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Lecture 3 English vowel phonemes inventory, articulation

By Roy Hernandez,2014-05-06 12:36
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Lecture 3 English vowel phonemes inventory, articulation

    Lecture 3: English vowel phonemes: inventory, articulation & classification (GA and RP compared): English vowel /; / vs /; / (RP), vs / ;;/ (GA)

    Phoneme: The smallest segmental sound unit that can bring about a change in meaning.

    Consonants: articulated with some obstruction of the air from the lungs: stops, fricatives, nasals, lateral, open approximants

    Distinctive features: manner of articulation, place of articulation, force of articulation.

    Same inventory for GA and RP.

    Vowels: articulated with free passage for the air from the lungs (no obstruction): distinctive features: place of articulation, i.e. tongue position, lip rounding. Slightly different inventories for RP and GA. (Number, exact pronunciation of phonemes, distribution)

Vowels:

    RP: 20: ;;, ;;, !;, ;;, ;; | ;, , , ;, ;, , ; | ,;, ;;, ;;,

    ,?, ;?, ;;, ;;, ?;

    GA 16: ;;, ;;, !;, ;;, ;; | ;, , , ; ;, , ; | ,;, ;;, ;;,

    ,?, o

    (GA: same as RP minus diphthongs ;;, ;;, ?; and

    monophthong ;.

;; far (N: far) ;; beat (N: skip)

    !; boot (N: bot?) ; mother (N: kake) ;; bought (N: båt) ,; fine

    ;; girl (cp. N: søl) ;; say (cp. jeg) ; set (N: sett) ;; boy

     cat (N: her) ,? sound (cp. sau) sit (N: sitt) ;?/o no (cp. sau) book (N: bukk) ;; dear (GA dr) ; lock GA /l;;k/ (N: ;; dare (GA der)

    lokk)

    ?; sure (GA ;?r)

    ; cut (N: katt)

(note: RP /;;/ sometimes corresponds to AE /æ/,

    particularly before f, s, ;: half, class, bath and nd, nt,

    ns, nt;, mp: demand, aunt, dance, branch, example)

Monophthongs vs. diphthongs

    Monophthong: Tongue in (relatively) stable position throughout the articulation of the vowel.

    Long: ;;, ;;, !;, ;;, ;;

    Short: ;, , , (;,) ;, , ;

    Differences in

     length

     phonetic quality (place of articulation)

     distribution

Minimal pairs with short/long vowels:

    sheep beach fool

    ship bitch full

    Diphthong: Tongue moves during the articulation of the vowel (glides from one position to another). Lip rounding

    may also change (e.g. ,?: neutral to rounded)

    Front-closing: Tongue going to a position that is

    closer (higher) and further front (towards )

    Back-closing: tongue going to a position that is

    closer (higher) and further back (towards )

    Centring: tongue going to a more central position

    (towards ;)

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