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New Developments in Swiss National Geodetic Surveying

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New Developments in Swiss National Geodetic Surveyingin,In,new,Swiss,NEW,swiss

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    EUREF'06: National Report of Switzerland

    New Developments in Swiss National Geodetic Surveying

    1A. Wiget, E. Brockmann, M. Kistler, U. Marti, A. Schlatter, B. Vogel, U. Wild

Abstract

    The performance of the SLR station in Zimmerwald, quantified by the number of observed satellites, could be further improved due to a refined automated observation procedure in combination with the CCD observations. The Swiss permanent GPS network AGNES is operating well, the availability of the data being 99.7%. With a new station in Zermatt, AGNES now consists of 30 stations. The Permanent Network Analysis Center (PNAC) completed the redesign of the analysis procedures and the switch to the Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0 in close cooperation with CODE at the Astronomical Institute at the University of Berne (AIUB). The combined analysis of ellipsoidal heights derived from GPS observations in the 3D reference network (LV95), from orthometric heights in the gravity-related national vertical reference frame (LHN95) together with the newly developed and released Swiss geoid model (CHGeo2004) could be successfully finished. The geodetic web services are being continuously improved. A preliminary kinematic 3D model of Switzerland derived from geodetic measurements could be calculated in the project Swiss4D. A GIS extension was developed with the aim of maintaining and managing the national boundary. The interactive comparison of the data with those of the cadastral surveys and the neighbouring countries was started.

    different measurement techniques. Nevertheless, the 1 Introduction modernization of the gravity network is being contin-Since the last EUREF Symposium in Vienna in 2005, ued following the same objectives as for the European two important changes in the personnel at the Federal project ECGN, i.e. to improve the combination of Office of Topography (swisstopo) have taken place. Dr. gravity-field-related measurements with the measure-Erich Gubler, our Director and former President of ments of spatial geodesy. EUREF, retired at the end of 2005. His successor, Mr.

    Jean-Philippe Amstein, took over as Director of swisst-On-going projects are the central data base for geodetic

    opo in January 2006. Furthermore, Dr. Dieter control points accessible via Internet (CPDS), the

    Schneider, who was Head of the Geodesy Division improvement of the Internet services in the project

    since 1998, retired at the end of April 2006. His GRIPS (Geodetic Reference data as Internet Products

    successor is Mr. Adrian Wiget, who has now taken and Services) and the GIS extension for the national

    charge of the Geodesy Division. border (GIS Landesgrenze). In a follow-up project of

    Swiss4D for the determination of a kinematic 3D The operation and the performance of the Swiss model of Switzerland, a more profound analysis of the permanent GPS network AGNES and of the Swiss station properties, the models and the data is being ?positioning system swipos were satisfactory, no major planned. problems had occurred. The RTK service is continu-

    ously being monitored. The number of customers has 2 Fundamental Station Zimmerwald increased thanks to the improved access possibilities

    via GSM/GPRS (NTRIP) and the reduced prices and The GPS observations (hourly and daily data files) of

    communication costs. A new AGNES station was set the main GPS station ZIMM were automatically sent

    up in Zermatt. The existing extensions towards Ger-within a minute to several world-wide distributed data

    many (SAPOS) and Austria (APOS) are working very centers. For 2005, only one single day (Sunday, July 26,

    well; unfortunately the connection with a permanent 2005) was missing. The combined GPS-GLONASS

    network in northern Italy could not yet be realized. receiver ZIMZ was switched off on August, 17 after

    having operated for years since September 3, 1998. The GPS processing of the Permanent Network Analy-Technical problems and the outdated receiver firmware sis Center (PNAC), the daily analysis of the EUREF were the main reasons for that. The Javad receiver sub-net and of AGNES have been completely redesign-ZIMJ is presently the only combined GNSS receiver in ed to the Bernese 5.0 environment. Despite the termi-Zimmerwald. It is planned to set up another combined nation of the project TOUGH, the analysis of the GNSS receiver in Zimmerwald later this year. hourly data for numerical weather prediction has been

    continued in cooperation with the Swiss MetOffice. The performance of the SLR station Zimmerwald since

    1997 is shown in Fig. 1. Despite the complete shut-With the combined kinematic adjustment of the level-down from Feb. 10 to April 3, 2005, the number of ob-ing measurements, the ellipsoidal heights from GPS servations compared to the previous years still increas-and the release of the new official geoid model for ed. This is mainly due to a refined automated observa-Switzerland (CHGeo2004), the new orthometric height tion procedure which also allows CCD observations. system LHN95 provides consistent heights from the

1 swisstopo (Swiss Federal Office of Topography), Geodesy Division, Seftigenstrasse 264, CH-3084 Wabern, Switzerland,

    Phone: ++41 31 963 21 11, Fax: ++41 31 963 24 59, e-mail: adrian.wiget@swisstopo.ch, Web-Site: http://www.swisstopo.ch

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    Since February 2005, the earth tide gravimeter ET25 is An additional building of the Institute of Applied connected to the network of the University of Berne Physics (IAP) is under construction and will be finish-from where the data are transferred fully automatically ed in September 2006. Atmospheric measurements (e.g. to swisstopo. In 2005, 93% of all possible data were water vapor measurements, radiometer, etc.) will be collected. carried out on a routine basis, thus perfectly comple-

    menting the present GNSS / SLR measurements. The fundamental station Zimmerwald celebrates its 50

    anniversary in 2006. Several events and activities are

    planned.

    Fig. 1: Number of observed satellites in Zimmerwald 1997-2005 (courtesy of the Astronomical Institute AIUB)

3 Gravity Field and Geoid 4 Permanent GPS Network AGNES and ?The new official geoid model for Switzerland Positioning Service swipos (CHGeo2004) was released in spring 2005 [Marti, The maintenance and operation of the permanent 2005]. It is strongly based on the GPS/leveling network AGNES proceeded smoothly and without any measurements to guarantee the consistency between major problems. The mean availability of the AGNES GPS, the orthometric heights LHN95 and the geoid stations was about 99.7%, which corresponds to a model. Other observations that were used in the mean outage rate of 1.1 day per year and station. combined geoid determination are gravity anomalies

    and deflections of the vertical. The model CHGeo2004 According to the concept for the optimization of the is used by the Swiss surveying community in the form station network [Grünig and Wild, 2005a], a new of a 1-km grid file. AGNES station was set up in Zermatt (Wallis, southern

    part of Switzerland, see Figures 2 and 3) in order to In 2005, three new GPS/leveling points were observed improve the station distribution and the performance of during the leveling campaigns in central Switzerland. the positioning services in the region of concern. These and any future measurements can be used as an

    independent control of the geoid model. The central data management and archiving was

    improved, resulting in a 100-day on-line availability of For the modernization of the national gravity network, all the AGNES data on the Web server, and archiving a new absolute station was established and observed in all data at a 1Hz data rate (compressed RINEX). Brig in southern Switzerland, and the absolute station

    in Zimmerwald was re-occupied. A relative gravity The mean availability (mean value over all stations) of ?campaign in southwestern Switzerland was carried out the national RTK service swipos-GIS/GEO was in collaboration with the University of Lausanne to 98.4%. The performance in terms of precision was connect the absolute stations and to re-determine some about 9mm for the horizontal and 17 mm for the vertic-1st and 2nd order gravity points. al component (1 sigma). These values were determined

    by the automatic monitoring.

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    The number of customers increased significantly dur-

    ing the last year. The main reasons were the price re-

    duction and the introduction of the access to the

    services via GSM/GPRS (NTRIP) [Grünig and Wild,

    2005b].

    The RTK data of station Zimmerwald are also sent to

    the central EUREF-IP caster at the BKG over Internet

    (NTRIP), where they are available for public use.

    ? positioning In order to promote the use of the swipos

    services in official cadastral surveying, which is still

    based on the old geodetic reference system CH-1903, ?the real-time transformations in the swipos position-

    ing services were further improved. For the horizontal

    transformation (FINELTRA) a new search algorithm for

    the finite-element method of the transformation was

    integrated, whereas for the height transformation the

    HTRANS algorithms were integrated. As soon as the

    densified FINELTRA information will be available (by ?the end of 2006), swipos will therefore allow observa-

     tions in the old and in the new reference system with a

    consistency at the cm level. Fig. 2: Installation of the new AGNES station

    Zermatt

Fig. 3: Current availability of the AGNES stations

    In order to investigate how the performance of posi-performed during a 2-month period in January and tioning services are influenced by snow on the refer-February 2006. Detailed results of these tests may be ence station antenna, some test measurements were found in [Grünig and Brockmann, 2006].

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    ?Whereas the seamless operation of swipos, SAPOS 1317 (April 2005) [Schaer et al., 2005]. Here the (Germany) and APOS (Austria) in the region of the emphasis was to realize the transition as smoothly as Lake of Constance has been operational already since possible while keeping the effects on the results to a 2003, it has not yet been possible to establish a further minimum. Figure 4 shows the availability of the daily integration with services in Italy und France. RINEX files for the AGNES network in the year 2005.

    On average, 99.32% of the files were available for the

    data processing. 5 Permanent Network Analysis Center In 2005 the permanent analyses of the GPS data was The analysis of the hourly data was changed on August completely redesigned and optimized to the Bernese 3, 2005 [Brockmann and Ineichen, 2005]. Here, several 5.0 environment. Synergies with the analyses at the model changes were realized in order to generate better Astronomical Institute of the University of Berne near real-time products such as zenith total delay es-(AIUB) could be realized by several modules which timates for numerical weather prediction for the Euro-are absolutely identical at AIUB and swisstopo. This pean project TOUGH (terminated in January 2006). very close collaboration between these two organizations is possible because S. Schaer, employee The near real-time processing was extended also for at swisstopo, is also a collaborator at the AIUB. The coordinate monitoring applications [Brockmann et al., daily analysis of the sub-network EUREF and the 2006; this volume]. permanent network AGNES was changed in week

    100

    90

    80

    availability [%]70

    PP availability

    Linear (PPavailability)60

    200550

    1303

    GPSWEEK1305 1307Fig. 4: Daily availability of the AGNES sites for each week in 2005 1309

    1311- LN05.2: Lausanne Yverdon Grandson 6 National Reference Frames 1313

    1315Survey control networks LV95 and LV03 - LN05.3: Werdenberg St. Margrethen incl. the 1317In the year 2005, the activities concerning the horizon-connections to Ruggel, Meiningen/Koblach (A), 1319tal reference frames were limited to maintenance and Diepoldsau 1321documentation of the control networks LV03 and - LN05.4: Stansstaad Stans Beckenried 1323LV95. In addition, the capture of the control points in Emmetten (LV95 densification) 1325the Control Point Data Service (see Chap. 7) was

    1327started. - LN05.5: Stans Grafenort Engelberg 1329Vertical reference frame LHN (national height net-- LN05.6: Rapperswil Uznach Ziegelbrücke 1331work) 1333- LN05.7: Bendern (FL) Schaanwald (A) With a few minor changes in the observation schedule 13352004-2007, the following new leveling campaigns were Parallel to these precise levelling campaigns, swisstopo 1337carried out in 2005 (a total of 232 km): carried out gravity measurements along the national 1339vertical control network. - LN05.1: Bern Zimmerwald (stability monitoring of 1341geostation Zimmerwald (observatory, IGS station)). 1343

    1345

     1347

    1349

    1351

    1353

    1355

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Fig. 5: New leveling observations in 2005 (red lines) along the national vertical reference frame. The yellow lines

    indicate the additional measurements for the purposes of the Federal Department of Environment, Transport,

    Energy and Communication (FOEN).

    About 65% of the data of swisstopo and 20% of the New national vertical control network LHN95

    data of the cantons have already been imported into the In March 2005, the final adjustment of the vertical CPDS database. reference frame (LHN95) was carried out together with the geoid model CHGeoid2004 and the ellipsoidal heights LV95 from GPS [Marti and Schlatter, 2005; Schlatter et al., 2005a]. This marked the replacement of the temporary orthometric heights with the new ortho-metric height system LHN95. At the same time swiss-topo introduced the software HTRANS which made the

    transformation from LHN95 into the old official vertic-al frame LN02 possible [Schlatter and Marti, 2005]. HTRANS can be purchased as geodetic software, but it is also available as an Internet application free of charge. Furthermore, HTRANS is accessible as an addi-? tional mode of the swipospositioning service via a

    separate telephone number.

    7 Geodetic Projects 7.1 Control Point Data Service (CPDS) Fig. 6: CPDS data viewer The CPDS will make all geodetic control point data The public CPDS web site has been operational since available in a central data base, and a part of the January 2006 and allows the display of the control information may also be obtained over the Internet. point information on background maps at different The first version of the graphic user interface for the scales. In addition, with different search functions (e.g. capture, revision and administration of the control by point number, coordinates, city names, etc.), infor-points by swisstopo and the surveying authorities of the mation to the corresponding control points may be cantons is now operational. An improved version, accessed. which will in addition allow the management of the height control points, is under development.

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    7.2 GRIPS 7.3 GIS extension for the National Border The project "GRIPS" (Geodetic Reference Data as The GIS extension for the national border was worked Internet Products and Services) combines the activities on in 2005 and features the following characteristics: of the Geodesy Division for establishing the National - Import and export of data in any arbitrary format, e.g. Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) of Switzerland. In-in the national GIS standard format INTERLIS. formation, data and services such as information on - Interactive comparison and matching of data across geodetic reference systems and frames, on-line coordi-the national borders with neighbouring countries nate transformations, geodetic software and tools, per-using base data such as orthophotos, topographic manent GNSS station data for positioning services as maps, etc. well as for post-processing shall be provided in an - Promotion of the Swiss reference frames LV03, easily accessible, user-friendly and up-to-date manner LV95 as well as the European reference system over the Internet. Examples of already realized ETRS89. modules can be seen on http://www.swisstopo.ch.

    - Automatic generation of boundary maps and other

    documents for international treaties and agreements.

Fig. 7: Available GIS data for national borders: from swisstopo (red), from official surveys in the cantons of Geneva

    and Jura (black), and the photogrammetric restitution of the water sheds in the Valais and Ticino (fine lines in

    various colors in southern Switzerland)

    Figure 8 shows the representation of an extract of the in the European reference system ETRS89. In addition, boundary with Italy. This part had also been photo-the valid international agreements and damage reports grammetrically restituted. by the border patrol should be included, and the data

    model synchronized to those of EuroGeographics (pro-During the next few years the national boundaries, ject EuroBoundaries / EuroBoundaryMap). which are today still based on verbal descriptions, should be transformed into a coordinate-based cadastre

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Fig. 8: Automatically generated map from the GIS extension for the national boundary using the digital topographic

    map (PixelMap25) and the Digital Height Model (DHM25) for the shading

    The vertical velocities relative to an arbitrarily chosen 7.4 Swiss4D reference point varying from -0.4 mm/year to +1.4 The goal of the project "Swiss4D" is the development mm/year have been well known before. New was the of a kinematic 3D model for recent crustal movements realization that the horizontal velocities are also on the in Switzerland using national geodetic survey data. The millimeter level. But since the uncertainty in GPS model should be suitable for monitoring the geodetic measurements is of the same order of magnitude, the reference frames as well as for scientific studies horizontal results are not yet significant. The strain [Geiger et al., 2005]. All of the national leveling data rates vary from 5 to 50 nstrain/year. from 1903 to 2004 and all of the GPS data (campaigns

    and permanent stations) between 1988 and 2004 were The project Swiss4D was formally terminated at the used in this model. The results from the kinematic end of 2005. However, there are still many problems adjustment of the national height system LHN95 (see and unanswered questions regarding the selection and Chap. 6) were used for the vertical velocities. The hori-monumentation of the stations as well as the processing zontal velocities were introduced as a SINEX file from and interpretation of the existing measuring methods the combined adjustment of all national GPS cam-and the data. Interferences on the stations during obser-paigns and the data in the national automatic GPS net-vations must be recognized and eliminated in due time work of Switzerland (AGNES). Using the software if the aim is to obtain a long time series of observation "Adaptive Least Square Collocation" (ALSCstrain) data suitable for kinematic investigations. In addition, developed at the Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab at the processing and interpretation methods must be fur-ETH Zurich, a three-dimensional velocity field was ther refined. Therefore, a follow-up project Swiss4D-II interpolated for the whole country (see Fig. 9), and the is being planned for a more profound analysis of the main components of the deformation tensor were stations, the models and the data.

    calculated [Wiget et al., 2005].

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    300

    1.2

    1.1

    1.02500.90

    0.80

    0.70

    0.60200

    0.50

    0.40

    0.30

    1500.20

    0.10

    0

    0.10100

    0.20

    0.30

    0.40500600700800

    Fig. 9: Interpolated 3D velocity field for Switzerland represented as spatial vectors. The color scale indicates the

    magnitude in [mm/year], the gray scale (upper left) indicates the inclination of the velocity vectors.

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