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References - Georgetown University

By Dana Powell,2014-09-30 04:13
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References - Georgetown University

    Mi no saber: on the origins of “ape-man” foreigner talk

    John M. Lipski

    The Pennsylvania State University

    ......................................................... (1) INVENTED L2 SPANISH SPOKEN TO NON (MIGLIORINI 1966): INFINITIVES

     SPANISH-SPEAKING EMPLOYEE (THOMPSON 1991):

     Noi trincare un flasche plene `We drink a full glass' ?cómo estar familia? `How is [the] family?' Mi non biver oter vin `I won't drink more wine' ?Jugar niños afuera? '[are the] children playing outside?' (6) PIDGINIZED ITALIAN IN MODERN NORTH AFRICA: IMITATED `TARZAN-TALK' (THOMPSON 1991): [Eritrea, 1892] Ma tu berché non dato a me bacscisc? Io venuto senza tu chimato ?Estar plátano bajo tierra? `Is [the] banana down [on the] ground?' `Why didn't you give me a gift? I came without your calling me' ?Quién ser hombre? `Who is [the] man?' [Libya 1911-12] Arkù, comprare gallina? `Friend, do [you want] to buy a chicken?' (2) ELICITED SPANISH FOREIGNER TALK (LIPSKI): Iu ma-fish poder dormire, molte bulci `I can't sleep; there are too many fleas' Io ghiamato te `I called you' FROM SPANISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES: [Eritrea, ca. 1975] No te puede help `[I] can't help you' no saber yo `I don't know [the answer]' regasi menjato `the children ate' yo no ayudar/no ayuda `I can't help [you]' non dire ber luy `don't tell him' ?Donde (tú) vivir? `Where do [you] live?' noy dato soldi ber loro `we gave them money' no sé ella `I don't know her' tu di doße stare `where are you from?' ?tener hambre?/?tú comer? `Are [you] hungry?' luy come suo madre `she [is] like her mother' ?Cómo tú llamar? `What is your name?' adesso loro stare amico `now they are friends' ?Dónde (estar) Roberto?' `Where is Robert?' no (hablar) español `[I] don't know Spanish' (7) SCHUCHARDT (1909) ON THE UNINFLECTED INFINITIVE: U.S. BILINGUALS: But how then does it turn out that the Arab, who does not yet know Italian, selects mangiar as the expressant for mangio, mangi, mangia, etc.? Only after very No sabe el question `[I] don't know the answer' extensive conversance with Romance would he realize the statistical ?Donde Roberto?/Roberto donde es? `Where [is] Roberto?' preponderance and functional generality of the Romance infinitive. Even then, if No se ella `[I] don't know her' he realizes that nothing corresponding to this infinitive exists i his language, much ?Estas hambre? `Are [you] hungry?' less to the 3rd pers. sing., he still does not say mi voler mangiar, for example, but Ud. yo no ayudar puedo `I can't help you' mi vuole me mangia. It is the European who impresses the stamp of general no c[on]ocer yo `I don't know [her]' currency on the infinitive, thereby controlling all communicative languages of the no saber respuesta `[I] don't know [the] answer' first and second degree. no poder ayudar [I] can't help [you]' (8) FROM ALLA CONQUISTA DI UN IMPERO BY EMILIO SPANSH LSPEAKERS (U.S.): 2 SALGARI (2004) No sabe/saber/sabo ella `[I] don't know her' Da manciare! Milord avere molta fame! […] Chiamare me milord, birbante! [...] ?Donde tú vivas? `Where do you live?' Io essere trande inglese. Metti qui tondo! Buon profumo. […] Io pagare e volere No (puedo) ayudar usted/no poder ayudar tú/no puedo te ayuda `I can't help you' manciare […] Contare momento sul mio orologio, poi tagliare a te un orecchio ?tener hambre? `are [you] hungry?' [feed me; milord is hungry. Call me milord, you fool. I am a great Englishman. Roberto, donde? `Where is Roberto?' What a fool. I will pay and I want to eat. I’ll count the minutes on my watch and ?Como costar esto? `How much does this cost?' I’ll cut off your ear] (3) ACTUAL FOREIGNER TALK AS USED TO (9) FROM “VERGINE ABISSINA BY CAROLINA INVERNIZIO SPANISH-SPEAKING STUDENTS OF ESL: (1987): Is important Padre Carbonara dice essere peccato mostrare crudeltà coi vinti […] Oh! essere I say bye-bye, I no want. molto lontano di qui, io rimanere per curar voi, altri feriti, non poter esser Why no talk? transportati […] Io non temere che Dio. Ed i soldati italiani amare il buno Dio, He here. rispettare le donne [...] voi non avere piú febbre, ma soffrire ancora. [Father I think I not good teacher Carbonara says it’s a sin to be cruel to the conquered. Far from me [to do that] I’ll I write all student in office stay to cure you; the other wounded cannot be transported. I fear no one but God. And Italian soldiers love God and respect women. You have no more fever, but (4) IMITATION OF GERMAN LANZICHENECCHI IN THE you are still suffering.] MADRIGAL `MATONA MIA CARA' BY ORLANDO LASSO: (10) FROM BAUDOLINO BY UMBERTO ECO (2000) (“IN UN Mi follere canzon `I want a song' GRECO TUTTO SUO): Si ti mi foller bene, mi no esser poltron `If you love me, I won't be a boor' Io non sa che lingua parlava. Io credeva voi stranieri e parlava lingua inventata come quella di stranieri. Voi invece parla la lingua di Presbyter Johannes e di suo (5) OTHER ITALIAN TODESCHE IMITATIONS WITH BARE Diacono. Io saluta voi, io è Gavagai, a vostro servizio [I didn’t know what

language you were speak-ing. I thought you were foreigners and spoke an invented language like foreigners. Instead you speak the language of Prester John IL VICENTE (1520'S-1530'S) Gand his deacon. I salute you, I’m Gavagai, at your service.] Ja a mi forro, Ø nam sa cativo. `I am already free, [I] am not a captive. [O clérigo da Beira] (11) EXAMPLES OF AFRO-IBERIAN IMITATIONS FROM GOLDEN AGE SPAIN, PORTUGAL, AND SPANISH AMERICA: Mi nam falla zombaria `I am not speaking foolishness' [O clérigo da Beira] FERNAM DA SILVEIRA [1455]: A mi abre oio e Ø ve `I open my eyes and see' [O clérigo da Beira] A min rrey de negro estar Serra Lyoa, lonje muyto terra onde viver nos, andar Mi risse a ella: minha rosa ... `I said to her, my rose' [Nao d'amores] carabela, tub;o de Lixboa `I am [a] king from Sierra Leone, from from the land where we live, [I] travelled by caravelle/shark to Lisbon' ANTÔNIO DE RIBEIRO CHIADO (MID 16TH CENTURY) ANRIQUE DA MOTA (LATE 15TH CENTURY): A mim frugá, boso matá `[If] I rest, you kill [me]' (Auto das regateiras) a mym nunca, nunca mym entornar mym andar augoá jardim, a mym nunca ssar rroym, porque bradar? `I never overturned [the wine jug], I was watering the Mim não quebrar bosso porta `I did not break your pitcher' (Auto das regateiras) garden, I am never bad, why are [you] angry?' Quando mi bay confesa dize padere confessoro que oficio que boso que tem `When GIL VICENTE, O CLÉRIGO DE BEYRA (EARLY 16TH C.): I go to confess, the father confessor says "what work do you do?"' (Pratica d'oyto Que riabo sempresa! Abre oio turo ria. Mi busca mulato bai, ficar abora, ratinho ... feguras) `What a hell of a surprise. [I] have my eyes open every day. I look for a mulatto to to with, to stay awhile' RODRIGO DE REINOSA (CA. 1520) RODRIGO DE REINOSA, COPLAS A LOS NEGROS Y NEGRAS [CA. 1500]: A mí llamar Comba de terra Guinea `My name is Comba from the land of Guinea' A mí llamar Comba de terra Guinea, y en la mi tierra comer buen cangrejo, y allá A mí llamar Jorge, Mandinga es mi terra ... `My name is Jorge, Mandinga is my en Gelofe, do tu terra sea, comer con gran hambre carabaju vejo, cabeza de can, land' lagarto bermejo, por do tu andar muy muyto fambriento ... `My name is Comba from the land of Guinea, and in my land [we] dine well on crabs, and in Wolof, FELICIANO DE SILVA, SEGUNDA CELESTINA (CA. 1530) your land, the starving people eat old beetles, dog's heads, red lizards, and they all go around hungry' a mí no extar tan bovo como penxar, ? penxar que no entender a mí ruindadex? `I am not as stupid as you think. Do you think that I don't understand about evil ANTONIO DE CHIADO, AUTOS DAS REGATEIRAS (CA. 1550) things? a mim frugá boso matá, boso sempre bradá `[If] I am lazy you [will] kill [me], you GASPAR GÓMEZ DE TOLEDO, TERCERA CELESTINA (CA. 1534) [are] always angry' a mi cayar y xeruir extax merxedes `I will be silent and will serve these people' DIEGO SÁNCHEZ DE BADAJOZ, FARSA TEOLOGAL (CA. 1525-30) JAIME DE GUETE, TESORINA CA. 1550) Fransico estar mi mariro, ya etar casá ... no etar mueto `Fransisco is my husband, [we] are already married ... [he] isn't dead' En toro oy mi no comer `I haven't eaten all day' LOPE DE RUEDA, COMEDIA LLAMADA EUFEMIA (1538-42) AUTO DA BELLA MENINA, OF SEBASTIÃO PIRES (EARLY 16TH CENTURY) agora sí me contenta; mas ?sabe qué querer yo, siñor Pollos `Now I'm happy, but mi trazey ca hu recado pera bay a bosso merce `I bring home a message for your do you know what I want, Mr. Pollos?' grace' La vieja Asunción nunca jablá `Old Asunción never speaks' (Armanda Ruíz ANON. AUTO DE VICENTE ANES JOEIRA (MID 16TH CENTURY) Garcia, Más allá de la nada [Cuba 1957]) mui gram trabaio que tem homem que mi sere sentar `This man that I am has much No, siñó, yo no matá ninguno, yo sentá atrá quitrín pa yegá prisa, prisa, na work' panadería `No sir, I didn't kill anybody; I was sitting in the back of the carriage, to get to the bakery quickly' (Ildefonso Estrada y Zenea, El quitrín [Cuba 1880]) IOÃO SARDINA MIMOSO, ANTÓNIO DE SOUZA, `RELACIÓN DE LA REAL TRAGICOMEDIA CON QUE LOS PADRES DE LA COMPAÑÍA DE JESÚS EN SU COLEGIO (12) EXAMPLES OF (A)MI AS SUBJECT PRONOUN IN EARLY DE S. ANTÓN DE LISBOA RECIBIERON A LA MAGESTAD CATOLICA DE FELIPE II AFRO-IBERIAN TEXTS DE PORTUGAL, Y DE SU ENTRADA EN ESTE REINO, CON LO QUE SE HIZO EN LAS VILLAS Y CIUDADES EN QUE ENTRÓ' (1620) FERNAM DA SILVEIRA, IN CANCIONEIRO GERAL oya que mim sa doyente tapua, e Ø sar mu gaçados `Look, I'm very sick, and [I] a min rrey de negro estar Serra Lyoa, lonje muyto terra onde viver nos `I am the would be grateful ...' king of the blacks in Sierra Leone, far from the land where we live' SONG `?QUÉ GENTE, PLIMA, QUÉ GENTE?' BY ALONSO DE BLAS Y SANDOVAL querer a mym logo ver vos como vay `I wanted to see you right away, to see how (1699) you were' Reye zamo del Oriente, que aunque eztar poztillón zi hayar grazia en el Garzón HENRIQUE DA MOTA, IN CANCIONEIRO GERAL a quien plezenta yevamo quedar tan reya como mi Amo `We are kings from the Orient, and although I am humbled before the child for whom we are bearing gifts, mym andar augoá jardim, a mym nunca ssar rroym `I was watering the garden, I I am as much a king as my Lord' am not bad' JULIÁN DE CONTRERAS (COLOMBIA, 17TH CENTURY), POEM `TEQUE-LEQUE' a mym logo vay tê laa, mym también falar mourinho `I will get some wool soon, (PERDOMO ESCOBAR 1976) I also speak Moorish'

con Juaniya mi sabe entendé ya `I know how to get along with Juanilla' cut much sugarcane and earn a lot of money. Well, then, eat sugar cane until Saturday and then come here, when I'll sell you food' `O PRETO, E O BUGIO AMBOS NO MATO DISCORRENDO SOBRE A ARTE DE TER DINHEIRO SEM IR AO BRAZIL' (PORTUGAL, 1789) NTONIO ORTEGA, `CHINA OLVIDADO' {CUBA}: A Mim agola sem trabaiá nom pore conté, ainda que mim ter abominaçon a Yo no sabel. Chino olvilalo, chino no tenel palientes ... no tenel amigos ... chino captiveiro cruere de blanco `I can't stand not working, although I abhore the white estal solo ... `I don't know. Chinese man forgets, Chinese man has no relatives, has man's cruel captivity' no friends ... Chinese man is alone' CUBA, EARLY 19TH CENTURY NICOMEDES SANTA CRUZ , DÉCIMAS {PERU}: Mi no sabe, ñamito ... niña Paulita ñamá yo, bisa negra pa ni, echa mi saco ñame Yo tiene batante aló, batante canne cochino, `I have lots of rice, lots of pork' cono plátano, no sabe ná `I don't know, master, Paulita called me and told this negro to go, to put some yams and bananas in my sack, I don't know at all' (María TRAZEGNIES GRANDA {PERU} de Santa Cruz, Historias campesinas) Neglo engleído, tu cleel que sólo neglo hacel velso. Pelo pala chino sel palte de A mí no bebe aguariente, mi ama `I don't drink liquor, mistress' (Condesa de su elucació ... `You stuck-up Negro; you think that only Negros can make up Merlin, Viaje a La Habana) verses. But for [us] Chinese, it's part of [our] upbringing' PLONOSTICO CULIOSO, E LUNARIO PALA OS ANNO DE 1819, TELCEILA DEPOIZE CHONG RUÍZ {PANAMA} DOS BISSEXTO (PORTUGAL, 19TH CENTURY) Cuando inglé vino a la China tlajo opio; ningún homble tenel mucha comila, entonces el inglé dijo: yo tomal la comila y el chino comel opio `When the English Amado Flegueza, mim vai a continuar com os Repertoria dos plesente Anno `Dear came to China they brought opium. Nobody had much food, so the English said: clients, I will continue with the account of the present year' I will take the food and the Chinese will eat opium' CARLOS LUIS FALLAS, MAMITA YUNAI {COSTA RICA}: (13) EARLY EXAMPLES OF `MOORISH' SPANISH: Yo levanta templano pelo quela mucho lato convelsando co Lamilo. `I got up early LOPE DE RUEDA, ARMELINA (CA. 1520): but I stayed a long time talking to Ramiro' ?Quin llamar, quin llamar? ?Hola! ?Pinxastex quinxordamox porque ACTUALLY OCCURRING CHINESE PIDGIN SPANISH (CLEMENTS 1999): traquilitraque? `Who is calling? Did you think that we were deafened by the racket?' Llega aquí, no hay trabajando `[I] arrived here, and there was no work' ?Qué te parexer, xeñor honrado? ?Tenerlo todo ben entendido? `What do you Yo no sabe él `I don't know him' think, good sir? Have [you] understood everything well?' yo dise tío conmigo hablando, puede fuela China `I said, uncle was telling me I could leave China' GIL VICENTE, CORTES DE JÚPITER (CA. 1520): Nació de Nanking `[I] was born in Nanking' Mi no xaber que exto extar, mi no xaber que exto xer, (15) PHILIPPINE CHINESE PIDGIN SPANISH (IMITATIONS): mi no xaber onde andar. `I don't know what this is; I don't know where [I] am going' sigulo, señolía ... como no tiene ahola talabajo; como no tiene capé, y ha de ganalo FARSA DEL SACRAMENTO LLAMADA LE LOS LENGUAJES (ANON. 16TH C.): la vida, sigulo tiene que hace tabaco `of course, sir; since {I} do not have a job now, and since {I} don't have any coffee, and {I} have to earn a living, of course {I} Que mandar, mi bon zonior? `What do [you] command, my good sir?' have to make cigars]' Mi xonior, no estar cristiano `Sir, [I] am not Christian' Mia quiele platicalo `I want to speak with you' Xenpre yo estar ben creado, mi no hurtar, ni matar, ni hazer otro becado. `I am guerra, señolía, malo negocio ... mía aquí vendelo, ganalo `war is bad business, sir; always well-bred; I don't steal nor kill nor sin in other ways' I am here selling and earning {money}' mueno dia señolía ... ?cosa quiele? mia tiene nuevo patila ... `good day, Sir, what LUIS DE GÓNGORA (1615): do you want? I have new merchandise' Aunque entre el mula e il vaquilio nacer en este pajar, si que le compela cosa, cosa siñolita `yes, buy many things, miss' o estrelias mentir, o estar Califa vos, chequetilio. `Although [you] were born among mules and calves in this hay, either the stars lie or you are a Caliph, little (16)SPANISH OF (NON-CHINESE) FILIPINOS PIDGIN child.' (IMITATIONS): (14) CHINESE PIDGIN SPANISH IMITATIONS IN LATIN No puede, ama; aquel matandá Juancho, casado también `[it] isn't possible, ma'am; AMERICA: that no-good Juancho is also married' ?Cosa va a hacer ya si nació viva? Siguro yo pegué plojo aquel día `what can [I] `EL CHINO QUE NO SABÍA' {CUBA}: do if [the baby] was born alive? I must have been wrong that day.' Pues suya cuidado, pero esa tiene novio castila y seguro no ha de querer con suya Comandante Lupelto, pa mi no mila, que yo no sabo `Commander Ruperto, I don't `That's your business, but that woman has a Spanish boyfriend and she surely won't see [anything], I don't know' have anything to do with you' Usted señor, bajar, y yo apartar animales `You sir, will get down [from the `EL DISCURSO DEL CHINO REACCIONARIO' {CUBA}: carriage]; I will disperse the animals' Bueno, señor, aquí comer `Well, sir, here [you can] eat' chino so pesona lesente. Si chino no fue pesona lesente, alcalde no tlaía señola, jefe No hay ya, siñol; pudo quedá sin el plasa, porque sisante hace tiempo, cuando Policía no tlaía hija `Chinese are decent people. If Chinese were not decent people, aquel cosa del flata ... pero no necesitá `He [doesn't work there] any more, sir; he the mayor would not bring [his] wife, the chief of police would not bring [his] lost the job, he's been out of work for some time, since the time of the money affair, daughter' but [he] doesn't need [it]' `EL PICADOR Y EL CHINO TIFÍ' {CUBA}: (17) IMITATIONS OF ENGLISH-BASED “GRINGO SPANISH: Tú tlabaja mucho. Tú tumba mucha caña y ganá mucho dinelo. Pue, tonse, come caña hata sábalo y ven dipué, que yo lipachá comía pa ti. `You work hard. You BENITO LYNCH, EL INGLÉS DE LOS GÜESOS [ARGENTINA]:

mí trabaca ... mí busca huesas antiguos, viecas, viecas ... mi no saber certa `I am not sure' güesas india, mí bosca, mí lleva pir miuseum ... `I work, I look for old bones, Indian bones, I look [for them] I take [them] to a museum' mi stata sembre curteza, sin ben mi nasuda al monte del Barca `I have always been well-mannered, even if I was born on Barca [Barbery Coast]' JOAQUÍN GUTIÉRREZ, PUERTO LIMÓN [COSTA RICA]: mi andar co'l to dinari, ti restar ... `I will go off with your money, you will stay ...' No, mí no pueda llevar. Mí llevar y después joden a Tom. Míster, yo sabe bien. Vos decir nada a la compañía. Vos llegar a Limón y te olvidás ... `No, I can't take NON. SONG `MATONA MIA CARA' (CA. 1581) (COLLIER 1976) A[you]. I take you, and then Tom gets screwed. Mister, I know very well. You won't say anything to the company. You will arrive in Limón and you will Ø ti prego m'ascoltare `[I] beg you to listen to me' forget ...' Mi follere canzon `I want (?) a song' RAMÓN AMAYA-AMADOR, PRISIÓN VERDE [HONDURAS]: Si ti mi foller bene, mi non esser poltron, mi ficcar tutta notte, Ø urtar come monton Ser inútil. Juana no aceptar. Decir tiene su marido. Por eso yo decir a mister Jones, `If you love me, I will not be lazy, I will stay all night, thrusting like a ram' si él quiere coger Juana, primero quitar marido `[It's] no use. Juana will not accept. [She will] say [she] has a husband. Therefore I said to Mister Jones, if he wants JUAN DEL ENCINA, `VILLANCICO' (CA 1520) to seduce Juana, [he should] get rid of the husband first' ala ti da bon matin `May Allah give you a good morning' JOAQUÍN BELEÑO, CURUNDÚ [PANAMA]: Por ala Ø te recomenda ... `By Allah [I] recommend to you ...' Ella cree que yo ganar mi plata como el policí ... yo tiene que trabajar ... `She thinks that I earn money just like a policeman ... I have to work' Per benda Ø dar dos o tres `For a benda [I will] give [you] two or three [eggs]' ?quién mandar aquí? si tú no saber, ?quién sabe? `Who's in charge here? If you Peregrin taybo cristian si Ø querer andar Jordan ... `Pilgrim, good Christian, if don't know, who knows?' [you] want to go to Jordan ...' JOSÉ LEÓN SÁNCHEZ [COSTA RICA], “UNA GUITARRA PARA JOSÉ JESÚS”: LUIS DE GÓNGORA (1615) Si alguien me dar cien pesos […] Muchachos bueno, ser bien y tener palabra de negrito […] ?también tú querer pañuelo? `If somebody gives me 100 pesos … ok Yo estar Xeque. Se conmego andar, manteca, seniora, mel vos, y serva madora guys, be good and take this black man’s word … do you want the scarf too?’ comerás senior el vejo `I am Jeque. If [you] come with me, my lady, you will eat lard and you, sir, will eat honey and ripe fruit' FERNANDO RAMÍREZ VELARDE [BOLIVIA], SOCAVONES DE ANGUSTIA: FRANCISCO MANUEL DE MELO, VISITA DAS FONTES (CA. 1657) No olvidar […] nosotros contratado palliris, ?no niñeras! `don’t forget, we have contracted miners, not babysitters’ Quem pintar senhor cristão? Pintar cristão ou mouro? ... Pois ... bem parecer; porque, se pintar mouro, Ø pôr mouro a cavalo e mais de trinta Santiagos ao pé! RAMÓN MARRERO ARISTY [DOMINICAN REPUBLIC], OVER: `Who painted the Christian [St. James]? Did a Christian or a Moor paint [him]? ... Well, that's what I thought; because if a Moor had painted [him], [he] would have put the Moor on horseback and more than 30 Santiagos at his feet!' Mi no vuelva `I’m not going back’ MOLIERE, LE BOURGEOIS GENTILHOMME (CA. 1671) (18) HAITIANS SPANISH IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (FROM LUIS ORTIZ LÓPEZ) Se ti sabir, ti respondir, se Ø no sabir, Ø tazir `If you know, you answer, if you don't know, you be quiet' Yo contrao un paisano mía nosotro hablá su lenguaje e nosotro ... yo habla con mi paisano patuá ... bueno, yo no pue negal mi lengua `I find a countryman, we speak Mi star Mufti; ti qui sar qui? `I am Mufti; who are you?' [our] language, I speak patois with my country-men ... I can't deny my own language' ANON. `DANZA DE INDIANOS' FROM ACTIO QUAE INSCRIBITUR EXAMEN SACRUM yo hacel mucho trabajal; coltal caña balato; recogel café a sei kilo `I worked hard; (17TH CENTURY SPAIN) I cut sugar cane for little money; I picked coffee for six cents' Cuchamé, cuchamí, (19) “EXTRATERRESTRIAL CUBAN SPANISH IN THE NOVEL ?quen te far venir aquí? SACCHARIO BY MIGUEL COSSÍO WOODWARD: Cangoscima tematon, verne toldo en un sotano. No dominan el átomo, ni hacen vuelos interplanetarios … bien perdone. Yo praz amor llagado bon, comprender' [they don't control the atom nor undertake interplanetary flight; prax la bunga de chuquano. pardon me, I understand]. Me martillo coro cano, me ficando par á mi. Cuchamé, cuchamí, (20) IMITATIONS OF LINGUA FRANCA OR SABIR ?quién te far venir aquí? ANON., ITALY (CA. 1353) (FERRARA 1950) PEDRO CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA, EL GRAN PRÍNCIPE DE FEZ (1672) come ti voler parlare? `how do you want to speak?' Qué querer dezir aquelio de Baril Morilio ... me estar Morilio Baril, que estar vos ... Ø non aver di te paura `[I] am not afraid of you' `What do you mean by Barril Morillo ... I am Morillo, who are you?' se per li capelli Ø prendoto, come Ø ti voler conciare! `If I grabbed you by the hair, PEDRO CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA, EL JARDIN DE FALERINA (1677) how I would like to beat you!' Ala saber donde estar tu `Only Allah knows where you are' Ch'io ti farò pigliare `I will have you caught' Que gigante no lo estar? `What giant is not [drunk]?' GIGIO GIANCARLI, LA CINGANA (CA. 1550)

PEDRO CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA, AMAR DESPUÉS DE LA MUERTE (1691) Haedo's Imitations of Lingua Franca: Ya el portas estar cerradas `The doors are closed' mirar como mi estar barbero bono y saber curar, si Ø estar malato y ahora Ø correr Ø no estar loco `[I] am not crazy' bono `Look what a good doctor I am and how I know how to cure [him], if [he] is sick, and now [he] runs well' ... me ser Crestiano en mi conciencia `I am a Christian in my heart' mi saber como curar a fe de Dio ... Ø trabajar, Ø no parlar que Ø estar malato `I know how to cure him, by God ... [he will] work, [he] will not say that [he] is sick' CARLO GOLDONI, L'IMPRESARIO DELLE SMIRNE (1761) mi parlar patron donar bona bastonada, mucho, mucho `I will tell the master to Ø star omo, o Ø star donna? `Are [you] a man or are [you] a woman?' give [you] a good beating' Smirne non aver bisogno di tua persona. Si Ø voler andar Turchia, io te mandar (22) EARLY EXAMPLES OF MI AND TI AS SUBJECT PRONOUNS Costantinopoli, serraglio de Gran Sultan `You are not needed in Smyrna; if [you] IN REGIONAL ITALIAN DIALECTS: want to go to Turkey, I will send you to Constantinople, to the Sultan's harem' SERMONE OF THE LOMBARD PIETRO DA BARSEGAPÈ, PROBABLY WRITTEN AT Ø star voce de omo. Io non star cosi bestia a voler musico che cantar come gatto THE VERY END OF THE 13TH CENTURY,: `siempre staremo mi e le ...' [he and I will `[That] isn't a man's voice. I'm not such a beast as to enjoy a musician who sings always be ...] (Salvioni 1891:476) like a cat' THLATE 14 CENTURY SALENTINO TEXT: `my Sabatyno Russo judio de Leze vy DICTIONNAIRE DE LA LANGUE FRANQUE OU PETIT MAURESQUE (CA. 1830) saluto' [I Sabatino Russo, a Jew from Leze, greet you] (Stussi 1965). Comme ti star? Mi star bonou, et ti? Mi star contento mirar per ti. `How are you? THBRESCIA, EARLY 15 CENTURY (Bonelli and Contini 1935): `Mi sot tut innocent I am fine, and you? I am glad to see you.' denanz da vo e da la zent de la mort de quest iust hom' [I am innocent before you and before the people of the death of this just man]; `Christ, se ti é fïol de De' tuo Console nuovo star buono, Ø non cercare me né buono mé male `your new [Christ, if you are the son of God] consul is good, [he] doesn't strike me as good or bad' (Archivio del Consolato Sardo, Tripoli, mid. 19th c.) THGENOA, 15 CENTURY: mi e me fijo `I and my son' (Parodi 190119) Re Sardinia mandar ti Tripoli birché Ø tener bona cabesa i procura no pagar rigal THGENOA, EARLY 16 CENTURY (Donaver 1910:24): `Mi son Zeneize, e Zena ho `The king of Sardinia is sending you to Tripolo because [you] have a good head sempre amaou' [I am Genoese, and I have always loved Genoa]. and try not to pay bribes' (Ferrari, La spedizione della Marina sarda a Tripoli nel 1825) (23) FROM MACHIAVELLI, DISCORSO INTORNO ALLA NOSTRA LINGUA [CA. 1519]: Santar aqui, mosieu `Sit here, sir' (Anon. 1852) E per esemplo si può dare la provincia d’Italia; la quale è in una minima parte quand moi gagner drahem, moi achetir moukère `When I earn some money, I will differente nei verbi, ma nei nomi differentissima [...] Intra i pronomi, quelli che buy a [concubine]' importano più sono variati, sì come è mi in vece d’io, e ti per tu [and for example we can mention the province of Italy, in which verbs are minimally different, but Moi meskine, toi donner sordi `I am poor; you [will] give me money' (Faidherbe, nouns are very different [...] among the pronouns, the most important ones vary, as L'Alliance français pour la propagation de la langue française dans les in mi instead of io and ti for tu] (Machiavelli 1971:925) colonies et les pays étrangers [Algiers, 1884])

(25) FROM MIGEOD (1911: 98-9): (21) DIEGO DE HAEDO, TOPOGRAFÍA E HISTORIA GENERAL DE ARGEL (CA. 1612) `the first word that strikes the eye is the familiar "mi" [...] this familiar form of the first personal pronoun ... exists in West African languages […] as it does also in Description of Lingua Franca (Diego de Haedo, 1612): Aryan languages [...] in some languages where "m" does not appear as the dominant letter of the first person in the nominative case, it does so in the objective La tercera lengua que en Argel se usa es la que los moros y turcos llaman franca case, which is very commonly what is observed in European languages.' o hablar franco, llamando ansí a la lengua y manera de hablar cristiano no porque ellos hablen toda la lengua y manera de habla de cristiano o porque este hablar ... (26) FROM COATES (1970:71): sea de alguna particular nación cristiana que lo use, mas porque mediante este modo de hablar, que está entre ellos en uso, se entienden con los cristianos, siendo `The use of the infinitive instead of person verb forms involves replacement from todo el una mezcla de varias lenguas cristianas y de vocablos, que por la mayor the language's own resources, and this lanzi could never carry out. No amount of parte son Italianos y Españoles y algunos Portugueses ... y juntando a esta phonetic confusion would ever produce the infinitive as the reduction of the confusión y mezcla de tan diversos vocablos y maneras de hablar, de diversos commonly-occurring Italian verb forms; as a least common denominator one reinos, provincias y naciones cristianas, la mala pronunciación de los turcos, y no might expect parla, for instance, not parlare.' saben ellos variar los modos, tiempos y casos, como los cristianos ... aquellos vocablos y modos de hablar viene a ser el hablar franco de Argel, casi una THjerigonza o, a lo menos, un hablar de negro boçal traido a España de nuevo. [The (27) FRENCH FOREIGNER TALK IN 13 CENTURY FABLIAU third language which is spoken in Algiers is what the Moors and Turks call Lingua `DES DEUX ANGLOIS ET DE L'ANEL': Franca, thus referring to a sort of Christian speech, not because they speak the language like Christians or because this language represents a particular Christian Mi cuit un poi alegement `I expect[ed] a little relief' nation, but because they use this language amongst themselves and with Christians, Mi have tote nuit soué `I sweated all night' being a mixture of various Christian languages and words, mostly Italian and Spanish and some Portuguese ... adding to this confusion and mixture of such (28) `ENGLISH' SPEAKING ANIMALS IN THE MEDIEVAL diverse words and ways of speaking, from various Christian kingdoms, provinces, FRENCH ROMAN DE REYNART: and nations, the poor pronunciation of the Turks; they do not know how to change mood, tense, and case like Christians ... these words and ways of speaking No saver point ton reson dire `[I] don't know how to speak your language' constitute the Lingua Franca of Algiers, almost a jargon or at least a negro bozal Moi fot perdez tot mon gaaing `I [f…] lost all my grain' speech returning to Spain]

Olschki Editore. Cossío Woodward, Manuel. 1970. Sacchario. Havana: Casa de las Américas. (29) THE ULTIMATE SOURCES OF THE BARE INFINITIVE IN Coutelle, Louis. 1977. Grec, greghesco, lingua franca. Venezia, centro di ROMANCE FOREIGNER TALK mediazione tra Oriente e Occidente (secoli XV-XVI), volume II, ed. by H.-G. Beck, M. Manoussacas, A. Pertusi, 537-544. Florence: Leo S. Olschki French child language and medieval foreigner talk; Editore. German foreigner talk and pidgins; Eco, Umberto. 2000. Baudolino. Milano: RCS Libri. Romance speakers with specific language disorders (SLI) Faidherbe, Général. 1884. L'Alliance français pour la propagation de la langue française dans les colonies et les pays étrangers. Revue Sciéntifique January (30) RARE EXAMPLES OF BARE INFINITIVES IN SPANISH CHILD 1, 1884, 104-109. LANGUAGE [1,10-1,11]: Ferdinand, Astrid. 1996. The development of functional categories: the acquisition of the subject in French. Doctoral dissertation, University of abochá (< a abrochar) `buckle [the shoes]' Leiden. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics (HIL dissertations, 23). quitá (< a quitar) e zapato `take [your] shoe off' Ferguson, Charles. 1971. Absence of copula and the notion of simplicity: a study a timpá (a limpiar) culito `[I'm] wiping [my] behind' of normal speech, baby-talk, foreigner talk and pidgins. Hymes (1971: 141-151). _____. 1975. Towards a characterization of English foreigner talk. (31) BARE INFINITIVES IN IMPAIRED ITALIAN: Anthropological Linguistics 17.1-14. _____. 1977. Baby talk as a simplified register. Talking to children: language Un personaggio dire [disse] `A character [said] input and acquisition, ed. Catherine Snow and Charles Ferguson, 209-235. prendere [?] la sveglia `[the man] took the alarm clock Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fronzaroli, Pelio. 1955. Nota sulla formazione della lingua franca. Atti e sta a dormire `he is [sleeping]' Memorie dell'Academia Toscana de Scienze e Lettere "La Colombaria" 20.211-252. (32) PS,C,DOSSIBLY IMPAIRED PANISH AMBITA OMINICAN OSSIBLY IMPAIRED PANISH AMBITA OMINICAN (32) PS,C,DGiancarli, Gigio. 1991. Commedie. Critical edition of Lucia Lazzerini. Padova: R(G1996,1997): EPUBLIC REEN EPUBLIC REEN R(G1996,1997): Editrice Antenore. Goldoni, Carlo. 1827. Raccolta completa delle commedie, vol. III. Firenze: No yo no a mendé e zapote no. `I don't sell zapotes' Presso la Società Editrice. sí, a siguí `yes, [she] went on' Green, Katherine. 1996. El marcador de pasado a: Palenquero en Santo Domingo. A cogé aquelloh mango. `[I] picked those mangoes' Presented at the I Seminario Internacional "Palenque, Cartagena y Hay muchacho sí tabajá sí. `There are young men who work hard' Afro-Caribe: Conexiones Históricas y Lingüísticas," Cartagena de Indias. To yo no hacé eso `I didn't do that' be published in the proceedings. _____. 1997. 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    Tentative sources of bare infinitives in Romance-derived pidgins/foreigner talk

    German child language???????????German foreigner talk???????????????????

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     ? ? ? French child language??????French foreigner talk???????French pidgins/creoles ?

     ? ? ? Impaired French???????????? ? ?????????????????????

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    Impaired Italian????????????Lingua Franca/Italian foreigner talk

     ?

    Impaired Spanish/Portuguese???????????????Spanish/Portuguese foreigner talk

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    Spanish/Portuguese child language?????????????????

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