PSY 203 Departmental Exam Study Guide
1. What is human development? Briefly discuss environment contexts for
2. Differentiate between nature and nurture with regard to development. 3. What is the difference between a cross-sectional and a longitudinal research
4. Briefly describe the information processing view of human development with
regard to gains in processing capacity.
5. Explain the importance of social interaction according to Vygotsky’s
6. Outline the phases of prenatal development, noting the major milestones that
occur in each phase.
7. What is Down Syndrome? How does a mother’s age affect the risk of bearing a
baby with Down Syndrome?
8. What is a teratogen? In which stage of prenatal development is the unborn child
most vulnerable to teratogens?
9. Differentiate between the cephalocaudal trend and the proximodistal trend in
terms of physical growth and motor control.
10. List and describe the three basic infant temperaments as described by Thomas and
11. Describe the findings of Harry Harlow’s research with baby monkeys.
12. What is attachment? List and describe patterns of infant attachment studied by
13. How does a father’s involvement with a baby affect the child’s development?
14. Outline and describe the eight psychosocial stages of development proposed by
Erik Erikson, indicating the ages of each stage.
15. Outline and describe the four stages of cognitive development proposed by Jean
Piaget, indicating the ages of each stage.
16. What is the difference between assimilation and accommodation? 17. Differentiate between the nativist, behaviorist, and interactionist perspectives of
language development. What evidence supports each theory?
18. Outline and explain the three levels of moral development proposed by Lawrence
19. Discuss physical changes associated with puberty in both boys and girls. 20. Which area of the brain is the last to mature in humans?
21. Discuss sex differences in aggressiveness and verbal and math abilities. 22. Which age group has the highest ratio of attempted to completed suicides? 23. Outline the four identity statuses proposed by James Marcia. What are the main
two dimensions considered with the four statuses?
24. Do the Big Five personality traits tend to change or remain relatively stable
through middle adulthood?
25. How common is a midlife crisis? What is a midlife transition? 26. Describe changes in gender identity in midlife.
27. What is the empty nest period? How do most parents react to it? 28. At what age does menopause typically occur?
29. List and describe the three components of personality proposed by Sigmund
30. Contrast Erikson’s theory of development with Freud’s theory of development.
31. Why do students drop out of college?
32. What is active lifespan?
33. Describe trends in housing arrangements for older adults. Why do many elders
live in their own homes?
34. Discuss factors associated with elder maltreatment.
35. Discuss indirect self-destructive acts that are common with suicide in old age. 36. List factors in late adulthood that increase the likelihood of falling. 37. What is osteoporosis?
38. What is a kinkeeper? Who usually assumes this role in the family? 39. Differentiate between problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping with
regard to stress management.
40. Describe fluid and crystallized intelligence, and discuss changes in these types of
intelligence as people move through adulthood.
41. Do women or men have a longer life expectancy?