Chapter 2 The Grammar-Translation Method
1.Key points( 学习要点)
The Grammar-translation Method is a method of foreign or second language teaching, which uses translation and grammars study as the main teaching and learning activities. At one time it was called Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching
of the classical languages of Latin and Greek.
2. Basic Principle(基本原则；
2.1 Main features(主要特征；
(1) Grammar is the core of language,
and language materials are arranged according to the grammar system.：语法是语言
(2) The main teaching activities are analysis, explanation and translation.(主要教学
(3) The major practice is translation from and into the target language.(主要教学实
(4) The teaching focus is reading and writing.(教学重点是阅读和写作)
(5) First language is the main medium of instruction.(第一语言是主要的教学中介
(6) The sentence is the basic unit of language teaching and learning.(句子是语言教
(7) Language accuracy is emphasized.(强调语言的准确性)
The objectives of learning a foreign language in a Grammar-Translation Method cla
ssroom are to enable the learners:
(1)to read and translate its literature;(能够阅读和翻译所学的文学作品;)
(2)understand the target language;(能够帮助和理解目标语)
(3)to help develop their minds;(能够帮助学生发展智力;)
(4)to gain a better understanding of the first language.(能够更好地理解第一语言)
An ultimate purpose of learning a foreign language in a Grammar-Translation classroom is to enable the learners to read and translate its literature. Students are required t
memorize the grammatical rules in order to understand the target language. The otheo
r objectives of the method are to provide students with good mental exercises that hel
p develop their minds, and to gain a better understanding of the first language.
A Grammar-Translation teacher usually uses the following techniques to help realize
the course objectives:
CityplaceReading passages are planned around the sequenced grammatical structures and vocabulary to be studied and are excerpted from literary works or carefully wri
tten by a compiler, including particular grammar rules and vocabulary.
Translation can be employed in presenting a new grammatical item, understanding a new passage, or as exercises at the end of a lesson.
(3)Deductive teaching of grammar(演绎法语法教学)
Grammar rules are taught directly by the teacher, with exceptions to each rules noted.
(4)Analysis and comparison(分析和比较)
Difficult sentences are analyzed in detail and compared with the first language senten
Students are required to memorize bilingual word lists and grammatical rules.
(6)Reading comprehension questions(阅读理解问题)
Different questions are designed for students to answer to check the understanding of
the reading passage.
Fill-in-the-blanks are one kind of written work. Using new words to make up sentence
s is another type of written work.
Composition is frequently employed in traditional foreign language teaching.
The main procedures for a typical lesson with the Grammar-Translation Method can
be divided into three phases. The activities in each phase are described below:
A. The teacher reads and explains the new words and expressions in the first language.
B. The teacher teaches the new grammar with deductive method.
A.Students are asked to read a few sentences out aloud and translate them into the firs
B. The teacher analyses some difficult sentence and translates them into their native
language first literally and then freely.
C. Students read the studied part of the passage silently and ask the teacher questions
they cannot answer by themselves.
A. Students are asked to write the answers to the questions about the reading passage.B. Students are asked to do other written work that is meant to reinforce the new gra
mmar items and vocabulary.
3.Summary and Comments(总结与结论；
(1)It makes use of the first language(该方法运用了第一语言；
In Grammar-Translation Method, the first language is maintained as the reference sy
stem in the learning of the second language.
(2)It helps students develop reading comprehension and production of written langu
Systematic study of grammatical rules plays an important role in fostering students' ability of reading comprehension and producing grammatically correct sentences. The
focus on understanding literary texts provides the situation in which reading and writi
ng are well trained.
(3)It is easy for teachers to use.(教师易于使用这一教学法)
The Grammar-Translation Method makes few demands on teachers although it often
creates frustration for students. It is relatively easy to apply.
：1；Overemphasis on translation, dependence on first language(过分强调翻译~
Overemphasis on translation can never emancipate the learners from dependence o
n the first language.
(2)Too much emphasis on reading and writing, neglect of listening and speaking(过
It puts too much emphasis on reading and writing and neglects listening and speakin
(3)Not meeting the communicative and practical needs of the students(不能满足学
Knowing a large number of grammatical rules cannot ensure that students can use them appropriately in real communicative situation. The texts are mostly taken from literary works. The language learned often doesn't meet the practical needs of the learne
Memorizing grammar rules and bilingual word lists does not motivate students to a
ctively communicate in the target language.
Chapter 3 The Direct Method
The Direct Method is a method of foreign or second language teaching which insists that only the target language should be used in class and meanings should be communicated “directly” by associating speech forms with actions, objects, mime, gestures, and situations.
The Direct Method emphasizes the importance of spoken language, therefore holds that reading and writing should be taught only after speaking. The Direct
Method believes in the natural process of language learning and in the inductive teaching of grammar.
2. Main features
The Direct Method aims at developing the students' ability to communicate in the target language. In order to do this successfully students are encouraged to learn to think in the target language.
In the classroom, the meaning of a new target language word or phrase is presented by relating the expression directly to objects, visual aids, or to familiar words in the foreign language wherever possible.
In the Direct Method, the target language is used exclusively in the language classroom as a means of instruction and communication. The first language and translation exercise are completely avoided.
In contrast to the Grammar-Translation Method, the Direct Method may never give an explicit grammar rule. In the Direct Method, grammar is learned inductively through listening and speaking activities.
In the Direct Method, although the teaching of all four language skills is advocated by most Direct Methodologists, oral communication skills are regarded as basic. Correct pronunciation is emphasized in the Direct Method.
The syllabus used in the Direct Method is arranged semantically according to situations or topics. The spoken form in the target language is studied in preference to literary language.
Vocabulary is not introduced as detached words, but as a connected story. The unit in a language is the sentence.
The objectives of the Direct Method are to foster the students' ability to communicate in the target language. The general goal of a language program is to teach conversational skills. The reason for the exclusive use of the foreign language in the Direct Method is to enable the students to think in the target language, so that they can use it to express themselves directly without referring to their mother tongue. To train for basic language skills is not neglected, but reading and writing exercises should be based upon what the students practice orally first. Pronunciation is paid attention to from the beginning of a course. Vocabulary takes precedence over grammar.
In order to realize the goal of teaching, a Direct Method teacher is usually found using the following techniques:
1. Direct association (直接联系): new language items are presented by
associating meaning with the target language directly.
2. Question and answer exercises: in order to have the newly-introduced language items fully understood by students, the teacher answers students' questions and asks students to answer her questions in full sentences.
3. Conversation practice: students are encouraged to ask each other questions using the same grammatical structures they have practiced.
4. Error correction. Students are not allowed to make mistakes. Their mistakes are immediately corrected by the teacher or by students themselves.
5. Dictation (听写): Dictation is an exercise frequently used in consolidation with written work in the Direct Method. Dictation is used as a means to reinforce and test what the students have learned.
6. Inductive teaching of grammar. Grammar is learned inductively through listening and speaking activities.
7. Listening comprehension tasks. Designing listening comprehension tasks is one of the ways to establish a favorable classroom climate in the Direct Method.
8. Graded composition (分级作文): writing can be introduced as a means of
consolidation and evaluation in the Direct Method. Written work should be graded in the following sequence: ?reproduction of familiar reading texts;? reproduction of
narratives orally presented by the teacher; ? free composition.
5. Classroom procedures:
Classroom procedures in the Direct Method can be roughly divided into three phases: presentation by Direct Association; Oral practice in the target language; consolidation with written work.
6. Summary and Comments
The Direct Method advocates the importance of oral language and believes that language should be learned through direct association of form and meaning.
The Direct Method mainly uses such techniques as question-and-answer, dictation and conversation practice which are still widely used in foreign language teaching classrooms today.
7. The advantages
The use of the target language as a means of instruction and communication in the classroom contributes greatly to forming the habit of thinking in the target language, which is necessary in efficient real communication.
The emphasis on practice with new language items and on language skills, rather than on language knowledge, is important in achieving automaticity of using the target language.
The emphasis on spoken language conforms to the objectives of modern language teaching. Special attention paid to pronunciation and intonation is desirable in teaching spoken language.
Regarding listening and speaking as the basis of reading and writing is strategic in fostering the four skills.
Using full sentences as teaching units makes foreign language learning more natural and efficient for students to understand a new text and acquire a language.
8. The disadvantages
Overemphasizing the similarities between naturalistic first language acquisition and classroom foreign language learning results in the exclusive use of the target
language. The absolute avoidance of the native tongue occasionally troubles the Direct Method in teaching the meaning of abstract concepts.
Without explicit grammar explanation, students lack a necessary knowledge of the target language. As a result, they tend to produce utterances with a lot of grammatical mistakes in them. It is difficult for them to safeguard against mistakes and self-correct them without the guidance of the rules of the target language.
The Direct Method places a high demand on the teacher. It requires native-speaker teachers or teachers who have native-speaker-like fluency in the target language.
Chapter 4 The Oral Approach
The oral approach(口语法) (or Situational language teaching情景教学法) refers
to an approach to language teaching developed by British applied linguistics from the 1930s to the 1960s. It is a grammar-based method in which principles of grammar and lexical gradation are used and new teaching points presented and practiced through meaningful situation-based
2. Basis Principles(基本原则)
1. Main features(主要特征)
(1)Language teaching begins with the spoken language. (语言教学从口语开始)
Language material is taught orally before it is presented in the written form.
(2)The target language is the language of the classroom. (用目标语作课堂教学用
The target language is the language of instruction. Translation should be avoided.
(3)New language is introduced and practiced in situations. (在情景中介绍和练习
New language points are introduced and practiced situationally, i.e. words should be presented in sentences, and sentences should be practiced in meaningful contexts and not be taught as isolated, disconnected elements.
(4)Common core words are covered. (选词应包括普通常用词汇)
Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that an essential general service vocabulary is covered.
(5)Simple forms of grammar are taught before complex ones, and inductively. (语
Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be
taught before complex ones, and inductively.
(6)Reading and writing are introduced later. (读和写的教学在后期进行)
Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis
The objectives of the oral approach are to help students to:
; get a practical command of the four basic skills of language. (掌握四种基本
; obtain accuracy in pronunciation and grammar.(掌握准确的发音及语法)
The objectives of the language teaching are to help learners to get a practical
command of the four basic of language. Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar
is regarded as crucial, and errors are to be avoided at all costs.
The practical techniques in the oral approach generally consists of :
; new sentence patterns are presented in situations.(用情景介绍新句型)
; drill-based practice.(操作练习)
; guided repetition and substitution activities. (指导下的复述和替代练习)
; dictation, imitation and controlled oral-based reading and writing tasks(听写，
The Oral Approach employs different classroom procedures according to the level
of the class. Procedures at any level aim to move from controlled to free practice of
structures and from oral use of sentence patterns to their automatic use in speech,
reading, and writing. The classroom procedures generally consist of:
1. listening practice(听力练习)in which the teacher obtains her
students’ attention and repeats an example of the patterns or a word in isolation
clearly, several times, probably saying it slowly at least once (e.g.
Where„is„the„pen?), separating the words.
2. choral imitation(齐声模仿) in which students all together or in
large groups repeat what the teacher has said. This works best if the teacher gives a
clear instruction like “Repeat”, or “Everybody” and hand signals to mark time
3. individual imitation(单独模仿) in which the teacher asks
several individual students to repeat the model she has given in order to check their
4. Isolation (突出重点), in which the teacher isolates sounds,
words or groups of words which cause trouble and goes through techniques 1-3 with
them before replacing them in context.
5. building up to new model(为新句型做准备), in which the
teacher gets students to ask and answer questions using patterns they already know in
order to bring about the information necessary to introduce the new model.
6. elicitation(启发提示), in which the teacher, using mime,
prompt words, gestures, etc., gets students to ask questions, make statements, or give
new examples of the pattern.
7. substitution drill(替换练习) in which the teacher, using
cues(words, pictures, numbers, names, etc.) gets individual students to substitute
words into the new patterns.
8. question-answer drilling(问答练习)in which the teacher gets one student
to ask a question and another to answer until most students in the class have practiced asking and
answering the new question form.
9. correction(改错练习)in which the teacher indicates by shaking
her head, repeating the error, etc., that there is a mistake and invites the students or a
different student to correct it. Where possible the teacher does not simply correct the
mistake herself. She gets students to correct themselves so they will be encouraged to
listen to each other carefully.
Chapter 5 The Audiolingual Method
The Audiolingual Method is a method of foreign language teaching which
emphasizes the teaching of listening and speaking before reading and writing. It uses
dialogues as the main form of language presentation and drills as the main training
techniques. Mother tongue is discouraged in the classroom.
2. Main features(主要特征)
By drawing on the structural linguistics and behaviourist psychology, the
Audiolingual Method formed its own distinctive characteristics. There are mainly five
1. Separation of language skills into listening, speaking, reading and writing,
with emphasis on the teaching of listening and speaking before reading and
2. Use of dialogues as the chief means of presenting the language;(对话是语言
3. Emphasis on certain practice techniques: mimicry, memorization and pattern
4. Discouraging the use of the mother tongue in the classroom;(在课堂教学中避
5. Use of language lab.(使用语言实验室)
The general objective of the Audio lingual Method is to enable the students to use to
target language communicatively. Short-range objectives include training in listening
comprehension, accurate pronunciation, reading comprehension and production of
correct sentences in writing. In other words, the objective of the Audio lingual
Method are the development of mastery in all four language skills, beginning with
listening and speaking, and using these as a basis for the teaching of reading and
writing. Long-range objective, or the ultimate goal, is to develop in the students the
same types of abilities that native speaking have, to use it automatically without
stopping to think.
Dialogues and pattern practice form the basis of audio lingual classroom practice.
The use of them is a distinctive feature of the Audio lingual Method. The techniques
used by the Audio lingual Method are:
1. Repetition drill？重复练习？！This drill is often used to teach the lines of the dialogue. Students are asked to repeat the teacher’s model as accurately and
as quickly as possible. e.g.:
This is a book?This is a book.
Students do this without looking at their book. They have to produce the appropriate
2. Substitution drill( 替换练习)！The students repeat the line from the dialogue which the teacher has given them, substituting the cue into the line in its
proper place. e.g.:
T C S
They drink wine. ? beer?They drink beer.
?coffee?They drink coffee.
?tea?They drink tea.
The major purpose of this drill is to give the students practice in finding and
filling in the slots of a sentence.
3. Question-and-answer drill(问答练习)！The drill gives students practice with answering questions. The students should answer the teacher’s question very
quickly. It is also possible for the teacher to cue the students to ask questions as well.
This gives students practice with the question pattern. e.g.
1. T: Are there any questions? Ss: No, there aren't any.
T: Is there any milk? Ss: No, there isn't any.
T: Are there any sandwiches? Ss: No, there aren't any.
T: Is there any wine? Ss: No, there isn't any.
2. T: he read The Times Ss: What did he read?
T: He said “Good morning.” Ss: What did he say?
T: He saw “The Sound of Music.” Ss: What did he see?
4. Expansion drill(扩展句子训练)！This drill helps students to produce longer sentence bit by bit, gradually achieving fluency. The main structure is repeated
first, then students have to put cue phrase in its proper place. e.g.
T: They go to the cinema.
Ss: They go to the cinema.
T: On Sundays