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Bird Flu

By Katherine Sullivan,2014-06-24 01:31
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Bird FluBird F

The Preparation Outline

    Specific purpose: To inform my audience the definition, the features of bird flu and how to prevent bird flu.

    Central Idea: Bird flu is also called avian influenza, comes in a number of variation styles, but there are some methods we can do to prevent bird flu.

    Introduction

    I remembering the bird flu in 2010;

    II Everyone is in panic about bird flu in 2010.

    III Now a variant of bird flu (H7N9) stages a comeback

    IV I would like to share the definition, features of bird flu and some methods to prevent bird flu.

    Body

    I. Bird flu is also called avian influenza (AI).

    A. It is a viral respiratory disease mainly of poultry and certain other bird species

    B. It is caused by AI virus (AIV).

    C. It mainly causes the infection of birds and poultry, sometimes it can infect human.

    D. The first known cases in humans were reported in 1997.

     1. Between 2003 and late 2005, outbreaks of the most deadly variety of bird

    flu (subtype H5N1) occurred among poultry in many country.

     2. 622 people were infected with bird flu (H5N1) between 2003 and 2013. (Transition: Now that you know the definition of bird flu, let’s look at some features

    that can explain why bird flu is easily to spread.)

    II. There are some features that can explain why bird flu is easily to spread.

    A. Polymorphism of AIV antigen.

    1. AI has three styles: type A, type B and type C.

    2. AIV has about more than 160 subtypes

    3. Preparation of effective vaccines is complicated.

    B. Mutability of AIV.

    1. AIV is a single strand RNA virus

    2. The first identified cases of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in

    humans occurred in China during February and March 2013.

    C. Diversity of infectious pathway.

    1. Avian influenza virus can transmit disease through the respiratory tract,

    the digestive tract and conjunctiva.

    2. Avian influenza virus has infection possibility in the incubation period.

    3. Viruses themselves are not motile, having no means of self-locomotion,

    and yet they are far from still.

    (Look the picture 2, the hens has been infected by AIV, the others are afraid and flee away the infected hens and eggs. Now, some people treat the AIV just like the chicken in the picture. They dare to eat chicken and eggs, seize the poultry and even kill them. It is not reasonable. Are there any methods to prevent AIV? The answer is YES.)

III. There are some methods we can do to prevent bird flu.

    1. Away from the poultry secretions, try to avoid touching the live chickens, ducks

    and other poultry and birds.

    2. Enhance physical exercise, and improve immunity.

    3. Keep the indoor air circulation.

    4. Pay attention to personal hygiene, when sneezing or coughing and cover your

    nose and mouth.

    5. The most effective control of outbreaks in poultry remains rapid culling of

    infected farm populations and decontamination of farms and equipment. This

    measure also serves to reduce the chances for human exposure to the virus.

    Conclusion

    I. Today we have learned about the definition, features of Bird flu and the measures to prevent bird flu.

    II. We still have to attach great importance to the avian flu.

    III. I wish everyone has a healthy body.

    Bibliography

    1. Mao Qing, Scientific understanding of avian influenza A H7N9 virus to effectively prevent and control of its infection. Journal of Third Military Medical University 2013, v.35;No.415, (08), 693-695.

    2.http://baike.baidu.com/view/10374424.htm?subLemmaId=10545783&fromenter=h7n9&redirected=alading

    3. http://news.xinhuanet.com/cankao/2013-04/07/c_132289977.htm

    4. Health and Disease: Year In Review 2008." Britannica Book of the Year. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2013. Web. 13 May. 2013.

The Speaking Outline

    Eye Contact!!

    Slow Down

I . Remembering the bird flu in 2010;

    -Pause-

    II. Panic about bird flu in 2010.

    III. A variant of bird flu (H7N9).

    IV (picture) The definition, features of bird flu and some methods to prevent bird flu.

    -Pause-

    Body

    I. Avian influenza(AI).

    A. A viral respiratory disease mainly of poultry and certain other bird species

    B. AI virus (AIV).

    C. The infection of birds and poultry, sometimes it can infect human.

    D. The first known cases in humans in 1997.

     1. Between 2003 and late 2005, outbreaks of the most deadly variety of bird

    lu (subtype H5N1) occurred among poultry in many country. f

     2. 622 people infected between 2003 and 2013.

    (Transition: Now that you know the definition of bird flu, let’s look at some features

    that can explain why bird flu is easily to spread.)

    II. Some features.

    A. Polymorphism of AIV antigen.

    1. Three styles: type A, type B and type C.

    2. 160 subtypes

    3. Preparation of effective vaccines is complicated.

    B. Mutability of AIV.

    1. A single strand RNA virus

    2. The first identified cases of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in

    humans occurred in China during February and March 2013.

    C. Diversity of infectious pathway.

    1. Transmit disease through the respiratory tract, the digestive tract and

    conjunctiva.

    2. Infection possibility in the incubation period.

    3. Viruses themselves are not motile, having no means of self-locomotion,

    and yet they are far from still.

    (Look the picture 2 Are there any methods to prevent AIV? The answer is YES.) III. There are some methods we can do to prevent bird flu.

    A. Away from the poultry secretions

    B. Enhance physical exercise

    C. Indoor air circulation.

    D. Personal hygiene.

    E. Rapid culling of infected farm populations and decontamination of farms and

    equipment.

    -Pause-

    Conclusion

    I. Today we have learned about the definition, features of Bird flu and the measures to

    prevent bird flu.

    II. Attach great importance to the avian flu.

    III. Wish everyone has a healthy body.

Introduction

    Do you still remember the bird flu in 2010? At that time Im in my sophomore

    year. Some of the students were isolated because of influenza. Students needed to wear masks and everyone was in panic. Now a variant of bird flu (H7N9) stages a comeback.

    Look at the picture, many people just like the dog want to know whether is the chicken bring the bird flu. I would like to share the definition, features of bird flu and some methods to prevent bird flu.

    Body

    Bird flu, also called avian influenza(AI), caused by AI virus (AIV), a viral respiratory disease mainly of poultry and certain other bird species, including migratory waterbirds, some imported pet birds, and ostriches, that can be transmitted directly to humans. The first known cases in humans were reported in 1997, when an outbreak in poultry in Hong Kong led to severe illness in 18 people, one-third of whom died.

    Between 2003 and late 2005, outbreaks of the most deadly variety of bird flu (subtype H5N1) occurred among poultry in many countries. Hundreds of millions of birds in those countries died from the disease or were killed in attempts to control the epidemics.

    According to the World Health Organization, 622 people were infected with bird flu (H5N1) between 2003 and 2013; about 60 percent of those individuals died. There are some features that can explain why bird flu is easily to spread.

    1. Polymorphism of AIV antigen. AI has three styles: type A, type B and type C. Type A can infect people, pig, fish and about all birds; Type B just infect people; Type C infect people and pig. AIV has about more than 160 subtypes, such as H5N1, H1N1, H7N9 and so on, but they have no obvious cross protective effects. That means preparation of effective vaccines is complicated.

    2. Mutability of AIV. AIV is a single strand RNA virus. The single-chain viruses easily mutate. AIV usually infect poultry first, then infect human. AIV and human influenza virus hybridize in poultry, then form new flu virus, that can infect not just poultry but human. The first identified cases of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans occurred in China during February and March 2013. At the beginning of April 2013, Chinese Academy of Sciences research genetic origin on the H7N9 avian influenza virus, and reported H7N9 gene of avian influenza virus was from East Asia wild birds and China Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu chicken’ gene

    recombination. But the virus itself gene mutation may be the reason why the H7N9 avian influenza virus can infect human and cause high death rates. After China has confirmed cases of H7N9 avian influenza, several laboratories around the world began to DNA sequence data of isolated from patient samples, to assess the pandemic possibility. One of the top flu expert in the world, Holland Erasmus Medical Center Abu Osterhaus said, some sequence has showed gene mutation sufficiently to allow the government to enter a state of alert, strengthen the monitoring to animal and human.

    3. Diversity of infectious pathway. Avian influenza virus can transmit disease through the respiratory tract, the digestive tract and conjunctiva. Modes of infection including directly contact with infected poultry, air transmission and contaminated items by indirect contacting. Avian influenza virus has infection possibility in the incubation period. Hens infected with the disease can transmit virus to the egg. Viruses themselves are not motile, having no means of self-locomotion, and yet they are far from still.

    Look the picture 2, the hens has been infected by AIV, the others are afraid and flee away the infected hens and eggs. Now, some people treat the AIV just like the chicken in the picture. They dare to eat chicken and eggs, seize the poultry and even kill them. Are there any methods to prevent AIV? The answer is YES.

    1. Away from the poultry secretions, try to avoid touching the live chickens, ducks

    and other poultry and birds.

    2. Enhance physical exercise, and improve immunity.

    3. Keep the indoor air circulation.

    4. Pay attention to personal hygiene, when sneezing or coughing and cover your

    nose and mouth.

    5. The most effective control of outbreaks in poultry remains rapid culling of

    infected farm populations and decontamination of farms and equipment. This

    measure also serves to reduce the chances for human exposure to the virus. Conclusion

    Today we have learned about the definition, features of Bird flu and the measures to prevent bird flu. Because of the polymorphism of AIV antigen, mutability of AI, diversity of infectious pathway, some variant avian influenza virus can cause high death rates. We still have to attach great importance to the avian flu. There is an old saying in China: our body is the capital of revolution. I wish everyone has a healthy

    body.

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