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on Education and Culture
“Living and Learning
in a Global Society”
Hosted by John Cabot University, Via della Lungara 233, 00165 Rome November 12-14, 2003
~Conference Director: Dr. Bruce C. Swaffield, School of Communication & the Arts, Regent University~
nd2 Annual Worldwide Forum on Education and Culture
John Cabot University ~ Rome, Italy
“Living and Learning in a Global Society”
Wednesday ~ November 12, 2003
9:00 – 9:30
Opening Ceremonies and Official Welcome
President James Creagan, John Cabot University
Deputy Chief of Mission Mr. Brent Hardt, American Embassy to the Holy See
9:40 – 10:10
Dr. Rose Hayden, “A Malevolent Mickey Mouse vs. The Mad Mullahs? What‟s An
Educator To Do?”
10:15 – 11:25 Session A
“Shaping the Future of Educational Leaders through the Challenges of International
Educational Exchanges and Initiatives,” Ana Gil-Garcia, Northeastern Illinois University
“International Education and the Reshaping of Diasporas,” Frank H. Shih, CUNY School of
Law, Queens College
“Asians and Americans: Culture and Education,” Ann Whitaker, Northeastern Illinois
11:30 – 11:55 Complimentary Coffee Break at Massimo Bar
Go out the front door of John Cabot University and turn left. Walk under the arch and through
the intersection. Massimo Bar is about 20 yards on the left.
Noon – 12:40 Session B
“Strategies for the Cross-Cultural Writing Class,” Ginger Jones, Louisiana State University at
“Training Teachers for Education that is Multicultural: A First Step Towards Developing a
Cycle of Academic Achievement for Latinos,” Zaida A. Cintron, Chicago State University
12:45 – 1:30 Session C st “Cross-Cultural Awareness: International Understanding for a Global Citizen of the 21
Century,” Graciela Helguero, Lynn University.
“Mestizaje, Multiculturalism and the Effects of Capitalism on the U.S.–Mexican Border,”
Gilberto Reyes Jr., South Texas Community College
6 – 8 p.m. Rooftop Reception at John Cabot University
Meet colleagues and the faculty of John Cabot at a typical Roman reception on the beautiful
rooftop patio of the university.
Thursday ~ November 13, 2003
8:30 – 10:00 Session D
“The Fullness of Space: Where Books Fail in Learning About Chinese Theatre,” Dallas
McCurley, Queens College of CUNY
“Developing New Methods and Ideologies for Inter-Cultural Communication and
Understanding,” Haider Mehdi, United Arab Emirates University
“The Politics of Culture: A New Imperative for the Study and Practice of Multicultural and
Global Relationships in the Public and Private Spheres, Lorna Bell-Shaw, Lynn University
“Complexities of Culture in International Training and Education,” Raymond Maxwell, Global
Education Services and Cornish College of the Arts
10:10 – 11:15 Session E
“The Meaning of Tolerance in the Wake of September 11,” Eamon Halpin, Louisiana State
University at Alexandria
“A World of „Outsiders‟: Literary Pedagogical Ways of Promoting the Value of „Difference‟ in
the Choice Between „Chaos or Community,‟ in a Post-9/11 World,” Jane Davis, Iowa State
“Language Policy and Language Provincialism: Barriers to Globalization in Public Schooling
in the United States,” Judith Lessow-Hurley, San Jose University
11:20 – 12:45 Session F
“Revisiting English Language Teaching Curricula: Three Essential Components of TESL
Graduate Programs in the First Global Century,” Faiza Derbel, Faculte des Lettres et Sciences
Humaines de Sfax (Tunisia), and Anne Richards, Iowa State University
“Providing Multicultural Experiences for Early Childhood Education Pre-Service Teachers to
Develop Multicultural Attitudes,” Elizabeth Landerholm, Northeastern Illinois University, and
Cynthia Gehrie, Video Documentation Partnership
12:50 – 1:15 Session G
“Future Education – The Innernet and The Internet,” Louis Silverstein, Columbia College
2 – 2:15 Scavi Tour (Optional)
For those with tickets, please be at the Obelisk in front of St. Peter‟s Basilica by 1:50 p.m.
Friday ~ November 14, 2003
8:30 – 10:00 Session H
“The Chicago ENLACE Partnership: Strategies and Practices for Cultivating Latino
Educational Development,” Suleyma Perez, Anna Lisa Vargas, Angela Guerrero, Joaquin
Villegas, Ana Gil-Garcia, ENLACE Partnership with Northeastern Illinois University
10:10 – 11:15 Session I
“Educating Americans in a Multi-Ethnic Society,” Alfonso Nava, California State University,
“Implementing A First Year Requirement Course on Race: The Case of St. Cloud State
University,” Carolyn Ruth A. Williams, St. Cloud State University
“‟A veces en ingles, no, I don‟t make any sense:‟ Contrastive Rhetoric, Standardized Writing
Assessment, and the Experiences of LEP Students in a Secondary Setting,” Julia Villaseñor,
11:20 – 12:25 Session J
“Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Personal, Professional and Organizational
Perspectives,” Don C. Locke, North Carolina State University
“The Role of Teacher Education in Promoting Peace and Justice in a Global Society," Reyes L.
Quezada, University of San Diego
“The State of Compensatory Education: An Analysis of At-Risk Minority Students in Higher
Education,” Scott Richardson, Kutztown University
12:30 – 1:30 Session K
“Tea vs. Pepsi: A Cross-Cultural Study of Disabled Student Service Offices of Colleges and
Universities in England and the U.S.,” Mason Murphy, Azusa Pacific University
“Structure and Function, The Multicultural Community Center – Designing a Paradigm for
Universal Harmony,” Jean A. Purchas-Tulloch, Howard University
“Media Influence on Society and World Culture,” Bruce C. Swaffield, Regent University
Saturday – November 15, 2003
9 to 11 (Optional)
Tour of the Vatican Gardens for those who have purchased tickets. Please meet at the entrance
to the Vatican Museums no later 8:45 a.m. Please be prompt.
WORLDWIDE FORUM ON EDUCATION AND CULTURE
As delivered by
Deputy Chief of Mission, U.S. Embassy to the Holy See
November 12, 2003
John Cabot University
Ambassador Creagan, Distinguished scholars, ladies and gentlemen:
I am delighted to be here today to help kick off what looks to be a fascinating three days of discussions on "Living and Learning in a Global Society." As Ambassador Creagan knows so well, "Living and Learning in a Global Society is what we as American diplomats do every day. And one of the things that I have found in my nearly 16 years as a diplomat, is that no matter how much you know about other societies and cultures, it is never enough. There is always more to understand, to appreciate, and to consider as we try to work more effectively with other countries to build a safer, more peaceful world.
This morning I would like to share with you some of my perspectives as a diplomatic practitioner about why I believe it is essential today to study other cultures. Though I suppose with this audience of distinguished cultural experts I am to some extent preaching to the choir, I will nevertheless seek to outline how culture impinges on my work as an American diplomat and why I believe cultural understanding is so vital in today's world.
Let me begin by acknowledging that I bring a certain bias to this discussion -- a bias rooted in my own life-long fascination with the world‘s cultural, societal and linguistic variety that was one of my motivating forces in my decision to pursue a career as an American diplomat. In fact, if I were to dig out the essay I wrote years ago explaining why I wanted to become a U.S. Foreign Service Officer, I think I would find that my main argument was that I wanted to be able to gain a better perspective and understanding of my own country by being better able to compare it to others -- to see where it really stood out and equally to see where it could stand to learn from others.
Sixteen years on, I think I have made a good start -- but only a start -- in this regard. I have come to admire most of all something intangible that can best be captured in the expression ―the American spirit‖ -- a willingness to take initiative and a determined desire to act to make the world better. This spirit is rooted in an American culture of optimism that is not widely shared by other nations with histories that have often left greater room for cynicism.
Having acknowledged my bias, let me set out with a proposition: I believe that cultural
understanding is more urgent today than at any time in world history, but is in alarmingly short supply. And, I suppose since this is an academic gathering, I should at least make an attempt to offer a definition of culture and cultural understanding. As I understand it, culture can best be seen as the values, the ideals, and the intellectual, moral, and artistic qualities of a given society - in short the way of life and way of thinking of a people. Cultural understanding, then, would involve the ability to recognize the way of life and thinking of a given people and, hopefully, to act on that recognition in dealings with that group. That said, let's turn now to impact of culture on the situation in the world today.
Nothing illustrates both the gap and the urgency of cultural understanding better than the terrible events of September 11. For most Americans, the question that persisted as we tried to make sense of this act of terror was: Why anybody would want to do such a horrible thing to the United States? What could lead educated, reasonably well-off young men to throw away their lives with the goal of bringing death and destruction to innocents? What had we as a nation done to evoke this sort of atavistic hatred? Many have struggled with the answer to this question, and we will never know for sure what went through their twisted minds. All we know is that they were motivated by a hatred for the United States that most Americans found completely incomprehensible. Of course, anybody who really knew the American people and their basic goodness, decency, and compassion knows that it is incomprehensible. But the September 11 terrorists clearly lacked this understanding. Their cultural ignorance of the United States and their misreading of the situation of their own Islamic culture almost certainly contributed to their skewed decisions kill innocents to further their distorted visions.
Since September 11, culture has moved squarely to the center of international politics and American engagement in the world. In the immediate aftermath of that attacks in New York and Washington, the world turned its attention to a country that had seemed almost to have dropped out of the modern world -- Afghanistan. There the international community found a country deeply confused about its cultural identity - a country determined to resist any hint of modernism and wiling to impose a primal fundamentalism that led it to brutally oppress women, ban traditional Afghan music, and blow up historic world cultural treasures. In this troubled and tormented country, terrorists found fertile soil to plot an attack on leading symbols of a western culture they barely understood.
Today in Iraq, we see cultures again in the forefront as American, British and other coalition country soldiers and administrators seek to foster stability and establish the foundations for a more democratic and free society. Many have commented on the obstacles faced by American soldiers lacking understanding of local language and culture in trying to achieve these difficult, but desirable goals. Analysts and academics are now deeply engaged in debating whether it will prove possible to democratize Iraq. Most of the arguments hinge on issues of culture - specifically, what sort of political structures are compatible with Iraqi culture? President Bush has recently weighed in on this debate with a strong and compelling argument for expanding the reach of democracy throughout the Middle East. In doing so, he acknowledged that he is taking on skeptics who claim that ―the traditions of Islam are
inhospitable to representative government.‖ The President suggested, however, that such claims amount to ―cultural condescension,‖ and pointed out that similar claims were made about Japan and Germany after World War II, and other countries in other times. Taking on this cultural argument head on, the President pointed out that democracy is succeeding in many predominantly Muslim countries - including Turkey, Indonesia, Sierra Leone and
Albania, and that Muslims are solid and productive citizens in democratic countries of Europe and in the United States. The failures of many Middle Eastern societies, the President concludes, ―are not the failures of a culture or religion. These are the failures of political and economic doctrines.‖
What is particularly notable to me about the President‘s speech last week and particularly relevant in the context of your meeting this week is the extent to which the President directly addresses issues of culture. In introducing his theme of democracy in the Middle East, the President asked directly: ―Are millions of men, women, and children condemned by history or culture to live in despotism?‖ In affirming his belief that they are not, the President assured us that he was mindful that modernization was not the same thing as Westernization‖ and that
―representative governments in the Middle East will reflect their own cultures.‖ Nevertheless, he insisted that there are essential principles common to every successful society in every culture - limits on the power of the state and military, impartial rule of law, strong and independent civic institutions, religious liberty, respect for private property, recognition of the rights of women, and tolerance of others. There is a great deal in that speech that merits consideration, and I believe that you as educators focused on culture and cultural understanding would find much of interest in the President‘s words.
A final area of policy discussion that is currently laced with cultural debates is the transatlantic relationship. Since last year‘s divisions over the Iraq war, the transatlantic relationship has been going through what we diplomats term ―a rough patch.‖ The differences in approach and the sometimes heated transatlantic rhetoric have generated a series of deeper psycho-analyses of the relationship, with come commentators concluding that there is a wide and growing cultural gap between Europe and the United States. The Marshall Fund recently concluded a study that found Europeans to be more pacifist and multilateralist, while Americans were found to be more willing to take to arms and to act alone if necessary. Other studies have pointed to differences over the death penalty, social and labor policy, and the role of religion in society to promote their conclusions about a growing cultural divide across the ocean.
While there is little doubt that there are cultural differences between the United States and Europe today, it is also true that such differences are nothing new. Moreover, there are also significant cultural differences within Europe, and even within European countries themselves - Palermo and Milan are both Italian cities, but they are clearly different subsets of Italian culture. To my mind, the cultural question between Europe and the United States is less whether there are differences - because there are - but whether those differences are greater than the cultural traditions that we share and seek to promote together in the international community. My own sense is that the core values we share - the same ones the President spoke of in his speech -- liberty, respect for the rule of law, respect for human rights and religious liberty, and tolerance of others - are much stronger than any differences of emphasis we may see over whether and how we should act to defend these values. That‘s
why despite today‘s focus on transatlantic cultural differences, I remain bullish that the U.S. and Europe working together will continue to be the driving force for global peace, prosperity and justice.
While my optimism may reflect my own American cultural mileau, it is also rooted in my understanding of the work going on every day in our Embassies here in Rome and in other
U.S. Embassies to bridge cultural gaps and improve mutual understanding. Here, if you will allow me, I would like to move briefly from the big picture to the micro level to give you a sense of how your work as cultural educators can contribute to our efforts to advance U.S. interests in a more stable and secure world.
As I noted at the outset, as diplomats, we are living and learning in a global society every day. In my own work with the Holy See, I work with an institution that has a distinctive culture rooted in over 2000 years of history and tradition. Understanding the Vatican culture is essential for building an effective policy dialogue. For example, you quickly learn that the Vatican thinks and acts for the long term - which is only fitting for an institution that considers the Great Schism of 1052 as a recent event.
And as you get more deeply into the Vatican culture, you discover that there are in fact a number of cultures to contend with, for the Vatican is made up of people from every corner of the globe and a direct approach that might work with a German or Dutch prelate might not work with a Japanese or Ghanian prelate. In addition, you also discover that the curia itself has cultural subgroups of prelates from certain regions in Italy or prelates affiliated with a certain religious order. Working through this series of intertwining cultures successfully requires finely honed cultural antennae.
Obviously, the more we can bring to our work a cultivated sense of cultural understanding, the more successful we are in building the kind of world we would all like to see. And what we bring to our work in part depends on you and your colleagues in other universities who are engaged daily in the important work of preparing the diplomats and businessmen of tomorrow to operate in a world where culture plays such critical defining roles. Those of your students who graduate with an appreciation for cultural differences and an ability to navigate around them are the people we need in the Foreign Service of the future. I should note that the State Department is currently hiring more new officers than at any time in its history, and I would encourage you to ask your best students to consider careers in the Foreign Service, where they will have a daily chance to put your instruction to good use.
As American diplomats, we operate today in a world in which culture has so clearly risen to the top of the policy agenda. When I sit down to assess what is the most important challenge we face today, I have no doubt that my principal challenge is to promote a better understanding of American values, ways of thinking and acting. In short - to help build understanding of American culture and at the same time to help Americans understand other cultures, how others perceive us, what their expectations are, and how we can best work together. In fact, the diplomacy that matters most today could best be called ―values
This diplomacy comes down to the belief that there are certain universal values worthy of respect and worthy of our action in their defense. This view, incidentally, is one advocated forcefully not only by President Bush, but also by Pope John Paul II, who has understood the importance of culture as much as any major figure of the last half century. The Pope shares the President‘s belief that ―we are witnessing an extraordinary global acceleration of that
quest for freedom which is one of the great dynamics of human history.‖ Both the President and the Pope have noted that this phenomenon is not limited to any one part of the world; nor is it the expression of any single culture. Men and women throughout the world, even when
threatened by violence, continue to take the risk of freedom. This universal longing for freedom, the Pope has observed, ―is truly one of the distinguishing marks of our time.‖
Speaking in 1995 at the United Nations, the Pope had presciently observed that the fear of "difference" . . . can lead to a true nightmare of violence and terror.‖ And yet, he noted, ―if we make the effort to look at matters objectively, we can see that, transcending all the differences which distinguish individuals and peoples, there is a fundamental commonality. For different cultures are but different ways of facing the question of the meaning of personal existence. And it is precisely here that we find one source of the respect which is due to every culture and every nation: every culture is an effort to ponder the mystery of the world and in particular of the human person: it is a way of giving expression to the transcendent dimension of human life.‖
Elaborating still further his concept of culture, the Pope continued that ―to cut oneself off from the reality of difference - or, worse, to attempt to stamp out that difference - is to cut oneself off from the possibility of sounding the depths of the mystery of human life. The truth about man is the unchangeable standard by which all cultures are judged; but every culture has something to teach us about one or other dimension of that complex truth. Thus the "difference" which some find so threatening can, through respectful dialogue, become the source of a deeper understanding of the mystery of human existence.‖
I could not cast the importance of cultural understanding any more clearly than that. I wish you the very best for your three days here and hope that your continued efforts to promote understanding of cultures can lead your students to explore and understand cultural differences so they can help build a the global culture of freedom, which, as President Bush so rightly concluded, remains ―the best hope for progress here on earth.‖
A MALEVOLENT MICKEY MOUSE
VS. THE MAD MULLAHS: WHAT’S AN EDUCATOR TO DO?
Keynote Address by Dr. Rose Lee Hayden
President, Worldviews Multimedia
Worldwide Forum on Education and Culture
November 12, 2003
Good morning and welcome to Rome. Today I would like to focus on some questions that have always posed real difficulties for me with respect to our field of international and multicultural education. I shall present these in two broad contexts – today‘s seemingly
apocalyptic international arena, and America‘s apparently emerging class war.