their Own Rights.

    We then go on to further information after saltiness was encountered on our first go-around. We have added some WONDERFUL articles and thoughts from another two of America's top Pitmasters, Fergy and Dan Gill (added 6-28-99).

    We also offer some excellent brining recipes. And we almost finish this with a wonderful article that details brining in all aspects. And finally we end with Part 7, another excellent web page on brining.

< NOTE: Part 7 - Article From Wed Added 6-24-99 >

    Please be careful with what you put into your brine solution. Acidic foodstuffs, such as apple juice, beer, orange juice should never be used on poultry.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

    Hope y'all enjoy this!


    1. Do people smoke other than whole chickens? I would really like to smoke breasts, but the one time I

    tried breasts, they really did not turn out all that good.

     Dan Martin (DM): I have smoked boneless, skinless breast's with good result's. I rub them with

    my regular rub I use on butt's, smoke at 300; F for about an hour or an hour and a half. I use a

    polder probe in the thickest part horizontally. I go to about 150; F internal, I know that sounds low

    but by the time I let them sit for a bit they are up to 175; F. I than put a light coat of sauce on them

    and sometime roll them on the grill just to crisp up a bit.

     Bob In GA: Yes, I believe so. In fact people have actually been heard saying they "smoked"

    barbecue also, so I guess anything is game :)

     Kit Anderson (Kit): Yes. I prefer cutting them in half and keeping the backs for stock.

2. Is the Beer can approach the best way to do chicken?

     DM - I have done it also. I still like to roll on the grill to crisp up.

     Billy In Texas (Belly): Not for me.

     Kit: "Chicken On A Throne" is a "presentation" recipe. Meaning folks laugh when they see the

    chicken propped up with a beer can. You put spices in a beer can, stuff it in the chicken and smoke

    it. The problems are:

    A. Waste of spices. There is no resulting flavor from putting spices in the beer.

    B. The chicken falls over a lot.

    C. It doesn't get hot enough to evaporate the beer so it adds nothing to the moistness.

    D. You have to buy beer in cans. The only good beer in cans is Guinness and the IRA will put a

     nail bomb in your smoker for wasting it. So you are stuck buying swill beer which only

     encourages them to make more.

     E. The can keeps smoke from getting inside the chicken.

     The result is good but not due to the beer. Use the rub and forget the can.

3. How do you do (i.e., smoke) chicken wings?

     DM: 2 hours at 250; F, with a lot of hickory. I than dip in a "buffalo wing" sauce and finish on the


     Belly: Soak them in Oil, Beer and Dr. Pepper, Louisiana Hot sauce for 1 to 3 hours. Then smoke

    for about 1-1/2 hours, or till done.

     Kit: Like the rest of the chicken.

    4. How do you get the skin done, so that it is not like 'rubber' and yet not dry out the chicken at the same

    time ?

     DM - Cook at a hotter temp., and finish on grill.

     Bob In Ga: I think this is where your term "smoking" and "grilling" come into play. With pieces, I

    can get the skin very crisp and edible, almost as good as hog skin by grilling it very fast on my 8"

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

    grill. It more resembles fried chicken than slow cooked chicken. My only guess to have the best of

    both worlds would be to slow cook first and then finish the skin as you would a pork bbq cut. But

    this may prove to require a lot of judgment in knowing when to switch methods. You could easily

    overcook your chicken trying to blister the skin. I think it's basically like cooking pork bbq but

    there may not be as much room for error in judgment because of the lack of fat in chicken.

     Belly: Cover with tin foil after smoke gets to your liking.

     Kit: Move it to the hot spot or increase the temp to 350; F for the last 30 minutes.

5. Any suggestions for time and temperatures for:


    Whole Chickens?


     Bob In GA: Time will obviously depend on the size of the meat in relation to temperature. As for

     temperature, throw away your thermometer when cooking the skin.

     Belly: Breasts 45 to 60 minutes at 250; F to 300; F, Whole Chickens 3 hours at 250; F, Wings 45


     Kit: A 4-LB bird will take about 4 hours at 250; F. Start breast down for one hour. Pull it off when

     the breast temp is 170; F.

6. What about seasonings ?

     Bob In GA: Avoid any finishing sauce that contains ketchup/tomato products. You may as well

    have oven-cooked it if you go that route. Salt and pepper works good as do most ethnic spice


     Belly: Any thing you like, Sweet Suzy Rub.

     Kit: Peanut oil, pepper, sage, thyme, lemon pepper...the sky is the limit.

7. What does brining do to the chicken meat?

     DM: Helps retain moisture, adds flavor if you spice the brine.

     Belly: Makes it better, lots more moist.

     Kit: It draws water into the meat and starts cross linking (coagulation, cooking) of the

     cellular proteins. This raises the temp at which the cells breakdown losing their moisture.

     Hence, juicier meat. The flavor is also enhanced.

    8. Is brining a necessity? I have heard two conflicting opinions to brining. One, that it is

     the only way to go. Two, that it was just too salty for people's tastes.

    (IMPORTANT NOTE; Please read both the below part, as well as Part #2).

     DM - Rinse REALLY WELL.

     Belly: You MUST wash chicken a good two times after brining and dry good; then put your

    seasonings on.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

     Kit: If it is too salty, you brined too heavily or too long.

9. If we were to brine, would you brine chicken breasts and wings also?

     DM: Absolutely.

     Belly: YES, YES

     Kit: Yep.

    10. And lastly, while we are on brining, I have read several places that people brine more than just poultry.

    Any comments ?

     DM: Have only tried chicken.

     Belly: Just chicken for me.

     Kit: When making pastrami or corned beef. The flavor from brining is not desirable in pork

    or beef BBQ. They will taste like spam!

11. Seasonings you might suggest for poultry smoking ?

     Belly: Sweet Suzy Chicken Rub (makes out of sight Chickens) While you're at it, use Belly's BBQ

    Rub or Paluxy Valley BBQ Rub, For pork Ribs try Jack's Rib Rub.

     Kit: See above. Just don't salt the meat if you brined.


Well… We did our first brine this weekend. The results were rather incredible. Very juicy and

    tender meat.

    There was, however, too much salt for the breasts, and almost right for the full-sized hen. We did use Kosher salt, and we did let the solution cool completely before we added the poultry. We also did wash the poultry twice before we let it dry smoked 9 hours later.

    1. Would using sea salt, which supposedly has less sodium, be as good as using regular or Kosher salt ?

     KIT: No. Use kosher (doesn't have to be capitalized) or pickling salt. Save sea salt for baking

    bread. To reduce the sodium, use less salt.

     Someone Else: No, it would just be a lot more expensive. Don't use regular salt either. Stick with

    kosher salt.

    2. Can the percentage of salt used in the solution (1 cup per gallon) be reduced without affecting the

    brining process substantially?

     KIT: Oooo !..... 3/4 cup per gallon is the upper end!!! Add 1/2-cup brown sugar. It will reduce the

    salt flavor.

     S.E: Yes. The starter for my brine has 3/4 cup of Kosher salt and 2/3 cup of white sugar. The sugar

    seems to reduce the salty taste.

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    Alt.Food.Barbecue‟s ~ How To Brine

    3. Can Dr. Pepper be substituted for 1/2 of the water? Example: 1/2-gallon water, 1/2-gallon Dr. Pepper,

    3/4-cup sea salt, other spices as desired. (And the "Dr. Pepper" could also include orange juice, beer,

    apple juice, etc.).


     KIT: Keep away from acids in the brine. It will cause the meat's exterior to get mushy. Dr. Pepper

    is loaded with phosphoric acid.

     S.E.: Well, I don't know about Dr. Pepper. Belly swears by it. You want to increase the sugar level

    in your brine, and Dr. Pepper might just work. Stay away from any acidic liquid such as orange

    juice or vinegar when brining tender cuts of meat.

5. Any further comments.

     KIT: Yeah...What's wrong with Glavine?


Shrimp: 30 minutes

    Whole chicken: (4 pounds) 8 to 12 hours

    Chicken parts: 1-1/2 hours

    Chicken breasts: 1 hour

    Cornish game hens: 2 hours

    Whole turkey: 24 hours

    Pork chops: 12 to 24 hours

    Whole pork loins: 2 to 4 days


(Added June 28, 1999)

Fergy's Thoughts On Poultry

    After brining, for turkey seasoning, I simply use just salt, pepper, onion, garlic. Sprinkled on.

    Baste with butter, garlic and onion. Inject with a Honey-Butter-Garlic-Onion mixture after brining in: Salt, Garlic, Onion, Molasses and Brown Sugar Brine. I do them a little fancier than I really need to. Simple is good!

Dan Gills's Web Page Advice On Brining

    Dan Gill is another one of America's most respected PitMaster's (like Fergy, Danny G, Dan Gill, Rock, Kit, Belly), a title bestowed upon very few.

He has an EXCELLENT home page:

    With a VERY large section dedicated to BBQ'ing and Smoking, and helping others to learn the right methods. He also has a rather complete page detailing the brining process.

He has kindly allowed me to "borrow" his page intact.

    NOTE: Dan is also the most kind host of the "6th Annual Remlik Steamed Crab, Silver Queen, and Q Feast" held at his home in Virginia at the end of July. You can real all about it at

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