Primary Music

By Anita Flores,2014-09-25 10:10
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Primary MusicPrim

     Voices of Tāwhirimatea

    Curriculum Focus: Music

    Curriculum Level: 2-3

    Years 4-6

    Duration: 4-5 weeks. Includes 10 integrated tasks, plus activities for extension

    Focus for the Unit:

    How can Māori sound traditions be represented in Waiata?

    This unit focuses on traditional Māori musical instruments that carry sounds (puoro) connected to the natural world e.g. earth, sky, wind, rain, rain, plants and animals. The voices of Tāwhirimatea, the God of winds, are represented by Māori wind instruments such as kōauau, putorino and nguru. Through a variety of

    learning experiences, students will explore the use of traditional Māori instruments, sing and accompany songs and create a digital soundtrack using hand-made taonga puoro.

Curriculum Links:

    Written Language

    Te Reo Māori : Read and analyse song lyrics

    English: Read and summarise information, explanations and instructions on how to make and use traditional Māori instruments.

    Visual Language

    Present findings from investigation electronically and in paper form. Represent music with visual symbols.

    Oral Language

    Share ideas with others about how sounds are made and combined to create music.


    Physical World: Investigate the features of sound makers and musical instruments that allow them to produce different sounds and vibrations. Mathematics

    Measurement and Algebra: Analyse the structure of songs and use measures in music software to sequence and align tracks of music.

    Visual Arts

    Making of Māori instruments, discussion and analysis of decorative patterns and whakairo (carving patterns).


    Students will be encouraged to value diversity, as found in our different cultures languages and heritages.

Key Competencies

    Thinking Students will analyse simple songs and create graphic scores of Māori waiata to explore the elements of music and consider how they can be used to manipulate sound.

    Relating to Others Students will work collaboratively to explore the use of Māori instruments and to create a soundtrack using music recording software. Understand Language Symbols and Text Students will use song lyrics,

    graphic symbols and music sequencing software to read and recreate music.

Specific Learning Outcomes for Music

    The students will learn to:

    ; Identify sounds and describe features of songs and recordings

    ; Sing and accompany songs using movement, body percussion and other

    sound sources

    ; Make a Māori wind instrument and describe the process

    ; Explore sounds and their effects through playing instruments

    ; Represent sounds in a graphic score

Specific e-learning Outcome

    The students will learn to:

    ; Record sound using Garageband (or similar programme)

Achievement Objectives: Music Level 2

    Understanding Music in Context (UC)

    Explore and share ideas about music from a range of sound environments and recognise that music serves a variety of purposes and functions in their lives and in their communities.

    Developing Practical Knowledge in Music (PK)

    Explore and identify how sound is made and changed, as they listen and respond to the elements of music and structural devices.

    Developing Ideas in Music (DI)

    Improvise, explore, and express musical ideas, drawing on personal experience, listening and imagination.

    Explore ways to represent sound and musical ideas.

    Communicating and Interpreting in Music (CI)

    Share music making with others, using basic performance skills and techniques. Respond to live and recorded music.

Suggested Learning Sequence

    The following tasks could be completed as a whole class, by individual students, or in groups:

    Task 1 Explore sounds made by blowing into different instruments Task 2 Listen to Richard Nunns demonstrating the use of Māori

    instruments and discuss similarities and differences Task 3 Listen to songs that feature the use of Māori instruments and

    describe how they are used

    Task 4 Learn new songs and understand their contexts

    Task 5 Analyse the musical arrangement of a song

    Task 6 Create a graphic score to represent the musical arrangement of a


    Task 7 Use music software to analyse and alter a sound recording Task 8 Create your own hue pongaaihu and/or kōauau

    Task 9 Explore and record the sounds of wind instruments Task 10 Add live instrumental sounds to the recording of a known song,

    using Garageband or similar software programme

Extension Activities

    ; Create a soundscape to enhance the retelling of the legend of „The Winds

    of Tāwhirimatea‟

    ; Create music that imitates native NZ birdsong

Teacher Preparation

    Teaching Māori content provides an opportunity to encourage Māori students, parents and whānau to be involved in student learning by sharing their

    knowledge. Find out if there are parents and other whanau who would be willing to share their knowledge of Māori instruments and music.

Digistore photos of Taonga Puoro:

    Kōauau (flute)


    Pūtōrino (flute)

    Playing taonga puoro, 1923

    Prepare a digital or poster display of the Digistore photographs of Māori instruments with the following headings:

    What do we know about kōauau, nguru and other Māori wind instruments?

    What we would like to know about these instruments?

    Display the information you collect during the unit so that others can share new knowledge. E.g. Make a wall display or folder showing photographs, diagrams, instructions, key vocabulary, graphic scores, explanations, song lyrics and translations.

And / Or

    Create a shared on-line workspace on a website, or wiki using photos, text,

    graphics, music and other sound recordings to share information. In 2009, archeologists discovered some bone flutes in China that were estimated

    to be over 9,000 years old. Students might choose to compare Māori

    instruments with traditional wind instruments from other cultures.

Task 1

    ; Explore sounds made by blowing into different instruments and

    identify and imitate sounds that are created naturally by wind and by


    E.g. Whistle through cupped hands, blow across or into bamboo (4-6cm

    pieces), glass bottles of different sizes, bones, gourds, conch shells, kōauau

    and nguru (if available), recorders, whistles, flutes, clarinets, oboes and other

    wind instruments.

    1. Listen to the wind whistling through trees, plants (e.g. flax or bamboo) and

    other natural and man-made artifacts.

    2. Listen to and identify the calls of different birds and imitate them using


    3. Make a vocabulary list for describing sounds produced by different

    instruments and natural sound sources, e.g. gentle, haunting, piercing,

    calm, soothing, mysterious

Teacher Note

    Before using instruments, discuss ways of „keeping ourselves safe‟ from the spread of germs e.g. using disinfectant wipes to clean an instrument after use. Take photos of students creating and investigating wind sounds. Have students write descriptions of how sounds were produced.

    Record the sounds of wind instruments being played by students and sounds that occur naturally in the environment. Create a quiz for matching a sound to its sound source. Upload the sound recordings and information to your shared on-line workspace.

Focus questions

    How is sound created naturally by the wind?

    How do you distinguish between birdsongs?

    Can you identify high and low sounds?

How can you imitate these sounds?

    How can you make a sound using a wind instrument?

    Do you blow across the top of the instrument or sideways across it, or directly into it, or by some other method?

    What do you do with your lips (tightly pursed or relaxed) to make the sound? How do you play a conch shell as opposed to a piece of bamboo, a recorder or a clarinet?

Reflection for Students

    How well can we recognise each sound, the differences between them, the similarities between them? What are the cues we pick up as we listen?

Task 2

    ; Listen to Māori instruments being played and find out how they can

    be used

    Go to http://www.Mā Select „instruments‟ from the menu on

    the website or at Select „taonga puoro‟ from the menu.

    You will be able to listen to a variety of traditional Māori instruments.

    1. List the instruments that are most similar to the ones in the Digistore


    2. Copy and paste or draw pictures of the instruments and describe the

    similarities and differences.

Teacher Note

    Refer to the metadata record for the „Playing Taonga Puoro‟ resource for more information that can be shared with your students. Encourage students to find answers to the following questions:

    What feelings or emotions do the sounds of kōauau or nguru evoke?

    What materials were these instruments made from?

The metadata record mentions the legend of Tutanekai and Hinemoa.

Reflection for Students

    What relevance do these instruments have to this legend and to other Māori legends?

Task 3

    ; Listen to songs that feature the use of Māori instruments and

    describe how they are used

    Possible waiata:


    „Karanga Weka‟


    „Poi Awhiowhio‟


Teacher Note

    The songs listed above are recordings that have been supplied free to schools by the Ministry of Education, through Learning Media on Kiwi Kidsongs 101 DVD-Rom (2007).

    Using the DVD-Rom Kiwi Kidongs 101, print the lyrics (words) of a song that you have listened to and find the translation of the Māori text.

    Songs could be compiled into a big book for the class to refer to. The musical element of tone colour (also called timbre) refers to the quality of

    sound of an instrument or sound source.

Reflection for Students

    What music vocabulary can we use to describe sounds?

    What other language can we use to describe what we hear?

    How can we distinguish between sounds e.g. the difference between a recorder and a conch shell?

    How are the instrumental sounds being made in the recording? Does the musician blow, pluck, strum, strike, shake or scrape the sound source? What material/s are each instrument or sound source made from? Could the materials be natural e.g. wood, plant, rock, bone, skin?

    Why did the composer chose to use those particular instruments? Which instruments could we use to create a similar sound?

    Which instruments made the best sounds when we played them? What have we noticed about how we make sounds with the instruments we have explored?

Task 4

    ; Suggestions for learning a new song

1. Listen to the song and talk about its meaning.

    2. Chant the words rhythmically, with correct pronunciation. 3. If there is a repeated chorus, sing the chorus along with the recording

    each time.

    4. Feel the beat (steady pulse) of the song by moving or playing to the beat

    as you listen.

    5. Show the pitch movement (high or low) in the melody by moving your

    hand up and down as the melody moves higher or lower. E.g. In the song

    „Hutia‟, the melody moves up in the first phrase and down again in the

    second phrase.

    6. In groups make up a movement or body percussion sound to accompany

    each line of text. If the text is repeated, then the movement or sound is


    7. Listen to the beginning of the song. Hum the note the first word starts on

    to check you are going to start singing at the correct pitch. 8. Sing the whole song and note any tricky bits that might need to be


Reflection for Students

    How well are we singing in tune and in time together with the recording? Are our words clear?

    How well can we include movement or body percussion to fit in with the text/lyrics?

Task 5

    ; Analyse the musical arrangement of a song

    1. Listen again and identify when the lyrics are sung and the instrumental sounds are added. Indicate on the song lyrics sheets where the instrumental sounds are played. Can you imitate these sounds with voices or with other sound sources?

    2. Describe the form (structure) of the song. Are any sections of the song

    repeated e.g. chorus or instrumental idea? If so, when do the repeats occur?

    3. Describe the tempo (speed of the pulse). Does the tempo change during the

    song i.e. get faster or slower.

    4. Describe the dynamics (loud or soft volume). Do the dynamics change during

    the song?

    5. Describe the texture (thick or thin sound). Can you hear more than one sound

    playing at a time? Are the instruments all playing the same musical pattern or are several musical patterns woven together? How does the arrangement of sounds help to convey meaning in the music, e.g. theme, mood, contrast?

Teacher Note

    Divide the class into groups of 4 or 5 and ask students to select a song from the following list of songs from Kiwi Kidsongs 101.


    „Karanga Weka‟


    „Poi Awhiowhio‟


Focus Question

    What sounds can you hear in the music, e.g. instruments, voices singing or chanting, sound effects?

Reflection for Students

    Can we imitate the sounds of instruments with our voices?

    Can we imitate some of the rhythms in the song, using body percussion? Can we keep in time with the beat using body percussion?

    Can we chant the words in time with each other?

    Can we sing together in time with the recording?

    How did the movements we chose reflect the mood of the music? What was my favourite part of the song? Why?

    What was the most difficult part of the song to learn? Why?

Task 6

    ; Create a graphic score to represent the musical arrangement of a


    1. Continue to work in groups. Use a large sheet of paper, or create a Word document, or Excel spreadsheet to create a graphic score (sound picture). 2. Write out the lyrics for your selected song and leave a large space below and above the words to show the other sounds that are being played as the words are sung.

    3. Create graphic (visual) symbols for each instrumental sound and show each sound source as a separate line in the score.

    Note: If using an Excel spreadsheet or a table in a Word document, print the lyrics in the middle row of the table and the instrumental sounds above and below the lyrics.

     Bellbird ; ; ; Kōauau

     Lyrics Hutia te rito Hutia te rito o te harakeke Hum or Mmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmm Pumotumotu Focus Questions:

    Focus questions

    How does the song start? When do the song lyrics start and stop? Do instruments accompany the singing all the time?

Reflection for Students

    How can we use lines, pictures and shapes to represent sound?

    How do we go about deciding what graphic symbols to use for each sound? When we created a graphic score, how did we decide where to put each graphic symbol?

    Why are some parts of our graphic scores busier than others?

Task 7

    ; Use music software to analyse and alter a sound recording

    Add your own sounds to a sound file by creating a new track and recording sounds as you listen to the song using earphones or by copying a sound recording and pasting it into the song.

Focus questions

    Why do you think the sound waves change from thin to thick?

    Where in the sound file does the singing start? How do you know?

Teacher Note

    All of the songs on the DVD-Rom Kiwi Kidsongs 101 are wave files and can be dragged into an audio production and mixing programme, such as Garageband

    (Mac), Acid Express (PC) or Audacity (PC).

    A simple way to see an arrangement of a piece of music in a graphic way is to drag or copy a music wave file into Garageband (Mac), or Acid Express (PC)

‘Hutia’ Graphic score

    The vertical squiggles represent sound waves. The example shown is of the first 2 phrases of the song „Hutia‟.

    The recording starts with the sound of a bellbird being played on a kōauau, then a single female voice sings the lyrics accompanied by a single note played on a pumotumotu. The bellbird sound is heard throughout the song in between lyrics.

Reflection for Students

    How do we decide where in the score to add live sounds?

    How could we explain the process for adding a new track to the sound file to someone else?

    What sounds can we add to the recording e.g. voice, body percussion, environmental sounds, electronic sounds, pre-recorded loops, live instruments? After completing this task

    How did we decide which sounds to add?

    Did the song sound better or worse and why? What changes did we make to the texture, dynamics and mood of the music? How did this improve the music? What else did we discover that the software could do?

    How could we use the software in other classroom activities?

Task 8

    ; Create your own Hue Pongaaihu or Kōauau

Instructions: How to make a hue pongaaihu

Use ordinary classroom clay.

    1. Roll and massage a ball of clay, about the size of a medium potato in your hands to warm the clay and make it supple.

    2. Start moulding the sound hole by pressing your index finger into the middle and creating a hollow puku (belly) on the middle of the ball. Be careful not to make the hole at the top any wider than your index finger. A large hole can be difficult to close (as can be seen on the video).

    3. The clay shape will start to look like a gourd as the belly is formed and the sides become thinner. To reduce the size of the sound hole at the top, place your index finger inside the hole and gently massage the clay towards the middle, using your thumb on the outside and little finger on the inside. 4. Decorate the hue, using a stick or skewer before the clay dries. It can be played before the clay dries. The clay will dry naturally and does not need to be fired in order to be played.

    5. To play your hue, place the sound hole to the side of your mouth, facing upwards and whistle sideways across and into the hole.

Possible alternative instrument to make

Make your own kōauau

    Reference : School Journal Part 4, Number 2, 1997.

    In this article, Richard Nunns explains how to make your own

    kōauau from a shank-bone.

    1. Ask your butcher or an adult to saw off the end of a shank-bone (sheep, goat or deer).

    2. Boil and scrape out the bone then leave to dry thoroughly.

    3. Mark in the finger holes with a pencil, using the joints of your finger as a guide for the spaces between holes.

    4. Use a 3mm bit to drill the holes you have marked.

    5. Use sandpaper to smooth and polish your instrument.

    6. Use the diagram in the article to help you play your kōauau. The body of the

    kōauau is to the side of your mouth. Your lips are in the shape you would use if you were going to whistle. Blow gently forwards.

Teacher Note

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